We started with the domestication of plants and animals and that let to farming. Farming let to Surplus food, population intensification/ more people, and also specialization/ division of labor. Instead of everyone being a hunter-gatherer, some people are farmers and some have other jobs. This change le to complex society, also know as civilization. Some of the common characteristics of civilization are cities, like early Mohenjo Daro and also government/ law codes. Such as the Pharaohs and the central government of Egypt and Hammurabi’s Law code.
Some elements of civilization include cities, central government and law codes, writing and record keeping, highly organized religions, specialized jobs, and social classes. The idea that someone can be wealthy or powerful and someone else is slave or lower class. Lastly, complex technologies can change depending on the period of time. Our technology now is smartphones. Summarily complex technology that can early civilization were the wheel and some of the transportation using the wheels such as the chariot.
Also, bronze swords. By 3,000 BCE, societies in Southwest Asia and Egypt were developing and they were becoming these complex societies. We saw them in the Mestopina and the Nile River Vally. By 1000 BCE civilization has popped up around the world. The origins of human beings according to Ancient Sumerian Texts. Sumer or the land of civilized kings flourished in Mestoesphina, now modern day Iraq, around 4000-500 BC. Sumerian created an advanced civilization within its own system of elaborate language and writing. Architecture in Arts, Astronomy, and mathematics. Their religious system was a complex one. It was comprised of hundreds of gods, rights, and cosmology. According to the Ancient texts, each Sumerian city was guarded by its own god. While humans and gods used to live together, the humans were servants to the gods. The Sumerian creation myths can be found on a tablet in Nippur. An Ancient Mesopotamian city founded in approximately 5000BC. Sumer is considered one of the first civilizations in Mesopotamia. Some consider it the first civilization in history. Some historians say that civilizations have characteristics. These historians agree to be considered a civilization there must be some sort of stable food supply, a social structure, a system of government, a religious system, a highly developed culture, advances in technology, and developed written language. Civilizations need food to thrive. Archaeologists have found evidence of plow, which is a tool used in agriculture to prepare the soil for planting. Archaeologists also found written evidence of barley, which tells us that Sumer had a stable food supply. Civilizations have a complex organization of its people. People in a civilization of different jobs and social levels is there. Archaeologists have found evidence of an artisan class and an Upper class. They, also discovered that the houses of Sumer were organized based on class. The people with the largest and most luxurious houses were near the center, while the common classes lived near the outskirts of the city. Civilization has a system of government in order to direct people’s behavior. Archeologists have found evidence that Sumerian city-states were ruled by kings and these kings enforced the laws and collected taxes. They have also discovered evidence of a Sumerian army to help protect the city. All civilization has a religious system that includes a set of beliefs and a form of worship. Archaeologists believe that religious beliefs influenced every part of daily lives. They have also uncovered countless statues that showed their religious beliefs. All civilizations have a highly developed culture including, arts. Archeologists have found evidence that Sumer had many different kinds of artisans who created weapons, cups, jewelry, and much more. They also discovered that music was a big part of the Sumerian culture. All civilization create new forms of technology, they invent new things. Archeologists credit the Sumerians with the invention of the wheel. Sumerians also made great technological advancements to their building by developing an arc. Finally, all civilization have highly developed language. Archaeologists have found plenty of evidence of a written language that uses wedge-shaped characters called cuneiform. The earliest examples of cuneiform show that it was used to record information about trade Sumerians made with each other. Sumer exhibited all the characteristics of civilization. They had a stable food supply, a social structure, a government, a religious system, a developed culture, technology, and a written language. Unfortunately for the Sumerians, their civilization did not last forever. They collapsed around 2000 BCE. We start to see a large group of people in a small space. This really defines and makes the Neolithic era unique is this settlement of larger towns and soon-to-be cities with a large number of people and that really changes how society and how people interact and how people live. One of the changes to society that we start seeing during the Neolithic Revolution is hunger. It’s true that they have farms and all these domesticated animals that are fat and you can eat them without wandering around in the forest looking for barries. Well, interestingly the diet of Neolithic people doesn’t get better with settling. One of the problems is that since there is a kind of set amount of food. The diet isn’t very varied, whereas hunter-gatherers are eating a ton of different things and they have all sorts of different nutrition that they can get from their environments. Whereas, when you’re sitting in a larger town or city and you’re depending on grain or cattle sometimes you’re eating the same thing over and over. Neolithic humans got shorter because their diet wasn’t good so they didn’t have enough to grow. From the average height goes down from five foot ten to five foot one. Which a pretty big drop. Not until recently do humans start growing taller. Other changes we see is growth in population. Just because they’re not healthy doesn’t mean they can’t support as many people. Since farms can produce a great deal of food you can start supporting a larger population. With a larger group of people, you start having a very a variety of jobs so there’re many different jobs and people are specializing. You can really support people in many different ways. A Neolithic revolution starts having rather quite large settlements into the thousands of people. When you have people living in a fairly small location they get sick regularly. Diseases start to spread quicker and not just between people but often a lot of diseases are spreading from animals to humans. Those include flu, smallpox, and measles. There’re certain areas where massive percentages of populations are being wiped out by disease. Lastly, social stratification is the result of the division of labor. It’s this idea that different people have different amounts of power, respect, and importance. For example, someone who is picking crops isn’t as important as someone that’s in charge of trade. It really starts to have effects on society, how people are seeing each other, and how you view yourself in the larger context of the world.