The UNESCO atlas of endangered languages has stated that Shehri Words is at risk of disappearing, predicated on Johnston (1982). The purpose of this newspaper is to research at which level of endangerment the terminology is. This research has been conducted based on interviews with representatives from each part of the country, and syndication of your questionnaire to females and men Shehri speakers. Fundamentally, the study has discovered that the Shehri words is an extremely rich vocabulary [linguistically] and have to be studied to discover those issues as a part of the Omani culture variety. Furthermore, the results got shown that the Shehri language face a exceptional threatened starting from another door culture, and ends with the educational philosophy. Support and encouragement need to be done by the government to aid such studies to regenerate the words. The Shehri speakers are but still proud of their language and next generation should continue with those manners.
Language death, terms revive, terminology revilaitaztion, terms change, dialect and culture.
This dissertation is approximately the Shehri terminology in Dhofar. It aims to investigate the vocabulary form a sociolinguistics prospectives. Since it is considered as significantly endangers by the UNESCO we will research it by looking the vocabulary relationship with culture and bordering variability. Although, the UNESCO files are obvious and reality such a topic is changeable and maybe it’s assorted if the language is being documented over a period and modified.
In addition, since this words is not being analyzed before as endangered, we will present the annals of vocabulary and country to make the image clear, because it seems that the name of the vocabulary means a lot to the Shehri loudspeakers, and there is a remarkable debate about it. Thus, it might draw the light on what exactly are the reason why for the terms fatality in Southern Oman. Additionally, a short study on what have been talked about about the words in previous studies prior to the research is introduced to handle the following questions:
Is the shehri terms will extinct?
If so, What are the reasons because of this reduction in the number of speakers?
What is the best answer to regenerate the vocabulary?
After that, the analysis of data and conclusions will expose what the analysis achieved. Finally, this paper will discuss what might be done and how the revive the Shehri words.
A Sheharat is a dialect that is spoken is south of Oman. It really is known is the mother-tongue of people who stay in the pile of Dhofar southern Oman. Moreover, since this vocabulary was but still the language of the people in the mountains of Dhofar, folks from Salalah “the capital of Dhofar” call it Jabbali or Jabblat which comes from Jabbal in Arabic this means mountain. Furthermore, Higgins (2010: 3) stated that “the communist-backed tribal guerrillas controlled the whole of the Jebel Dhofar region (“jebel” [British spellings change] is the Arabic word for pile, hill, or slope).
None-Shehri speakers illustrate the terminology of its presenter as Jabbalies or Gabbalies. If they say that this terminology is Jabbali it is due to translating the term Shehar (the foundation name of the dialect which is hill) into Arabic Jabbal, therefore, they call it Jabbali. Corresponding to Hetzron (1997:2) The Jabbali dialect received many brands in the clinical literature, the most frequent of which being xauri, Ehkili, Qarawi, heri. In framework, if anybody is going to the mountain and he would name it he would say I’m going to the hill ” I’ll Shehar” and in the location language “Arabic” it will be something like “I’m going to Jabbal”.
A Shehri (2000) has detailed his tribe to be the historical tribe in the South the South Arabian Peninsula proclaiming that the dialect is named corresponding to his tribal name, but this analysis exposed that the name Shehri from the name of the mountain in the vocabulary itself. In addition, Johnstone (1982) in his benefits was clarifying those issues as a note from him for the top impact on the terminology. He stated that “Tribal origins signify significantly less in modern Oman, and the top scale re-settlement has tended to blur these early distinctions. The name Jibbali, however, gets the advantage which it avoids the mention of the term Shehri, with its propensity to stress old communal differences between Dhofar tribes.
In this view, This tells us that different names that people have for the same words are common, because each person is explaining it from his culture and dialect. But there is no uncertainty that the ancient’s speakers call it Shehrat or Shehri dialect.
There are some individuals in Dhofar who do not believe this is a terms. Regarding to them it can be an highlight or a dialect and the word language is something can’t be explaining it. Their assumption originates from the idea that “if the language is not written it is an accent, while if we look at the Shehri this can be a language that contains it is own phonetics, vocabulary and grammar. At the same time it isn’t a part from some other language “until now” so they can call it an accent for X dialect.
In simple fact, the Shehri have three different accents in Dhofar. That is because of the geographical deviation in South of Oman. The most known part is the central part since it is closer to metropolis “Salalah” Johnstone (1981). In addition Peterson (2004:256) and also Johnstone (1981) divided the mountains of Dhofar into three main areas; “Jabal al-Qara overlooks Salalah at the centre, while the remote and typically inaccessible Jabal Samhan dominates the east, and the evenly forbidding and barren Jabal Qamar directions the west”. This may lead us the Shehri version is dependant on those main inhabited places in Dhofar came from.
The amount of Shehri audio system is 5, 000 corresponding to Johnstone (1975, 94). This is taken during a war in Dhofar which pressure many folks from the mountains to deported to Yemen as the closest country to Dhofar as looking for refuge from the warfare and a better place to lead their warfare since the federal government controlled the complete area in Dhofar. From then on, in 1993 relating to Omani national census the quantity of individuals who are moving into the hill is 25, 000. At that time, the Shehri dialect was the first dialect in the mountains of Dhofar. On the other hand, Al Aghbari (2011) reported that the number of Shehri speakers are definitely more than 147, 000 people. Since the Omani Census aren’t counting the number of speakers of each language in the country; the amount of Shehri speakers are not being officially known yet.
AL-Shehri (2008) claim that the Shehri terminology involves 33 characters with 6 extra phonemic sounds which leave the vocabulary with 39 phonemes. Alternatively, if we look at the letter and exactly how they sound we may believe that they act like Arabic. Since it is not really a written vocabulary [yet] folks from other tribes and places in Dhofar attempts to speak Shehri and at exactly the same time they are employing the same Arabic letters that they are used to. At this stage, the Shehri dialect starts to improve and nowadays people hardly use the 6 extra noises and exchanging them with the normal Arabic phonemes. This won’t imply that the Shehri dialect is a partial form Arabic. The vocabulary and terminology set ups in Shehri are totally different, but the sounds might be the same being that they are showing the same area.
Dhofar was a very wealthy country in the trading market with other historical nations. Regarding to Zarins (1997:51) “Dhofar province is the Atlantis of the Sand and speculated that it might have a trading center in southern of Oman”. Moreover, he continues declaring that “Herodotus, Pliny the Elder, Strabo, and other early authors, though not specifically talking about Ubar, gave short accounts of locations in southern Arabia that market resins of frankincense and myrrh trees. While it is for certain that the people of the Dhofar area grew wealthy trading these commodities, it would appear that the town of Ubar was an Arabian Nights fantasy”. Furthermore, Dharmananda, (2003) confirms that “the Myrrh and frankincense trading market reached china before 973 A. D as a medication and also, in Egypt for embalming the bodies of the Pharaohs”. Besides, Dharmananda (2003) assumed that “Myrrh and frankincense, traded throughout the center East at least since 1500 B. C. ” Therefore, it might be seen now evidently that the history of the region south of Oman was famous and strong enough to contend the Egyptian and the Chains empires. Such a region will need to have a language, power, economic and economic climate to be competitive such nations, in any other case the southern Arabian Peninsula is likely to be a an Egyptian or Chinese language colony.
After those glory days in southern the Arabian Peninsula tons of changes eventually historic people. In terms of the current economic climate and their statues worldwide as well. Lately, before the 1970, Oman was ruled by Sultan Said Bin Taimor (1932-1970) where many people do not have the right to be educated, receiving medical care or even travel from Oman without his direct permission. This was the Sultan’s policy that results in Rebellion in Dhofar from 1968-1975. Dhofar was the administrative centre of the south and the modern part of it. “The Sultan of Oman, Said bin Tamur, ruled like a feudal lord: No Omani was allowed to leave the country, or even his home town, minus the Sultan’s explicit authorization. He suspended all symbols of the decadent twentieth century. . . From medical drugs and spectacles to book and radios’ and he flogged his things for adopting American dress” Ladwig (2008:66).
Moreover, Higgins (2010:3) explained “there were no streets, no schools, no hospitals, no development of water resources for home or agricultural use”. This was the situation all over Oman but with some emphasizes on Dhofar as the special place for the Sultan Said bin Taimor. Relating to Ladwig (2008:66) “Dhofar was the Sultan’s personal domains, where he resided in seclusion all year round, despite the fact that the country’s capital was 500 a long way north of Muscat. Although he required a Dhofari wife, who was simply the mom of his child, the Sultan disliked and distrusted his Dhofari subject matter, the Jebelis most of all”. It is clearly seen that those issues happened since Sultan Said Bin Taimor taken the guideline of the united states made the situation in Oman and especially in Dhofar difficult to be manipulated. Therefore, the Rebellion motion began from Dhofar (1968) with the help of the Soviets and China.
Until, 1970 when the Sultan Qaboos the Only boy of Sultan Said bin Taimor take the rule of the country and start to battle the counterinsurgency in southern of Oman, and make the assurances to rebuild the country again. “My people, my brothers, last night it was complete darkness and by making use of God, tomorrow is a new dawn in Muscat, Oman and its own people” (Sultan Qaboos first conversation 1970). Corresponding to Gulvady (2009) “The Sultan Qaboos government has focused on economical development. He first attended to infrastructure needs, such as building streets and highways, as well as education. He’s now concentrating on lasting development, diversification, industrialization, and privatization”.
The institutions were constructed with a great care; hospitals, Colleges and universities to ensure that every person in Oman get the chance to be learnt and also to be educated. Certainly, according the Ministry of Education (2012) the amount of schools rose from 3 academic institutions in 1970 educating the Holy Quran and Arabic vocabulary only, to 1053 universities by 2010 coaching modern themes as Mathematics, Sciences, Arabic, British, History, and Religion. In addition, Universities and schools were established around Oman. The primary School is the Sultan Qaboos School in Muscat. Also, the biggest places in Oman were provided with an systems college or university and a technological college as well. Therefore, the utilization of Arabic language gets greater; as the Shehri language got a few chances to be practiced without being trained.
To conclude, days gone by of Oman was dark and filled with blood vessels from the Rebellion movements against Sultan Qaboos’s father Said bin Taimor. Those claims by the Sultan Qaboos has been achieved in 40 years is something difficult and almost impossible. Thank to God and the hands of the Omani generations who learnt and trained under the federal government of Oman this route was easier. Now Omani students are available in the celebrated Universities learning and learning to continuing the particular Sultan Qaboos has started. The new regime, though undoubtedly good for the people, did lead to the decrease of the Shehri dialect. Therefore, it could be worth to reorganize the Educational Viewpoint in Oman.
During the previous decades lots of changes took place to Oman, specifically Dhofari people and their terms. The changes come in the vocabulary choice, pronunciation, composition, words are disappearing rather than being utilized. Marshall (2004:1) promises that “researchers have shown restored interest in the loss of non-standard varieties and the process of standardization. It has given important insights in to the types of geographical area, cultural network, and public group in which vocabulary changes originate and system involves along the way of diffusion”. Furthermore, McMahon (1994:8) promised that “we should never lose view to the fact that language are spoken by people for purposes of communication; therefore, speakers change dialects, although that is not to say that they are necessarily conscious of doing this, or that they intend to make changes”. Perhaps speaker systems of any vocabulary contain the responsibility toward the changes occurred at their time, but also the political decisions made by the united states could play a positive or negative role. Moreover, considering the fact that the Shehri language is not really a written terminology this risk gets better. McCabe (2011:262) points out that “There is absolutely no clear reason dialects change as thoroughly as they are doing; there are several explanations which cover various aspects of change, regarding sound change we’ve seen that ease of articulation has historically been a motivator. Regarding sound change, it is important to mention the impact that the written words has already established on terminology change”.
Moreover, a significant change occurred during the last 40 years in Oman, generally, and Dhofar region bring about having a fresh generation which is different from older people people in the way of pondering, learning, speaking and everything. McCabe (2011:263) assured that “often young people use language diversely than their parents, just as that they dress differently and listen to different music, in order to produce an id which models them apart from their parents’ era”. Considering that any changes might be referenced back to it after a time if it’s written, but if it was only a spoken terms locally which means that there is absolutely no source for the words except those young decades. Besides, Beard (2004) believes that studying a terminology change involves two parts, inner and external strategy. Relating to him ” an interior approach to studying language change looks at such areas as vocabulary, spelling, signifying of words, grammar and compares utilization in ‘old’ wording with level found today. . . But if we go through the external aspects of this text, looking at it more as a sociable document, it seems to belong to different age” Bread (2004:4).
The Shehri vocabulary has been reviewed in some literature, Journals, Television set interviews, and dissertations. Relating many people in this research lots of this information was provided wrongly. Most of them might be a personal believe or only a way to associate this language with their own purposes. For example, Ali AL Shehri catalogs where he cases that this terminology is related to them as a tribe was totally undesirable for folks from other tribes in Dhofar. Regarding to Al Shehri (2000:42) “the Shahara tribes have preserved the most traditional Arab language (the Shehri), the practices, folklore, proverbs, titles of historic tribes, old God names and much other historic Arab culture”. This assumption created by Ali made other folks claim with him as relating the language to his tribe. At the same time, as other tribes and the federal government did not trust what Ali speak about in his catalogs; nothing of his literature were posted in Oman to ovoid sedition between the people in Dhofar.
Then, in (2005) Mohammed Al Mashani analyzed the language contrasting it to languages like the Arabic, the Old Yemeni vocabulary (Saba), and the modern dialects in Yemen, proclaiming that the Shehri language is the vocabulary of Hamyer the old kingdom southern the Arab Peninsula. Mohammed also brings a new name for the terms and called with “The Modern Hamyer Dhofari Tongue”. It really is clearly seen that the name of the terms became the primary concern for scholars and individuals in Dhofar.
Other studies such as Hayward et. Al. (1988), Johnstone (1972) – (1980a) – (1980a) – (1981), Al Hakli (2008), Al-Shahri (1994), Hayward, Al-Tabki (1988), Hofstede (1998) Makhashen (2009) concentrated their studies on the origin of the language and its own people, and the grammatical areas of the vocabulary only. This will provide a foundation for just about any research in the foreseeable future to be built and based on them, if they were true and still have the same results which really is a topic need to be investigated again.
However, moving from the fight of the name of the Shehri language and taking the UNESCO’s data about languages that are in danger of disappearing; the Shehri vocabulary might not change fully from the elderly generation to younger ones. According to the UNESCO atlas of the most endangered languages (desk 1) this stage is “severely endangered”. In other words, it means that “language is spoken by grandparents and more mature generations; while the parent technology may understand it, they don’t speak it to children or among themselves” UNESCO (2010). This leaves the terminology with only two levels from being extinct.
The dialect is spoken by all years; intergenerational transmission is uninterrupted >> not included in the Atlas
Most children speak the terminology, but it might be limited to certain domains (e. g. , Home)
Children no longer learn the words as mom tongue in the home
The language is spoken by grandparents and older generations; as the parent era may understand it, they do not speak it to children or among themselves
The youngest audio system are grandparents and aged, and they speak the dialect partially and infrequently
There are no speakers left >> contained in the Atlas if presumably extinct because the 1950s
Table Degree of endangerment Modified from Atlas of the World’s Dialects in Danger.
Moreover, Al Hakli (2008) made a mini-dictionary for Shehri dialect joining the Shehri words with their meaning in Arabic. But until now the number of speakers is still declining. This means writing a dictionary was not the solution to regenerate the language at this time.
Therefore, the questions pointed out to consider the solution also to investigate why the amount of the speakers is declined. According to Romine and Nettle (2000:7) “language transfer and death happen as a reply to pressures of varied types-social, cultural, monetary, and even military-on a community”. Furthermore, Harrison (2007: 8) stresses that “language death typically starts with political or sociable discrimination against a words or its loudspeakers. This may take the proper execution of official condition politics to curb speech, or it may be benign neglect”. Therefore, it might be the reason that we now have other variables controlling the amount of speakers of the language.
Mufwene (2006:2) explained that “terminology death starts off when speaker systems consulted with each other and chosen collectively to transfer suddenly to some other language”. This leads us to the start and consuming our concern that Dhofar region has been benediction with the revolutionary movement by the Sultan Qaboos and many schools, Hospitals, Airports were built in a short time. Therefore, the Arabic terminology occurs in their residences and daily life. The new generation was released to institutions that offers everything to them in Arabic. However, many individuals acquired migrated from the hill to the city to look for a better way of living and a job that helps those to get over the hardship of life in their villages. People’s language might be damaged by the surrounding environment. Also, the vocabulary that is near by lots of factors that might impact it such as market, geography, the energy of another door language are at more risk of being disappeared. In addition, language move and loss of life can commence by start learning the next door language. For example: “The Kwegu terms in southwest Ethiopia is spoken by 500 people only” Lydall (1982:22). In addition, in line with the UNSECO world atlas the number of Kwegu audio system declines in 1998 to attain 103 presenter only. Furthermore, Dimmendaal (1989:17) “point out a few of the day to day activities practiced by the Kwegu historic as they exchange honey with the overlord groupings in the same area so they’ll be able to live. . . Kwegu speak both their own language and the terms of the Musri and Bodi as the latter tend not to speak Kwegu”. So, learning other group’s words was the effect of such discrimination in the society, therefore, their first words [Kwegu] will have less chances to be used.
On this view, the Shehri loudspeakers are shifting from their dialect to Arabic and this is due to many facts already mentioned above. When another generation does not have confidence in their terms and begin to shift toward a new terms which is more powerful than their language, obviously, nobody will consult with it and it is only a matter of years before Shehri speakers reduction end with it is extinct. Dimmendaal (1989:18) points out that ” it is merely when they start interacting with neighbouring groupings whose ethnicities are considered more exclusive that their own language became specifically threatened. . . The Weyto probably quit their earlier vocabulary this way. ” Darmon (2010:2) argued that the Weyto “Because the Weyto people do not own lands, they are really surviving in extremely precarious conditions. They build their huts wherever the government allows those to, knowing that they could be asked to move at any time. . . Without professing to be Muslim, they’re usually not named “true Muslims” by others, maybe because some of them continue thinking in spirits associated with paganism”. Therefore, Darmon feels that such emotions communicate own terms might cause you to give up deploying it and move it to a more robust language in the society. Eventually, this words shift will cause language fatality within years.
The language fatality is when a language disappears and becomes extinct. In other words, when people stop using their language or required to take action. There are types for language loss of life cited by Tsitsipis (1989:182) “first, sudden fatality: the words disappears because the vast majority of its speakers expire or wiped out (example: Tasmanian). Second of all, Radical Loss of life when language loses is rapid and usually due to severe political repression, often with genocide, to the extent that audio system stop speaking the language out of self-defense, a survival strategy for example: Dialects of El Salvador. Then, Gradual Death which is because of a gradual move to the dominant terminology in language-contact situations. Finally, the Bottom-to-top Death, where that words is lost in small steps first “like homes and individuals and then shifted when the government stop using it, it is the opposite on the Top-Bottom vocabulary death”. No matter to the explanation for the language transfer it is obviously seen so it is merely a matter of their time until language move become words extinction.
To conclude, it could be more good for reviving endangered dialects that freelance writers and scholars studying the Shehri vocabulary should keep their focus first at the terminology itself rather than fighting against one another in bringing a fresh name each time. Since the Shehri terminology is not documented yet, it only is out there in the individuals mind, therefore, we are losing a huge amount of the vocabulary and country heritage and culture each time a person dies. As what Harrison describes” whenever we lose a dialect, we lose a culture, intellectual wealth, a work of art” Harrison (2007:7).
This area of the paper reveals the methodology and exactly how it had been designed to complete the goals and goals. First, this section will clarify the challenge plainly. Then, the types of data, individuals, questionnaires and interviews will be discussed individually.
Since the Shehri dialect is being listed officially by the UNESCO as [greatly endangered] this research will be conducted to research if the Shehri language speakers are really under the risk of abandoning speaking their own terminology are not. First of all, by looking at the amount of audio speakers of the dialect and to see how it ranges from days gone by. Then, through considering the changes that happened to the terms. According to Teacher Miyaoka the director of The Endangered Languages of the Pacific Rim Job “Particularly in case of moribund and isolated dialects with speakers quickly diminishing in quantity, which there are very a few in the Pacific Rim, we live obliged to stress paperwork with good and tiny analyses that could be performed only with the help of speakers having deep linguistic insights”.
The Shehri is a terminology that’s not written yet or documented officially. Therefore, when each person of the Shehri sound system dies some the language goes with him. In the same way, the Arabic language was not written until people start to write it after the loss of life of Prophet Mohammed in order to protect the holy Quran from being changed and distorts. Before this stage the Arabic words was only can be found in their intellects and changed from a technology to some other by communication with each other. In the Shehri context, the Shehri terms is not written, not totally changed from a technology to another, people begin to avoid using it and preferred to utilize British or Arabic to show the way they are informed. Nettle and Romaine (2000:5) demand that “vocabulary might be regarded as a task, system of communication between human beings. A terminology is not a self-sustaining entity. It could only are present where there’s a community to speak and transfer it. “
In addition, immigration from the pile to metropolis offers a space for both cultures to merge. Thus, a few of the young audio system of the terms are not able to speak or even know it. This may cause having a new era of Shehri loudspeakers that aren’t able to speak their dialect. Nettle and Romaine (2000:4) promised that “dialects not offered to younger technology will eventually die out. ” Since the Shehri newer generation cannot speak the terms, therefore, the vocabulary is not going to transmit and can extinct.
The Data collection part was sectioned off into two main parts; the first part was to update the information about the terminology. Moreover, to explore and discover why this language is not being studied yet. Also, the primary part of this section was to see if such some sort of researches is going to be accepted by the Shehri audio system and tribe head or not.
Since, there’s been an assumption that the reduction of speakers remarkable for devoid of a written form of the words; this assumption has been empty with the Halki’s basic dictionary were an area has been provided for the Arabic sound system in Dhofar and Oman to learn some vocabulary and sentence in Shehri. Therefore, this end result leads us to think about about this persists reduction in the Sheahri speakers. Through meetings with scholars such as Dr. Ali AL Shehri and Khalid AL Maashani, both are Sahehari native audio system, they ensure that the abstention of the new generation is evidently seen these days in their daily life conversation and utilization. This leads us to the second assumption of this study.
Second part, was the key data collection where the purpose was: First, to see the what stretch the Shehri audio system use their terms?. Then, do they find any difficulty in understanding old peoples’ terminology? Finally, are they aware that their language is at risk of extinction? At the same time to see what they might recommend for their language. To help make the goal of this newspaper more achievable the questions were made much easier to the Shehries to answer by shortening the questions and convert them into Arabic. As what Harrison discovers in working with endangered languages in Australia “Charlie was not a talkative man, and most of our questions acquired monosyllabic answers: yeah or no. But once he surely got to speaking, Charlie also shared stories of the place -learned from his father- of the Turkey Thinking and of the Rainbow Serpent” (Harrison: 2010:98). Therefore, including their dialect could provide a better communication environment in this research.
Since they aren’t used to such studies which was one of the hurdles of gathering the information from them. Furthermore, such a research must consider respecting the traditional guidelines in the Dhofar were females are not allowed to have a in person conversation with strangers. Therefore, some volunteers from various tribes in Dhofar helped by giving the authorization to distribute the questionnaire amongst their families as a part of their wish to revive the vocabulary. This matter but this research vulnerable to having unreliable data. So, the study methodology needs to look for a strategy to make the data more valid and reliable.
This research conducted using both ways of data quantitative and qualitative. The quantitative data are represented in the questionnaire answers and responds, while the qualitative data is extracted from interviewing the participant and the answers from the open-ended questionnaire answers in this analysis. Such kind of data collection has been identified by (Jick 1979) where he talks about using several methods of data collection can be called “triangulation”. According to Jick (1979:1) ” It is largely a vehicle for cross validation when several distinct methods are located to be congruent and yield comparable data”. In other words, using such methods might be the reason why to accomplish the validity of the study. In addition, the study will get the chance to check out each part of his analysis from more than one point.
In addition, Olsen (2004) promised that “triangulation is defined as the blending of data or methods so that diverse viewpoints or standpoints cast light upon a topic. ” Considering the advantages which is drawbacks combining the two methods might help the researcher as to make his own conclusions in regards to a topic especially if we are discussing sociological issues. Furthermore, Spicer (2012:484) mentioned that “it can be an approach to incorporating several quantitative and/or qualitative methods in dealing with a research question to be able to cross-check results for persistence also to offset any bias of solo research method”. In this framework, this research will try to use the triangulation method so that it could reach the best, real, and representative data by using both quantitative qualitative data and making use of past studies about the Shehri terms and terminology revival worldwide.
In the other hands, the triangulation method might be difficult to attain since it needs a whole lot of effort and work to incorporate the three data. Additionally, Olsen (2004:13) argues that “triangulated research may run the risk of dealing with way too many unfocused questions all at one time unless it offers sequenced and a feeling of which approach is main. ” Therefore, a triangulated researcher might achieve his goals and aims by organizing his time and work between the three methods. “It refers to a pluralism of method that allows the researcher to make use of different ways to get access to different elements of the same social phenomenon”(Olsen, 2004).
(Quantitative Data) The Research Triangulation (Qualitative Data)
Previous studies and investigations in the same field
Figure The Triangulation Method adapted from Denscombe (2007:137)
According to Denscombe (2007:136) he assured that “These different perspectives can be based on the techniques of different disciplines. So, for example, experts might choose to compare a sociological with a mental approach to the particular topic being investigated. . . triangulation’s potential needs to be seen more cautiously as ‘providing more support’, ‘increasing assurance’, and ‘minimizing the opportunity of mistake'”.
A sociolinguistics research might be problematic for the research to regulate variables and samples. A data gathered from people might change through the second day or even after 5 minutes. People ideas and values may vary relating to what these are facing. It isn’t a methodical process in which everything is clear and clear. Yates (2004:3) affirms that “friendly sciences is a very ‘reflexive’ activity, new findings often lead to new ideas about how precisely to start researching the interpersonal world”. Additionally, Williams and could (1996:48) confirm that “human beings have the capacity for autonomous reflection”. This leads the study to consider a solution to attempt a frame that will assist the study and be achievable.
Choosing the correct methods depends upon the research goal and assumptions. Therefore, a smartly designed and structured method might play a vast role in obtaining the right, up-dated, valid, reliable, and representing data for any research. Thus, it might be beneficial for the research to start from a definite attainable method.
From the assortment of the first part of the study has been obviously seen that the Shehri words speakers are affected and affected by the Arabic and modern society. In addition, Hinton (2001:3) reassured that “Immigrant minorities are also more than likely to undergo dialect change, either voluntarily or involuntarily, within their assimilation with their country to their new country”. In this view, this research is designed to investigate from what scope the Shehri vocabulary is at threat of being extinct. Furthermore, to look for the reasons for the declining of Shehri sound system and why they are not using it effectively as their fathers. By the end, this study will attempt to provide some solutions for assisting the language of computer is endangered.
The questionnaire of this study was created to signify the quantitative data collection. The main issues targeted in by this questionnaire is to ask people in what they consider and the facts regarding their language. Denscombe (2007:155) explained that “. . . . it is essential that at all stages of using questionnaires the researcher is clear about whether the information being desired is to do with facts or even to do with opinions”. The questions also were written in a sequence that is not leading visitors to a certain answer. , corresponding to Cohen, Manion, and Morrison (2011:209) ” the validity and dependability of the questionnaire comes first, when the respondents complete the questionnaire effectively, honestly, and correctly; to reach this stage a few stages have to be done. Starting from the features of the questionnaire itself (time needed for answering it, very sensitive questions, and amount of the questionnaire itself)”. Therefore, in this view, it could be insignificant to ask non-Arabic sound system complete a three web pages of questions they are not used to answer. Thus, the set of questions has been shortened to be eight immediate questions only based on the research goal.
A face-to-face circulation might be the best technique to use with such participant to explain the importance of this research to them also to be available to explain what is necessary. Matching Blaxter, Hughes, and Tight, (2010:201) “face-to-face review may get an improved response rate, but are additional time consuming for the study”. Inside the Shehri context this matter is something that might need to be considered seriously. At that time the members were responding to the questionnaire it was appropriate to provide them as enough time as they have to answer and not to induce them. Furthermore, making use of that time to interview the elderly people in the tribe.
Moreover, Cohen, Manion, and Morrison (2011:209) point out a great point by saying that “the questionnaire may lack coverage or authenticity; only if wide open items are used, respondents may be unwilling to write their answers for just one reason or another; questionnaires provided problems to people with limited literacy; and interview can conduct at a proper velocity whereas questionnaires tend to be filled in hurriedly”. But with the use of their educated member of the culture it showed a huge impact to them, moreover, it might supply them with an environment they might not believe that it is bizarre or something new to them.
For each question the participant got the choice to choose just as much answers provided they need. Furthermore, they can express why they have got chosen their answer or even to add any commentary such as; if indeed they felt that there is a remedy which is not provided. This was clearly told them before each goes through.
The first question in the survey was asking them about the reason why for the reduction of the Shehri speakers, based on the first part of the study. The individuals need to choose whether it’s related to the shifting toward the Arabic vocabulary, or the immigration to the Salalah (the capital city in Dhofar), or if they feel that it is not welcomed among other people.
Secondly, they are asked about which language they would prefer to use (Arabic or Shehri) and to designate why they favour to use it. The purpose of this question is to determine to what lengthen the believe in their words. Logically, choosing the Arabic language as a common language to communicate with, might lead us to the actual fact that the next generation won’t favor it, so, the terms won’t use.
After that, the next question targeted the knowledge of elderly people’s terminology. They have to choose yes or no if indeed they find any difficulty in understanding their language. In case there is absolutely no difficulty they do not have to answer the followed question where they have to choose where this difference looks between their understanding and the vocabulary of elderly people. The choices were: first, difficulty in understanding the music and poetry (which may be performed even by teenagers not related to a certain years ). Second, difficulty in understanding the elderlies training and language generally. Nevertheless, Difficulty in understanding and speaking with the same phonetic tones used by seniors generation, for that reason, a gap will appear between your language of both generations. Accompanied by an open-ended question about how they might get over this gap.
Then, a set of projects is being shown in the 6th question to be chosen regarding to what is necessary for this words to revive in the next years if it’s possible. Could it be building a language centre to teach it, or performing more researches to protect each aspect in the vocabulary, or seeking to document the terminology and managed to get written and to specify if indeed they feel that there are other needs for the words.
The last two elements of the review have been responded by both, those who said that they do not face any difficulty in understanding the words and the ones who do. The question is to see if they feel that the Shehri terminology is at risk of being vanished or not, by answering yes or no, and why. Which is going to be the last question for those who do not believe the language reaches threat of being. Then, the there is an open-ended question on the questionnaire to inquire further about an action to be done to be able to shift the amount of words endangerment to “critically endangered” meaning “The youngest audio system are grandparents and more aged, and they speak the vocabulary partly and infrequently” based on the UNESCO’s Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger (2012).
At the finish this inspection asked the individuals in what they recommend for their terms to be revived. This was a chance to get their voices listened to and also at the same time to being that they are going to learn the key part in the language revival action; it might be more good for elicit a solution they are going to simply accept and also that may be applied and attainable (more details are in chapter 5).
The questionnaire was the main part of data because of this research. Since it provide a chance to get various people involved with it, therefore, it might expose what each different group believes and thoughts to be compared at the end. Also, in creating it it was essential to take the concern the attitude of the Shehri speakers; because they are not familiar with such studies. So, this might result result rejecting and additional research in the future. The group of questions have been considered not the lead them to a certain idea so they change their imagination and answers.
The second part of this study is based on collecting data through interviews as it is the second source in this research. The interviewees were picked By virtue of their role in society. The first interview was one of those reps of the vocabulary as what he phone calls himself as well as the one who was decided on by many scholars when they have been asked to participate in this research. Since our aim was but still to look for explanations why this language is still undercover; we targeted people such as professors in the colleges in Omani nevertheless they refuse to do claiming that he’s heading to be the best person who represent this terminology taking in our consideration that of these were native sound system of Shehri language and have written some books about it.
Moreover, the next interview focused on the terms itself. In other words, the Shehri terminology is a spoken words formed as lifestyle dialogue as any language and also in the poetry and music; it stands to reason to require one particular poets in this review as well. The aim of this interview is to consider the image of the language in your brain of those poets and the actual language methods to them. Therefore, we might have the ability to know the insufficiency one of the speakers and if it is credited to less use of the words in poetry as one factor of the terminology.
Furthermore, as education played out a great part in changing the united states in Oman; this analysis involves instructors in both universities and Colleges. The interview was occurred in Salalah Complex College using a Shehri English educator to see who he is dealing with is students from the same tongue. Preferably, to check out the result of his learners obstructions in learning in the middle of Arabic audio system.
In addition, there is no voice, apart from the government reaction to Ali’s books, to the Shehri language of the federal government. A member of the Omani Council agreed to be a part of this review. Since he’s a consultant of his community “Sadah” in addition to a native speaker of Shehri this interview might answer the question why there is absolutely no encouragement from the federal government? And just why this silence remains.
The interviewees were asked several questions in these interviews. Originally, it could be a begin to inquire further about the terms itself, and what it means to them. Then, to be able not to lead them to the final answer it was more critical to observe how much they use the vocabulary in their lifestyle and what’s their response their dialect choice if they were in several Arabic speaker systems. As what took place with Kwegu in south american Ethiopia “because the Kwegu eat the meats of various wild animals, they are considered to be unclean by the neighbouring Mursi and Bodi, who’ve taboos against eating the meats of particular wild animals” Dimmendaal (1989:17). In other words, to see in there is any communal division predicated on civilizations and behaves as loudspeakers of different vocabulary and living in various environments.
Furthermore, the transforming of the vocabulary to the next generation is being discussed as they are fathers and observers of the vocabulary at home. Then, the key question has been shown to see if they believe that their language is at threat of being disappeared and why. After that, the interview was completed with what they recommend for the vocabulary in the future. Taking into concerns that their answer might not agree with the hypothesis that Shehri terms is at risk of disappearing those participant must clarify their beliefs.
Since the Shehri dialect is made up of three accents which represent the three areas where this terminology is spoken. The East, western world, and middle; this research attempted to add the three sets of speakers.
During the collection of data it was difficult to perform the research without having to be aware that lots of of those speaker systems live on the pile as herders. So, it was difficult to have the answers anytime. You will find 30 audio system from metropolis centre Shehri speakers to stand for the people from the center areas.
The participant in which a variety of folks such as scholars, instructors, housewives, teens, and fathers to attempt to conduct those segments of the contemporary society.
At once, A poet from Dhofar participate kindly in this research to symbolize the role of poetry in this words since it’s the only eloquent source for the old composition with the reports and old people’s language
Another volunteer in this research is an associate of the Shura “the Omani Council” among the Shehri speaker systems and a dad and a represented of more than 5000 Omani from his tribe and town.
Teachers of languages and other content also take a part in this research in order to check out their viewpoints and decision on what’s their effect toward a Shehri college student talking to his mother tongue.
The members in the interviews were from various tribes in Dhofar and different social classes as well. Considering the fact that all of them are native speaker systems of Shehri so they’ll play both jobs: as speaker systems of the vocabulary and as a component from the city aiming to present different does sound in the same issue.
Moreover, this research focuses on a lot of people who studied the terms before. Since there have been some books shared about the Shehri terms it was more significant to ask those people about their ideas. Some of them refuse to have a part in this review claiming that we now have other people with more effectiveness in the words that could be more useful for the analysis!!. Others were frightened to have a part in this review because they said that we now have many conditions that have been aggrieved by other authors in conditions of the name or the audio system or even the areas where this terms is spoken, therefore, they received the feeling that it’ll be the same in this research.
The data collection part of the study needs 7 weeks of travelling from one pile to the other. Actually it was like moving from one tribe to some other. Data were gathered from two institutions in the one in metropolis “Salalah” and another one from the mountain. Also, this review involves old from around Dhofar, the central, the western world, and east as well to ensure that everyone acquired a chance to express himself and at the same time to make sure that the info obtained by this research is valid and reliable.
This research showed the woman’s right and offered here the opportunity to say what she thinks about this vocabulary. Besides, as what have been seen above the ladies played the primary part in boosting and indoctrinate the kids in preceding years. Absolutely, this role of the female in the contemporary society in Dhofar can’t be ignored as they are watching the changes in terms of the vocabulary. This idea was investigated by making use of one of the Omani Women’s Connection is Dhofar who advised the correct women’s that may help the goal of the study. They have been grouped and categorize in a list to chosen randomly.
In this section we are going to discover the consequence of this research and also at exactly the same time compare the studies from the questionnaire and the interview with studies in the same field. Then, we are going to discuss the relevance and need for the finding to the study aims.
The presenting of the info obtained in this analysis is going to be obtainable by contrasting those three sources; the questionnaire, the interview, and the previous studies about terms fatality and revival. Thus, a definite view of the words is likely to be seen from those different parts related to the same theme.
In terms of the first question about the reason standing for lowering the amount of Shehri audio speakers, the questionnaire (Physique 2) exhibited that 45% of the Shehri audio speakers think that the immigration from the mountains to the town “Salalah” is the key reason behind this reduction. Upon this view, Moving from Shehri to Arabic comes next consequently of moving to the town. While, on the other hands, only 15% of the respondents think that their words is not welcomed by others.
Figure KNOWN REASONS FOR the Reduction of Shehri Speakers
Dorian (1998:5) argued that “Ruling powers have not necessarily expected subordinate peoples to give up their ancestral languages or motivated them to look at the dialect of the prominent group”. Therefore, it might be evidently seen that due to the happy to get a better medical, lifestyle, Job, and education the Shehri language was the sufferer. Regarding to Thomason (2001:6) assured that “Asymmetrical bilingualism is particularly common when, as in such cases, a subordinate bilingual group is shifting to the language of a monolingual dominating group”. Therefore, the prominent group in the culture might push other groups to their words and culture indirectly In addition, matching to Ali Al Shehri “the dialect now is for a particular person or tribe but it sometimes appears clearly that those people are moving to metropolis Salalah. Therefore, they need to change the words into Arabic as it’s the only source for working, education, and moving into Salalah”. So, there can be an information that the changing and language shift is due to immigration and the issue in the living system in the mountains, therefore, the Shehri audio speakers choose to live in the location Salalah and change their terminology and replace it with Arabic with the best prospects keep using their language but with the effect of the Arabic dialect.
Other reasons might be difficult to determine; as what Cristal (2000:70) is convinced that “It isn’t possible to create a single description for this decline; there are way too many factors included, variously combining in various regional situations”. If we go back to the history of the region; almost no institution was built before 1970 in the mountains, (Ministry of Education report, 2011). Logically, because the new schools are going to hire Arabic words teachers to instruct all things in the school room; there’s a limited space for the Shehri terminology practice.
Additionally, the actual fact that it’s not a written terms expands the amount of danger encompassing the language. Based on the questionnaire only 12% of the participants assume that the reduction is because of documenting part of the terms. Hinton (2001:10) argued that “it can be very beneficial for a terms revitalization program to have the help of linguists to file their words”. Also, “the logic of endangerment means that such documents is likely to be unrepeatable therefore should be carried out with style and good care” (Dobrin, Austin and Nathan 2007:4). Moreover, from the interview with Ali Al Shehri it appears the key problem blocking the terminology from being written is which words they are going to use to describe the non-Arabic phonemes.
To assess the level of the language used and the willing of the Shehri speaker to make use of their words they have shown that more than 80% would rather use Shehri expressing themselves somewhat than Arabic (see Shape 3).
Figure Arabic vs Shehri
According to the commentary received from east and west Dhofar they think that the Shehri language is their mother tongue, therefore, using it became a must for them. Alternatively, the central samples showed a propensity toward the Arabic words comes from their think that it’s the country terminology and at the same time the language in our religion. On this view, we’re able to see different opinions and imagine among the Shehri speakers matching with their areas. Mufwene (2006:10) promised that “what the true immediate cause for vocabulary death is, independent of the fact the socio-economic ecologies of the relevant populations have been evolved by connections with other populations”. Relating to Mufwene socio-economies teams might affect the others words and culture throughout their contact with them, the thing that might cause language death. In addition, the tribal teams in the mountains and the city got their influences of the Shehri speakers the thing that Mufwene believe is the real cause for language loss of life. Furthermore, Hinton (2001:5) argued that “the loss of language is part of the oppression and disenfranchisement of indigenous people, who are shedding their land and traditional livehood involuntarily as the pushes of nationwide or world economy and politics impinge after them”. It is not a necessary to power people by the armed forces or a direct politics decision. Keeping the life span source of information exclusive privilege to certain places is a kind of forcing visitors to move and leave their homes. Thus, their heritage, culture, vocabulary, and tradition is likely to be still left home and emerge within metropolis world.
According from what we have discovered up to now, the changes in words appear but until now it continues to be not yet determined whether those changes and they’ll use the language will have any result in the foreseeable future or not. Mufwene (2004:204) declare that ” Language loss of life is a protracted change of point out used to spell it out community-level lack of competence in a vocabulary, it denotes a process that will not affect all speakers at the same time nor to the same level”.
Consequently, we will move to another question where the questionnaire focused on the issue in understanding the elderly people’s given that they might be considered as the only real way to obtain old-non-effected terminology.
Figure Understanding Elderly People’s language
Looking at (Body 4) 58% of the answers demonstrated that people mainly in the age ranges 20-30 years of age got a problem in understanding the language of elderly. More than 80% of those were females. That will be another evidence of the consequence of being segregated from the guys in the neighborhood community and lifestyle activities. Those issues change from the vocabulary they are using to the grammatical composition according to the feedback on the questionnaire. Some of them commented that “the most challenging part in understanding their terminology comes from the gap between the two generations”. A 60 years old poet from Dhofar explained that “this new technology are mixing the Arabic language with Shehri. They feel that they could speak the language utilizing the same Arabic phonetics, and, in many cases, they use Arabic vocabulary unconsciously. We as an seniors generation believe that they are not respecting our dialect and have fun at them sometimes”. Furthermore, Ali Al Shehri argued that the reason for not being able to understand the elderly people’s language is due to the gap between the two generations in which the life system old Shehri old people used and the new era interest are not the same. Therefore, the chance to interact with the other person is getting shorter.
Understanding the terminology occurs in the Shehri was the most difficult part for most participants in the questionnaire. A tutor in Salalah Techie College pointed out that “If all those changes made us struggling to understand the Nana lyrics how about the next generation?”. “The Nana (a normal melody) is a kind of poetry that they explain a tale or an event using only a small amount words as it can be, and at the same time contains an enormous amount of meanings that can’t be created by others. There is no drums or any musical equipment is used behind it and this what make it difficult especially, and pleasurable skill to us” the council member commented. Others stated in the questionnaire that “the Nana is something we enjoy hearing it, but sometimes we find difficulty understanding some vocabulary and grammar structure”. Ali thinks that “the Nana comes from the god of love in Sumerians and Akkadians empires”.
In addition, the poet of Dhofar explained that “we are trying our best nowadays to bring the words back utilizing the old conditions and terms vocabulary which may have been vanished nowadays, therefore, the next technology we look for the meaning”. This points out the “the Hawaiian terminology revival movement started out from a social aspect were instantly more Hawaiian people become considering Hawaiian sounds and, therefore, after ten years a number of 101 classes each semester were unveiled by the School of Hawaii to the populace”. After that, academic institutions were offering to instruct the language in addition to a funding from it is people have been gathered to be able to regenerate their own dialect” Warner (2001:135). But if we came to apply the Hawaiian experience it could not work because the Islamic religion of people in Dhofar were singing music especially the using musician tools are not permitted however they may use the poetry and write them.
One of the best reactions to this study was responding to the seventh question of the questionnaire; where the Shehri folks have been requesting about if indeed they think that their language reaches threat of disappearing. Through observing that, it was evidently seen that many of them got no idea about terminology death, specifically, that their terminology is dying. The seventh question asked by the questionnaire was about to what prolong they believe that the Shehri words is at threat of becoming extinct. In responding to this question 60 %60 % of the majority believe Shehri language won’t die. Commenting that the amount of audio system today is too huge which is something impossible to be believed. Furthermore, Ali’s interview exhibited that he believed that within 30 years from now; 70% of the Shehri words will disappear.
Figure variety of respondants who presumed that the terminology is going to die
Indeed, people are not happy if they felt that they are unwelcome in the society. Therefore, this may impact their personality, attitudes, and feelings against other folks. So, the survey elicited this aspect in the questionnaire choices to see whether it the historic Dhofarian people sensed it or not. The answers were surprising comparing from what the interviews show. 79% of the Shehri speaker systems didn’t feel shamed or odious toward their dialect (see Figure 5). On the other hand, looking at the record of pre-school classes in the mouninaes of Dhofar, 99% of the students consider Shehri as their first terms, the report brought up that “the aim of this program is to improve the learners Arabic language and trying to make them used to it, so, they will not put it to use in the institution next year”. The need for this aspect is, the kid might expand up with the same idea he acquired and received in his first week. Subsequently, the image he/she are certain to get in his mind’s eye that his words is avoiding his learning, and as an Arabic presenter is how an educated image is. Such little things locally could be the reason behind the loss of life of languages across the world. Regarding to Nettle and Romaine (2000:90) “dominant teams do pressure minorities into change by other means, either by enslaving, by forcing them into a subordinate role, or seizing the land and resources on which their areas are structured”. Additionally, the linguistic relativity which is recognized as Sapir-Whorf hypothesis argues that the terms as it can be an image we maintain in our intellects and right a person hears a certain phrase or a vocabulary it will start the same images he keep toward the vocabulary. For instance: Hebrew being the God’s language” Nida (2001:13), or Arabic as the words of Islam. Such examples can show and evidence of what a terms could create inside our intellects if we increase with them from early ages. Thus, it could be difficult to observe the result of those pre-school classes, but at that time this might be the problem for not thinking in it.
Furthermore, once we are getting nearer to the bottom of the investigation; it has been seen evidently that the difference between your two generations and all the aforementioned issues had an impact on the vocabulary practice comparing it to the elderly old of Shehri terminology. This quotient was explored one of the speakers in both questionnaire and interviews and it appears that the most valid solution obtained is to improve the chances of sitting down with seniors and become close from them since there is no form of this language could be utilized as the standard or the model to learn it effectively and accurately. Mufwene (200:2) mentioned that “Not being able to speak the vocabulary is due to a form of “atrophy, ” i. e. , the loss of competence in the language due to lack of practice”. The 58% people talked about that they cannot understand older people people’s language declare that resting with old people would give us the chance to learn who this terminology is working properly without any other affects from outsiders. In addition, a lecture in the complex college or university in Dhofar said that “the situation between the two generations is they have different interest, therefore, it is obviously they will not show them we each other. In other words, we need to look for ways to incorporate layers to be able to supply the foundation for the coffee lover. This solution might prevent some internal problems could be occurring if the elderly people continue with that feeling.
Figure Shehri audio speakers who imagine the language will die
The key question in this study was about the Shehri dialect fatality. As what we’ve said early, this question has been listed within the last part of this survey. It is because it could be leading the individuals to the actual fact that it is dying and their answers get inspired by our assumption. Inside the questionnaire part it confirmed that 74 % of the individuals in central Dhofar imagine the language is at risk while it was totally the contrary in east and western world samples (see Physique 6). It might be due to the fact that central of Dhofar mountains is clos