Every one has his or her own way of learning . This learning process starts from birth and keeps on till death. There are two types of learners i.e. Independent Learner and Dependent Learner. No one can be an independent learner from the first day of life. Moreover, one has to depend directly or indirectly on others in many different ways throughout life. One learns from his parents initially, the learning process continues from family members to friends and teachers to colleagues etc.
Parents are the first institute of learning. The love and affection of family members is like a soul to body. Friendship is also a unique source of learning. The students learn from the knowledge and exposure of the teachers. The process of learning has no limitations and exceptions. One has to be an independent learner at the same time. Dependent learning is easy but limited, whereas independent learning is difficult but vast. The independent learner makes many mistakes but learns more from the experience.
Kolb’s Learning Style (Payne E. and Whittaker).
My strength as a learner is that I am adaptable. I am a Diverger according to Kolb’s (Payne and Whittaker 2000). I like group discussions in the class. It helps me to get innovative ideas. It is a good activity for brain storming. It helps to increase confidence. I also learn from students from different backgrounds. These students provide a unique source of learning for me. During my college studies, our teacher used to ask for presentation in front of the class. The teacher used to gave us topic and split us into the group for discussion and presentation in the class. So that’s why I am good at learning from other students.
Weakness means badness. My weak point is that I am adaptable. I am Accommodator according to Kolb’s (Payne E and Whittaker). This is a very bad habit of mine. I like to do things at the spot. I am an action orientated person. I never think before what I am going to do. I always get involved in new experience. When I get the task in the class I finish it immediately. I do not understand on first time, what I read. I never make a plan for this what I am going to do.
Learning is a never ending process. One should keep on learning either being a dependent or independent learner. One has to know about his weak and strong points to be successful. The weaknesses should be taken care of and strong points should be enhanced. I have learned about my weak points as well during this study. I believe my capabilities even with the few weaknesses.
Payne E and Whittaker “Learning to Learn” in developing essential study skills, Harlow: Pearson Education 2000
What is Culture?
Culture exists in every society. It can be defined as all the customs of life plus arts, beliefs and traditions of a population that have been passed through generations. Culture has been called, the way of life for a complete society. As such, it includes rules of manners, dress, language, religion, rituals, games, norms of behavior such as law and honesty, and systems of belief as well as the arts. (Gibson, R. Intercultural Business Communication, OUP 2002,).
We studied about the culture; Gibson (OUP 2002), I can define easily with the concept of iceberg which is best to way to describe the culture that the top of iceberg is known as explicit and the bottom is known as tacit. In the top of the iceberg culture clearly represent food, clothing, music, behavior and language, below the surface of the iceberg we can find gender, values, family and religion. All this affects shows how someone behaves at the surface.
There are different types of culture (Gibson, R, and Intercultural Business Communication OUP 2002). Our status and region also affects our culture some parts are more developed like other and certain things, may not happen in certain regions, this is because all the people lives in different style in their countries and also religion affects our culture. All the people live in different class culture like first class, low class and middle class. Some people works together on their project from different culture and show how they behave and living style.
At the end I would like to say that culture represents the life style, behaviors, attitudes, environment, food, dressing, likings, tastes etc. Overall culture is a most important aspect of the human beings life, they lives their life according to the culture. The culture shows the important features of societies, regions and religions. There might be difference between cultures but every culture is beautiful in its own right.
Gibson, R. Intercultural Business Communication, OUP 2002, ( pp 7-8)
What I have learned?
There is one way to understand a person’s culture which is to look into his or her background. I have learnt about the culture and background after I did the workshops about diary. I have learned different things from different workshops. Now I am able to analyze the cultural characteristic of any society. Now I understand things of culture much better than before; because of the culture diary.
I have learnt many things from culture and learning diary. In this university we meet people from different culture and background. It helps to know about their cultural values and life style. This has increased my exposure and confidence.
By writing learning diary, I have learned to correct my actions, if they were not right before. It helped me to be respectful to others. This has increased my understanding of living in a multicultural society in a way that is learning from others. I have learned to become more helpful for someone in need. By writing the activities of every day, I have learnt about the behavior of different people. I have analyzed the attitudes in view of the culture of the people. I have learned to understand the ways of life in different cultures. I have come to know about the value and standard of food, dress, behavior, living style, and religion in different societies.
To conclude, I have realized that one can be easily acknowledged by the culture it represents. After reading about the culture, now I can understand and explain the culture in good way. Now I can easily manage to live effectively in a multicultural society. I think that people behave in different ways as compared to my culture. But with the help of the classes and essays that we have written, I behave differently to other people than before.
My culture profile
Culture shows that the how people behave in different regions, countries and societies. If we look in depth, it seems that the culture appears from a difficult contact among different basics like family, race, gender, nation, religion and heritage. Every person in this world has different likings, taste, language, slang’s and environment; therefore everyone is bound to behave differently Gibson (2002). I shall explain my own cultural profile with the reference to a number of ‘types of culture’ according to Gibson.
The most important aspects of my culture are family system, patriotism, age, religion and gender Gibson (2002). I am an elder child in my family. Therefore, I have a lot of responsibilities. I was born to an educated middle class family. I have seen my parents to work very hard to meet both ends meet, it has made me to learn about the harsh realities of life. I have become matured and sensible very early in life. I am not intelligent student but I am hard worker. I spend very difficult life in my previous school. It was like to live as a soldier of Pakistani army. I always behave like a typical Pakistani. I used to live with my parents and grandparents. When I meet with someone, I am respectful to the other person and behave like a civilized person.
I have been a consistent traveler throughout Pakistan. I have also lived in Dubai for my studies for a short period of time. This has given exposure of different societies. I have learned about the life and culture of other societies as well. It has increased my knowledge and made me more confident.
I conclude that my culture make-up is therefore always growing like Gibson (2002) tree and my life experience make me perfect. The people are living in different ways and standards. I am able to know how I should behave with others in a civilized manner.
Gibson, R. Intercultural Business Communication, OUP 2002, (pp 7-8)
“Knowledge management means to understand the relationship a variety of practices used in a group to recognize, fashion, represent, distribute and allow agreement of insights and knowledge” (Daniels-Dwyer, 2002). It can be divided into ‘product and process’ the product of knowledge mean the way of working with the company it can easily be shared and the process of knowledge achieved in the course of team work, relationship and the replace of thoughts (Daniels-Dwyer, 2002). Knowledge as process is much more difficult than the product. Knowledge management is defined as “understanding of relations” (Kluge et al 2001). Such insights and experiences include knowledge, any embodied in persons or embedded in society processes or practice is called knowledge management. It focus on office objectives such as better presentation, possible benefit, improvement, the distribution of lessons learned, and continue improvement of the relationship. In this essay I shall discuss that knowledge management does matter or does not matter in the modern world.
There are a lot of companies in the world and all the companies do different types of work. “The Modern world focuses on knowledge management because it is important for the company to improve the efficiency of the business” (Daniels-Dwyer, 2002). The owner of the company has a lot of information and ideas about the work; he shares his ideas among the employee of the company and gives them information. It helps the business to be more efficient and also it help the associate to find their way more easily thus construction of the company function more efficiently and fast. Therefore knowledge management helps the business to be efficient and make easy the work for everyone in the company.
Two different companies are working on the building constructions; both the companies are making very fine buildings and using good stuff. One company has an educated employee for the communications with the customer in a good way and gives them the true information and other company doesn’t have the good employee and they don’t know how to behave with the costumer and give them information. So therefore the “Modern world focus on knowledge management, because the competition between the companies and improves their efficiency” (Daniels-Dwyer, 2002).The “Modern world focus on knowledge management does matter because, a knowledge product is increasingly more available and more document”. A long time a ago all the companies do their work in the paper and put in the cupboard for the information that was very difficult but now a days all the companies work in the computer and save their all data in the computer, experience and education is necessary for every person who works in the company.
“The Modern world focus on knowledge management does not matter because it is not very important for the running of a company” (Daniels-Dwyer, 2002). There are different types of company their aim to make money by selling a product or service, this type of work can be successful without the knowledge for their companies like Taxi Stand Company, if some one has a taxi stand he can earn a lot of money by driving the car this is called service for the people this type of company can not success they only earn money. Knowledge management is merely one of many optional extras for improving efficiency but does not really matter. A lot people thing too much about their companies for example only two people are working in working one company the aim of their work to only earn money and spend their life. These types of people can success in their lives by earning money. This shows that the focus on knowledge management does not matter.
In the conclusion the knowledge management process can be categorized into knowledge manufacture, knowledge support, knowledge presentation, knowledge distribution and knowledge application activities. To take advantage of on knowledge, a society must be quick in balancing its knowledge management activities. In general, such a balancing act requires changes in organizational culture, technologies, and techniques. A number of organizations believe that by focusing exclusively on people, technologies, or techniques they can manage knowledge. The exclusive focus on people, technologies, or techniques does not enable a hard to continue its competitive advantages. At the end I would like to say that if some want to success in his life he or she must work hard day and night.
1. Daniel-Dwyer R, Implementing a knowledge management programme from bottom up,
2. Wilson, T.D., “The Nonsense’s of knowledge management” information Research, 8(1) paper no. 144
Firstly I want to mention that my country culture is totally different from other countries. If some one comes from British or America in my country he or she will face lot problems. First of all the person will face the language problem because lots of people cannot understand the English language, if the person want to go some where he or she cannot get the information as compare to the other countries like England they do all the works in internet, in our country there is no information about the transport. There are lots of people on the street beggar and also on the signals this is new for the other people. The main problem for the foreigners’ people is food there is no good quality of fast food because in our country people likes spicy food like chicken roast and beef. Our country is not safe there is a big security problem for the foreigner’s people and when some one comes in our country all people watch that person because that is new thing for them. The person will also face the living problem and road traffic because the living standard is not good and there is traffic all the times on the road also another big problem for the foreigners is electricity. The electricity goes after every one hour. There is very difficult to live in my country.
Conflict means to have opposing interests and difference of opinions and it may exist between people, nation, societies and regions it can be causes due to social, political, economical, religious, cultural, environmental, and educational upbringing. In Pakistan there are few conflicts in social life. Like many other countries in the world; men are the dominant gender. This may be as a result of lack of education and unawareness of the rights of the others. There are many other Islamic countries where women’s rights are limited, but this does not stand exact true for Pakistan. Pakistani people are much more open-minded than other Islamic communities  In this essay I shall discuss about the women jobs in Pakistan according to the life cycle of conflict (PPU, 2008).
In our society male usually works and female takes care of the family activities because people believe that women is too delicate and sensitive to work. Many people believe that family life will also be more productive and peaceful in this way. The up bringing of children can be better in this way. Furthermore, people do not like to expose their females to every body. This is considered a way to honor the women (this does not mean those females are living a depressed life, in a way they are more independent and relax in their life). But there are still uneducated people in our country who never things, that how they can success in their lives now I am going to talk about the real conflict about the cousin of mine with her father. She was very obedient and intelligent from her childhood and in the family every persons loved her because of her humble nature. She was very hard working lady; she finished her education from a well renowned university in Pakistan and she was highly motivated for NGO job because she wanted to help the poor masses of the country.
Conflict arises when people are disagreeing with each other and their belief clash and this was the beginning stage of conflict with her father (PPU, 2008) (2, p.30). Her father was strongly against for her job because her family was well respected in surroundings for her father goodness and financial status but she wanted to do the job to utilize her knowledge, skill and to be exposed the real treasures of life she was very confident lady. On other hand her father insisted that she does not need a job she gets married. This stage was early growth because of their beliefs (PPU, 2008) (2, p.31) both the sides were opposing each others beliefs. The anxious period continued for about eight months she was not willing to marry and her father did not allowed for job both the sides were openly at war(PPU,2008)(2,p.31) even her father did not allow her that she cannot go out side the home.
She talked to my uncle and he talked to her father but he did not listen to his arguments, her father was very aggressive my uncle told him that job will make her better human and she can help the poor people both the sides were very aggressive in their approach and suffered due to this conflict this was the (b. a surge of violence on one side) stage in deadlock according to the (PPU, 2008) that her father said that she should married and no jobs for her. My uncle found a proposal for her the boy had completed his education from America university fortunately they both were cousin. It was agreed upon between the elders of the family that she will engaged first then she will allowed to do job. Therefore a compromise helped to save the happiness of all the family. This incident happened five years ago now a days they are living happy life.
The above conflict arose as a result of difference in education. There is a lot of difference between the life of women in UK and Pakistan. Women in UK are more independent and bold and live their life in their own way. The Pakistani women are dependent but have no financial responsibility and they gain honor from strong family values. I think that education and the sense of the rights of females needs to be increased in our country.
www.jazbah.org is a website dedicated to the women of Pakistan (1)
Understanding Conflict, Text from the Peace Pledge Union, (2)
www.ppu,org.uk/learn/conflict/st conflict.html, 2008
Maggie Kennedy, Mediation: A Worthy Alternative, Consensus Mediation Limited, 2000(3)
www.consensusmediation.co.uk/mediationworthy.html (pp 1-4)
WOMEN MEN AND POLITENESS:
AGREEABLE AND DISAGREEABLE RESPONSES
In this article, the author discusses that how women and men behave in different cultures in different countries? Her aim is clear to thinking for some academic space about these terms women, men and politeness. Women, men and language research cannot continue to discuss gender simply in terms of the linguistic gap behavior of women and men except in particular situation and with particular goals. The study argues that we need several analytical changes: firstly, we need to see politeness as occurring over longer-stretches of talk; secondly, it should be seen within the background of a community practice, rather than as simply as the product of individual speakers, and finally, we need to be aware that there may be conflicts over the meanings of politeness. In this essay I shall discuss that women men politeness agreeable and disagreeable (Holmes, 2006).
Summary of the article:
In this article, the author use different references for her research, she explained in her article “women men and politeness” are agreeable and disagreeable. Women and men behave differently according to Holmes (2006) women reply in a more polite way than men. Women are well-mannered with others and they are very kind. Men are completely different according to Holmes, in some contexts, “aggressive and competitive verbal behaviour appears to be experienced as thoroughly enjoyable and mutual insults may even serve as expression of positive politeness and solidarity” (Holmes, p.330). She explained in her examples that girls are more cooperative with each other then the boys. She studied among the children and found out that boys used more bold disagreements, which means they are talking the exact point no more description, but girls tried to expand the conversation with out any reason according to Maria Stubbe (1991).
Evaluation of the article:
The article was very well structured, and it was written in good way, she started with the language that was an academic and simple to understand. She explained in a good way with the rules and regulation of the topic sentences, in all examples she started to talk about the teenagers and afterwards on adult. The Author Holmes (2006) use a good illustrations to demonstrate her examine which mostly focus on unlike young people talk that, how women or teens girls can be broadminded or risk taker and men as destructive in their language? This article should have examined the characteristics of women and men and its effect on the politeness because the reasons how they behave with others. It is important to allow women and give an idea about their good deeds, which were undeveloped for many centuries by men succeed in this place and Holmes (2006). The culture of women is completely different then the men because they speak in good way and they can deal their problems easily.
I have noticed that Holmes (2006) has not properly taken into account that it might depend very much on the relationship you have with someone e.g. husband/wife, friends, strangers. Sometime it happen that the men are more polite when they are talking with their elders, parents and visitor and sometime they behave differently while talking to their wife and friends. Holmes (2006) the behavior of women and men and totally different, women are positively polite and hard working then the men. The females are not like the male they are very kind. Women have a different characteristics as they have a different role in the society, they are expected to act like a lady and respect to the people around them and that’s the reason they are not that direct as man.
I conclude that it is not a complete picture of reality. How men or women behave depends upon the situation, relation, country, religion. Of course I also agree that women are more polite. But women are not always polite even. Sometimes they are harsher than male even in different situation. How anyone behaves is not easy to capture or understand, this study is good but can not be generalized. It needs a better framework or examples to be done to decide more concrete solutions.