Language is defined as a systematic use of looks, gestures or symbols for communication. It has a sophisticated system where the rules aren’t clearly stated which is productive as an infinite number of sentences can be produced after the rules are discovered.
The expressions and uses of the language varies in lots of ways. The diagram below illustrates these terms varieties:
i) Old British – it was descended from the dialects spoken by the Germanic tribes when they invaded Great britain around 500 AD. The many dialects spoken by these invaders shaped the early British language.
ii) Middle English – was the consequence of the French effect of the Normans and lasted from 1100-1500 AD
iii) Modern English – is destroyed into early Modern English and later Modern British. The former commenced around the time of playwright, William Shakespeare.
Late Modern British happened around 1800 during British conquest and colonisation of other areas of the world.
English may be the native vocabulary of Great britain but anticipated to various reasons such as: colonisation, migration, globalisation, social, economic, etc, it possessed spread abroad across the world.
However, the terminology used in these different countries developed separately from the original language due to influences by local dialects.
These influences cause, among other activities, the variations in the pronunciation, thus producing their distinctive accent.
Some forms of they are:
In certain regions, there are different editions of the same vocabulary called dialects. These dialects have different grammar, vocabulary and highlight.
Eg : Cantonese ( dialect of Mandarin); Aboriginal English (Australia).
It identifies the utilization of the vocabulary in conditions of the cultural class or id. Eg: The upper class culture in Britain tend to use Received Pronunciation (RP) also known as Queen’s English or BBC British while others tend to use Cockney British.
Eg: Solicitors would use formal or legal conditions in the execution of these papers or courtroom hearings whereas an electrician must understand technical conditions to concern instructions or even to describe fixes.
In conversation, words are usually associated with body gestures to convey the communication. Words spoken almost never needs to be interpreted, unlike written words.
As the use of English vocabulary expands throughout the world, influences from local cultures, words or from new discoveries in Science and Technology will advance the language, rendering it more varied than ever before.
Communicative competence refers to a words user’s grammatical knowledge of syntax, morphology, phonology, etc as well as cultural knowledge about how exactly and when to utilize utterances properly. (Dell Hymes, 1966)
The desired results is the ability to use the language correctly and appropriately to accomplish communication goals, not the capability to use the terminology exactly as a native loudspeaker does.
This outcome will depend on :
Other than having knowledge of the words and rules of the vocabulary (linguistics), one must learn not only to say what one means but to use the right words to match the problem.
The words used in to communicate with a pal may consider to be unacceptable when speaking to your headmaster.
Eg : Hi! Buddy, have a jolly good day.
Good Morning, Mr. Brown
Speech can be categorized into :
It is simple heading and natural, mainly happening between family, friends or people whom you are more comfortable with. It may contain many omitted forms of grammar and missing words.
Eg : Want tea?
I go home now. You arriving ?.
ii) Formal Speech
It is more careful but also natural. Proper expression sentences and sentence structure rules are observed and may be utilized in office or court adjustments between employer-employee, lawyer-client, etc.
iii) Ceremonial Speech
It is commonly more unnatural where in fact the tempo and intonation are quite not the same as normal speech.
Competency on paper, such as understanding of grammatical rules, spelling, etc cannot be forgotten. However, different situations determine different varieties of writing.
Where the primary message or the gist from it should be communicated in the shortest time, appropriate grammar form used may be unacceptable.
It is formal writing where grammatical guidelines, semantics, spelling, etc has to be observed.
The poetic design of writing may well not follow the grammatical rules of the language.
iv) Legal Document
The conditions and vocabulary used need to be very formal and expressively written.
Being experienced in using the dialect appropriately in a communal setting will enable anyone to be known and accepted. The setting is affected by:
The social status, sex and years will influence the style of speech.
Eg: conversation use to communicate with a child differs from communicating with a grown-up.
Speech used be based upon the topic. Eg; words used for a menu discussion will include ‘elements’, method’, ‘options’ although it skills will include computer’, ‘download’, ‘printing device’.
In conclusion, where British is trained as a international or second dialect, it has become widely accepted that communicative competence ought to be the goal of dialect acquisition. This is unlike past views in which linguistics competence was commonly given top priority.
En. wikipedia. org/wiki/communicative competence
www. teachingenglish. org. uk/think/knowledge-wiki/communicative competence
www. nclrc. org/requirements/goalsmethods/goal. htm
Q1 What are the various stages of L1 acquisition? How can this knowledge help us in L2 teaching?
Language is commonly defined as any means of conveying or interacting ideas and vocabulary acquisition is learning how to talk these ideas. It’s the process where people acquire the ability to perceive, produce and apply the words to speak.
First language(L1), which is also called native vocabulary or mom tongue is acquired naturally due to one’s must communicate in order to fulfil his needs.
It occurs in periods from birth.
Babies respond to speech around them more keenly than to other looks and from beginning, will figure out how to pay attention and distinguish the next in their environment before they speak :
– phonemes of the terms, eg the talk sound of t and d in bat and bad;
– the rising and dropping intonations
iii) rhythm of speech
– phonological or system of talk patterns in the terms used.
Babies start to babble from around 3 to 4 4 months old. It really is basically speech does sound with increasing and dropping intonations.
These indiscriminate utterances (eg dadada or nanana. . ) do not seem sensible to the listener however the baby appears to understand the meaning than it.
At about ten months, infants start to utter their first recognizable words although:
i) pronunciations may be inaccurate
eg : ‘eep’ for ‘sleep’
ii) vocalized words might not exactly correlate with words in the language
eg ‘meh’ for kitten or ‘ta’ for duck
iii) certain words may be distorted
eg ‘goggy’ for doggie
iv) reduplication of words
eg ‘da-da’, ‘na-na’
Babies are able to say ‘tiny sentences’ with simple semantic links from 18
Eg : kitten no (there is no cat )
At this stage, their ability expressing is much less advanced as a grown-up. The semantic use of words are either too wide or too small. He might call any rounded item : ‘ball’ or only himself and no one else – ‘boy’
However, these underextensions and overextensions develop and change as time passes.
By two years, most children have the ability to speak in phrases of several words. These telegraphic phrase structures are made of lexical morphemes which are grammatically incomplete.
Eg ‘No eat’ rather than ‘I won’t eat’.
By about 3 years of age, they might have attained grammatical and practical constructions of words to have the ability to conduct normal speech.
Second terminology (L2) is any vocabulary learned following the first terminology. Unlike L1, it is normally acquired to be able to integrate with the environment. and is also achieved through effective learning and drive.
As L2 learners employs the same phases of acquisition as L1 learners,
it is effective if we understand and apply these periods because it can help us to teach L2 learners better.
Acquisition of Second Language
The stages that L2 learners proceed through are:
Stage 1 : Silent Stage
In a host which is comparable to the Pre-Speech Level of L1, they notice and figure out how to realize the distinctive tones of words and pronunciations.
During this ‘silent level’, they might not exactly speak but can respond other ways such as directing to an thing, person or gesturing with a ‘yes’ and ‘no’ response.
During this stage, utterances of first words (holophrastic) little by little make way to speaking a few simple words and then, simple phrases of the terminology. Mispronunciations are normal during this stage and sentences are telegraphic in character.
Learners try to form sentences and will make flaws in the grammatical structuring of the sentences.
By making use of the Mean Length of Utterance (MLU), the development of the learner can be evaluated by measuring the morphemes uttered.
Early In Between Later
You eat? You eating? Have you been eating?
From the early stage of 2 morphemes, it grows to 3 and then finally 4 morphemes where the grammar and syntax are to be able.
Learners are capable of using complex phrases and apply the acquired language to a greater extent. They are able to opine, discuss & most importantly, begin to think in the next language.
In all the above levels, the teacher requires the important role of the ‘mom’ where she stimulates, repeats and reinforces the vocabulary.
By motivating and making the learners feel secure in a conducive environment, learners will be more willing and confident to acquire a second vocabulary.