The segments of spoken terminology will be the vowels and consonants. The speech sections are called segmental phonemes or major phonemes. They incorporate to produce syllables, words, phrases and sentences. Even as utter them, we utilize wide range of tones of tone of voice. This speech features, which can be higher than sensible sections are called suprasegmentals. The conversation features that are higher than the sound sections are span, stress, pitch, intonation, tempo and juncture. Here I am explaining about stress.
Stress is a suprasegmantal feature. Stress identifies the prominence directed at a syllable. In British all the syllable in short aren’t uttered with identical force. One or more than one syllable is articulated with higher force than the others. The degree of power with which a syllable is uttered is recognized as stress. A syllable gains prominence because of this of the stress it will get. However, factors like the lengthening of the vowel in the syllable and change in pitch also work with the breath drive (stress) to produce a syllable prominent. The syllable uttered with the greatest degree of pressure is called pressured or accented syllable. In the word desk, /’teibl/ the first syllable /tei/ is more prominently articulated than the next syllable /-bl/. In the term committee/ / the next syllable is more prominently uttered the others. In the word recommend / / the highlight or stress is on the 3rd syllable. The stressed syllable in the term is thought to carry major (tonic) stress. The syllable next compared to that in amount of force of articulation in the term is said to carry extra stress. The primary stress is usually proclaimed with a vertical heart stroke high up right before the particular syllable. The supplementary stress is proclaimed with a vertical stroke below just before this syllable. e. g. emigration / /.
If prominence is given to syllables in isolated words it is called expression stress. In English, the stress is both free and fixed. it is free in the sense the primary stress can complete any syllable in short and set in the sense that every word has its own fixed stress habits. For example as the disyllabic professor / / has stress on the first syllable, the disyllabic term canteen / / has pressure on the second syllable.
The stress patterns of a term can be an important feature of the word’s spoken individuality. Thus we find nation / /, and not land / /, nationality / / and not nationality / /. Any change in the stress patterns nay deform the phonetic condition of the word beyond recognition. Stress is relevant to grammar as well as to phonetics. Thus it contributes much to the proper execution and function of the term. The stress habits in some words may be damaged by their grammatical term class. For example, some disyllabic verbs are distinguished from corresponding nouns or adjectives based on the stress they receive, the verbs take most important pressure on the second syllable whereas the nouns and adjectives take it on the first syllable.
E. g. Process / / (noun); absorb / / (verb).
Frequent / / (adjective); frequent/ / (verb).
Stress appears in all polysyllabic words. It is extremely difficult to anticipate where the is usually to be set. if we examine the stress habits in simple words, the following general tendencies may be observed.
1. Words with the suffix -ee, -eer, -aire take the stress on the syllable including the suffix.
e. g. trust / / trustee / /.
auction / / auctioneer / /.
2. Words with the suffix -ion, -ity, -ic, -ial, -ially, -ian take stress on the syllable preceding the suffix.
e. g. regulate / / legislation / /.
economy / / economical / /.
3. The suffixes -ness, -less, -ly, -al, -full, -hood do not change stress.
e. g. supple / / suppleness / /.
critic / / critical / /.
4. The inflectional suffixes -ed, -sera and -ing do not cause any stress change.
e. g. associate / / related / /.
mango / / mangoes / /.
progress / / progressing / /.
By compound words we mean a word made up of two distinct words. If we verify the stress habits in compound words, the next basic tendencies may be viewed.
1. In most substance words in British, the primary highlight comes usually on the first factor.
e. g. pen-friend, hand-bag.
2. Whenever a element noun denotes a single idea rather than mixture of two ideas suggested by the initial words, the first component is stressed.
e. g. honey-moon, goldsmith.
3. When the meaning of a substance noun is the meaning of the next aspect stress is on the first component.
e. g. dinner-table, sheep-dog.
4. Words compounded of your verb and an adverb are generally pronounced with pressure on the first aspect.
e. g. make-up, set-back.
5. In ingredient words that result in -ever or -self the primary stress comes on the second element.
e. g. himself, whenever.
6. Double stress is employed in compound adjectives of which the first element is an adjective.
e. g. red-hot, good-looking.
It may be seen that the stress of words normally pronounced with double stress is often improved in sentences. The to begin the stressed syllables is likely to loss its stress, when directly preceded by another stressed syllable. Similarly, the second of the anxious syllable is likely to lose its stress, when directly followed by another stressed syllable. For example, fourteen / / is normally double stressed. When it’s preceded by words like just / /, The first stress is lost, / /.
An utterance consisting of more than one word is named connected talk. When words are being used in connected speech, some words are uttered more prominently than others are. prominence given to syllables in phrases is called sentence stress. In most cases, the words, which carry the main information, stick out from the others. generally the content words are while the function category words are unstressed. For example, in the word ‘the tall youngster is a brilliant student’, what tall, boy, excellent and learner are pressured and the others, unstressed. The stress falls on the same syllable irrespective of whether it sorts part of your polysyllabic word uttered in isolation, or of linked speech. If there are several visible syllables in linked speech only 1 will have the primary accent. normally, this is the last visible syllable. However the choice of the syllable having the primary highlight depends on the meaning the speaker desires to mention. The tonic is proclaimed with [‘].
For example, he must write, may be spoken in the following three ways to benefit changes in meaning, by changing stress positions.
He ‘must write.
He must ‘write.
‘He must write.
One visible feature of British is the fact stress occur at regular intervals of time. Accent at the level of sentence is much freer than that in the term.
One of the striking features of English connected speech is the occurrence of strong and weak forms practically fifty words in English which, execute a grammatical function showing these two varieties. The can be pronounced in two or more distinct ways.
1. The vulnerable forms are unstressed.
2. They exhibit a decrease in the length of noises.
3. The fragile types of certain words are recognized off their strong forms by the omission of vowels and consonants.
Only strong forms are suitable in the next situations.
1. When poor form words arise finally in a sentence, e. g. Who are you looking forward to?
2. Whenever a weak form phrase is accented for the intended purpose of emphasis, e. g. The quest to Kochi rather than from Kochi.
1. What is the relevance of the items you have published?
2. Convert the topic into a coaching unit.
3. Critically measure the tips you have published?
Learning phrase stress is vital in linguistics studies. A words learner needs to build relationships a word often, preferably in different ways, in order to essentially learn it. Flaws in expression stress sometimes create misunderstandings in British. There are a few words which have same spelling, different pronunciation and different meaning. (homography). In such instances if we make blunders in pronunciation then it will change this is.
‘Lead’ in “I lead the group” and
“The plate is constructed of lead”
Even if the loudspeaker can be comprehended, mistakes with word stress can make the listener feel annoyed or simply even amused and could prevent good communication from taking place. Stressing the wrong syllable in short can make the word very difficult to comprehend. For instance:
“I transported a container to the market”.
If a person stress the first syllable rather than second syllable, then it will become difficult to the listener to understand.
Each term is shaped by one or more than one syllable.
In English all the syllables in a word are not uttered with equal force.
The syllable uttered with the best degree of force is called pressured or accented syllable.
For example: In the term ‘table’ the first syllable is more prominently articulated than the next syllable.
The most stressed words are called as most important stress and the secondly anxious syllable is known as supplementary syllable.
The main stress is usually designated with a vertical stroke high up right before the particular syllable.
The secondary stress is proclaimed with a vertical stroke below right before the particular syllable.
The stress patterns in some words may be afflicted by their grammatical phrase class.
Words with the suffix -eer, -ee, -aire, take the stress on the syllable including the suffix.
In most ingredient words in English, the primary highlight comes usually on the first aspect.
Generally the content words are stressed while the function school words are unstressed.
For example, in the phrase, the tall boy is an excellent student, the words tall, boy, great and college student are stressed and the rest, unstressed.
The weak varieties are unstressed.
3. The info given in this task is very relevant and satisfactory. It helps the folks who are learning linguistics to obtain basic information about word stress. That is an attempt to study word stress on the whole and the British language specifically. It describes stress as a suprasegmental feature. In addition, it speaks about primary stress, secondary stress, highlight in simple words, accent in compound words, phrase stress and the guidelines in using stress. This assignment also gives lots of examples about the topic. In a nutshell this can be a sincere work on the topic phrase stress.