USES AND GRATIFICATION OF WHATSAPP AMONG STUDENT SEMESTER 6 ALPHA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGYCHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE2.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter explains about literature review which have been done on the students often find uses and gratification of WhatsApp. Additionally, researcher focuses on the related of teamwork. In addition, theoretical framework and conceptual framework of the study are introduced respectively. in theoretical of the study, researcher analyzes uses and gratification of Whatsapp in teamwork in social exchange theory among students semester 6 College Technology Alpha.
2.2 LITERATURE RIVIEW In the journal Impact of WhatsApp messages to students at universities, sociological studies reveal some of the works available in India and elsewhere but most of them are on social networking sites as a whole. Therefore WhatsApp is a social media application, literature review on this paper can also be discussed with it. According to Cox and Rethman (2011) social media can be defined as a form of electronic communication where users can interact between people freely and can exchange and discuss information, ideas, personal messages and other content, between.
In addition, using multimedia messages, personal words, pictures, videos and audio and using the online platform just by connecting to the Internet. While for Anshu Bhatt and M. Arshad (2016), they know WhatsApp impact on teens especially students who need Whatsapp in their daily lives. Data were collected from teenagers from Agria, India as many as 100 samples. In his research shows that Whatsapp has a positive and negative impact on teens. This affects their education, behavior and daily life. They will be very addictive. The results of the findings show that teenagers spend more time on this app than spending quality time with their family members. For Johnson Yeboah and George Dominic Ewur (2014), conduct research to find out what effect Whatsapp messages on adolescent academic performance. They have collected data from 550 institutions of higher learning in Ghana. The result of their research shows that Whatsapp has more negative effects than positives on teenage studies. This is because there is a related suspension problem, spelling mistakes, and grammatical constructs in Whatsapp texts written by adolescents. As such, it is difficult to balance online activity and academic performance with Whatsapp. Additionally, there are also several research studies have seen the use of WhatsApp students. For researchers Yeboah and Ewur (2014), they study the use of students towards WhatsApp is higher. 418 students conducted a questionnaire. The results show that most are WhatsApp users. From the study, more than 96% of participants reported using it for more than three hours a day. In this research, most of the students use WhatsApp to chat and only 7% are reported using it for academic work. Not only has that, students’ perceptions about using WhatsApp in their education process been examined in some studies. An example is Malecela (2016) to examine student perceptions using WhatsApp as a learning tool at a university in Malaysia. Researcher uses the qualitative research design followed by interviews with several Malaysian students. The results of the interview indicate that students believe that WhatsApp can help in their learning by facilitating communication with other students and with instructors, collaborative learning, and access to and sharing of educational information. Additionally, they also believe that WhatsApp can be used as a medium for learning and teaching English. However, Malecela (2016) believe that the use of WhatsApp as a learning tool also has the following limitations and it does not involve face-to-face communication, takes time and has a high risk of miscommunication on its use. This constraint occurs due to telecom etiquette rules as it relies on Wi-Fi connections, and it cannot be used by individuals with their phones in silent mode. However, in Jordan, the use of smart phones and SNS is also very popular among university students. This is because of the availability and capability of the technology. However, not necessarily their integration in student learning will succeed. Therefore, the current study of the use of WhatsApp is one of the popular technologies today as it investigates the use of WhatsApp students and their perceptions about the possibility of integration into their education.2.3 THEORETICAL OF THE STUDY2.3.1 USES AND GRATIFICATION OF WHATSAPP This is quantitative survey thesis advanced in this study is that uses and gratification of Whatsapp among student semester 7 Alpha College of Technology. This research focuses on the uses and gratification theory on Whatsapp as well as finding from previous study for support this research. Uses and gratification theory is closely related to the media, especially in today’s era of technology that changes everything quickly. This theory is very important for making research or research on current issues and is closely related to users. This is because the theory is aimed at delivering messages to recipients as a simple means of communication. In this theory, users are able to choose the desired media to interact between them and individually. In other words, individuals have been given the choice to choose their way to get satisfaction. (Littejohn, 2002). The uses and gratification theory will provide the best answer why students semester 7 Alpha College of Technology utilized Whatsapp as suggestions that individuals use media to obtain gratifications. In addition, the theory will identify the level of satisfaction students use Whatsapp in their study, communication problem when communicating and to determine whether face-to-face communication or media applications are more popular among students. Katz, Blumler and Gurevitch pioneered the Theory of Use and Gratification in 1974. But according to McQuail (2010), the theory was detected from the early 1940s at the time, researchers began investigating why people heard popular radio programs and why they read the press news every day. Therefore, the theory appears in response to the explanation needs why people use certain media and benefit from them. Mass communication researchers use the use and gratification theory to examine, explain, and give answers to why people use certain media and what benefits or satisfaction they get afterwards. This means that people use mass media for different reasons and endeavor earned various satisfaction (Gallion, 2010, Wimmer and Dominick, named in Asemah, 2011). However, the emergence of social media technology has transformed the way people use the mass media as they differ in form and context. Beside that, people who use social networks and others provided communication are quite different from the main stream media of the audience that depend on certain media content (Li, 2005). The social media of the audience has the advantage and freedom to seek information actively and lots of messages that are interesting and useful to them. New media technologies not only change the way information is collected and distributed but also alter existing relationships between their mass media and audience. Li (2005) states that people use social media to satisfy their needs that include cognitive needs, affective needs, personal integrative needs, social integrative needs, tensions relief requirements, and moderate appeals requirements. For this, social media became a fertile research of the field that showed the direct link theory and theory of participants’ use and gratification (Matei, 2010). In general, this theory explains that students achieve a certain level of satisfaction in communicating between individuals, entertainment and emotionally relying on one’s purpose. In many new media, the internet is considered to be endangering individuals and overall alertness (Kraut, Patterson, Lundmak, Kiesler, Mukopadhyay & Scherlis, 1998: Putnam, 1995; cf. rice, 2002 quoted in Vergeer and Pelzer, 2009). Internet use is indispensable in the context of the new millennium communication, as the Internet offers a variety of applications that facilitate the process of delivering and receiving information easily. Moreover, each person has different communication behaviours resulted from their different context and individual factors and thereby influence the gratification degree of individual’s needs and interests while utilizing the social media. According to previous research, uses and gratifications theory has three key components, there for achievement, which refers to the improvement of respect, status, and reputation. Then, indicates the internal satisfaction toward the community and social interaction, which refers to the mutual relationship of community members. Consequently, the uses and gratifications perspective takes an individual view. People will choose different contingencies to adopt appropriate social media to meet their needs. Furthermore, these needs will lead to different cognitive, affective and behavioral results. One of the core concepts of uses and gratifications theory is that the same media message doesn’t necessarily affect everyone the same way. That’s because media audiences are made up of people who are not identical to each other. In terms of media effects, the differences matter. Newhagen and Rafaeli (1996) support this theory because for them this theory is best suited to the use of web properties that Newhagen changes or recognizes as a “chameleon-like character”. This conclusion is made when he sees other communications media such as television, radio and print media that are in line with the rules and social level. To take a closer look at these uses and gratifications theory, researcher conducts this research to analyze in the use of Whatsapp.2.3.2 DEPENDENCY THEORY This dependency theory was produced by Ball-Rokeach & DeFluer (1976). This theory illustrates how people rely depend on mass media or smartphones in their daily lives so that somebody feels something incomplete without seeing any news in their media such as Instagram, WhatsAppsp, Facebook and Twitter. We can also see that the mass media is easy for us to get a lot of news quickly. This demonstrates that humans today are often dependent on the mass media and it is very significant. For a person who is called by their students requires mass media in their daily lives. This is because students use electronics to know the latest developments as well as find out their tasks. In this theory it can be seen that humans rely heavily on the media, this has led the media to have a huge impact and increase overall. Most people use media because of information, entertainment and social relationships. The theory of dependency says that individuals and societies rely on the media to obtain information. In addition, Ball-Rokeach & DeFluer (1976) also said that a person’s life became incomplete if they dind’t have social media such as newspapers, television and in the modern world today was uncomfortable if they could not see Facebook, Instagram WhasApp and so on. This situation that requires social media is considered a dependency. This situation may be clearly seen when crises, disasters or excident have increased sharply in the use of social media such as Facebook, WhatsApp and Instagram to know the current news. In today’s situation the sophistication of relationships is all at the tip of the finger. It only requires smartphones and the internet to be known.Morissan (2014), DeFluer and Rokeach discusses the level of dependence on media as the key to understanding when and why mass media orders can change the cognitive, affective and behaviors of the community. Today, people rely heavily on the media for:a. Understand their social worldb. Acting in a meaningful and effective manner in societyc. To find fantasy and escapismRajah 2: Dependency model by Ball-Rokeah dan DeFluer(sumber : McQuail & Windahl, 1993: 112)2.4 SUMMARYOverall, this research will discuss about the literature review about WhatsApp and theory that applied in this research. It is generally evident that the role of theories is so important in shaping and delivering an agenda or matter to social societies. The power of a theory is based on how far the message is delivered and how much influence can be achieved through social media such as WhatsApp. This is because today’s WhatsApp is very influential in communication.