They need help from a group of teacher leaders with different professional knowledge required in school to improve policies. 2.2.2 Empirical Review on the Significance of Governance to Teachers At school level governance to a teacher is important in a diverse ways like participation in decision making, administration through the school governing bodies like school board, school management teams, subject clubs and department headships. The teacher is the policy actor who is able to practice governance by making decisions and administering the decisions made through school rules and regulations.
The important aspect in decision making, is the teacher using evidence based information and data obtained from research and consultation. In this sense, governance at school level increases transparency, accountability and effectiveness at work ,for example, the study by HakiElimu (2011) reports that, if the school administration nurtures favorable working environment, then it ensures cohesiveness cooperation in the school community, has sound and well organized plans that encourages involvement in the running of school matter, fosters cooperation, allows free flow of information, demonstrates leadership qualities, conducts regular appraisal for staff, ensures that there are adequate teaching learning materials, maintains discipline and demonstrates exemplary qualities of a good teacher.
World Bank (2010) investigation reveals that school or external authority may conduct assessment on teachers’ performance. Either school principal, academic teacher or a group of peer teachers can do that task as internal supervisors. Supervision from the external may be conducted by a national, sub-national or local educational authority. To make a judgment about a teacher’s performance, information can be collected from different sources, teachers themselves, the school principals, students and parents. The assessment and evaluation process is useful for understanding teachers’ accountability. Having the representative body of governance for teachers like school management committees, teachers’ unions and organizations that represent teachers’ interests, creates the room of holding power to affect teacher policies. The study by World Bank (2010) reports that understanding collective bargaining roles played by teacher unions, the power held by teachers as a collective group and how teacher organizations can be incorporated in the education discussion, is important to address the following questions; Are teachers allowed to associate? Are they allowed to strike? Do they have the right to set their employment conditions outside the agreements negotiated by unions? At what level does collective bargaining for teachers occur? The level at which collective bargaining takes place affects the power of teacher unions as representative of the teacher employees against their employers. Collective bargaining may affect aspects of a teacher’s working conditions.Teacher organizations may influence not only teachers’ working conditions but also important education policy decisions. 2.2.3 Empirical Review on Policy Administration at school level The report of studies by OECD (2018) on effective teacher policies insights from PISA in 72 countries done in 2015, reveal that, responsibilities for schools require leadership teams and support. This shows that teacher policy always requires approach that shapes the work of teachers. When responsibilities for selecting and developing teachers are devolved to schools, central and regional authorities play a role in ensuring that schools with decentralized systems of management have leaders. Centralized systems of teacher selection and recruitment should consider increasing the level of school responsibility in these processes. Inadequate school leaders who support and empower teachers cannot attract teachers to work in disadvantaged schools. There are measures of incentives to strengthen capacities and share expertise among teachers and administrators. In many school systems in OECD countries there is trend of decentralization of responsibilities for management and staffing in schools. According to study by the World Bank(2010) on Teacher Policies Around The World investigated on issues, for instance, requirements for becoming teachers, Teachers autonomy, monitoring and evaluation of teachers, teachers’ voice representation and school leadership reports that there are set of constitutional requirements for teacher profession that affect the decision of what is compulsory in the profession. Also, there are political influences from organized teachers’ competition and criteria that individuals aspire to become public school teachers. Requirements that are determined at decentralized level (sub-national and local governments) reflect the local conditions needs. Some governments delegate the responsibility to the representative authorities from central government, local government or directly in schools. These authorities are guided by policies concerned with recruitment, employment, promotion, distribution and dismissal that affect the ability of education system to manage teachers. According to the World Bank (2010) study, education policies have to address questions like Who regulates the requirements to enter into teacher profession? What are the requirements to become a public school teacher? Who hires teachers and who dismisses them? What incentives exist for teachers to take on leadership roles? Who evaluates teachers’ performance? What rights do teachers enjoy? At what level does collective bargaining for the teacher profession occur? What issues are subject to collective bargaining and who is affected by the outcomes of these negotiations? What power do teacher organizations have to affect education policies? What is the recruitment process for school principals? Is there a performance evaluation system for school principals? What are the responsibilities of school principals? How are school principals rewarded for their work? How are principal contracts determined? According to URT (2014) on education and training policy, it is states the laws, orders, circulars and policies for intervention under the administrative systems in education sector to assure policy implementation and accountability. Among the policy statements by the government was to restructure the administration and management systems for appointment in leadership positions and authorities for supervising implementation of education policy at school level, to ensure the public servants codes of conducts are sustained, to establish the coordinating system of education policy management from different stakeholders for the common goal achievement at school level, to establish administration systems for regular school inspection for quality insurance and assurance. Heads of schools have to be responsible and accountable for the implementation of education policy at school level and are required to prepare regular reports on school progress to the respective authorities. The heads of school have to make sure they have administrative systems within school for assurance and insurance at school level. 2.3 Knowledge Gap Evidence from theoretical and empirical reviews reveals that participation of teachers in governance at school level is very important but it is hardly conducted. The reason for this study to be conducted first is that, there is new form of leadership in public administration that involve the bottom up approach of governance (collective decision making, participatory policy formulation, implementation and delegation of power) by policy actors that is not regularly performed in organizations (Fukuyama,2013), (Toksoz 2008) and (Chhotray & Stroker, 2009).Second is that studies on skills and methods that should be used to participate in governance has been much focused in citizen participation in governance in other grassroot organizations but not stakeholders at school level for instance research skills that could help to get evidence based information special for agenda setting, decision making and administration (NEA, et al (2014).Tanzania has many teachers graduated from colleges and universities and are working in a number of schools without qualifications in research and participatory leadership skills. Third, the current Tanzania Education Policy of 2014 does not address clearly the research and leadership skills for teachers to be employed in schools and also as the requirement for teacher’s competence in school governance. Fourth, studies on exploring the practice and participation of teachers in governance at school level in Iringa district public secondary schools have been conducted very rarely.