Mao Zedong(1893-1976), who led the Chinese people to have obtained liberation and self-reliance and founded their own country, is a superb leader, a distinguished statesman, a visible thinker and a famous strategist. He’s loved and well known by the Chinese language people. However, at the same time, his popularity as a poet is incontrovertible. Willis Barnstone, Teacher of Comparative Literature at Indiana University or college in Bloomington, considers Mao Zedong ‘an original get good at, one of China’s most important poets’ (He Qixin, 1992:8). His poems, a crystallization of politics, history, military affairs, viewpoint and art, upholds and signifies the advanced Chinese language culture. And his poems are valued as a gleaming gem in Chinese modern literature. Zang Kejia once commented on Mao’s poems such as this, “His poems start a new world for Chinese classical poetry and reach the maximum of modern poetry. “(Lv Zuyin, 2007)
Considering the highly creative, idealistic and social value of Mao’s poetry, it is of great relevance to work on its translation and the analysis of existing translations so as to enhance their quality, guide future translation and grow the affect of Chinese poetry and culture.
However, in simple fact, the study of English translation of Mao’s poetry has lagged much behind the analysis of Mao’s poetry itself. And these studies have mainly focused on the functions of the translator and the translated editions from the point of view of deconstruction. The ex – study analyzes the translator’s tasks as a audience, a decision-maker so that a writer in the process of translation, and as a social mediator in ethnical turn. It shows the significance of translator’s jobs more plainly and forcefully. The second option analyzes the ideological content in various English variations of Mao Zedong’s poems. It uncovers that translation is a energetic rather than a static process under the regular effect of different ideologies.
Until modern times, under the free atmosphere in the academic review, great changes have taken place in the analysis of Mao Zedong’s poetry. The aesthetic study has achieved a great number of results from the multi-level or multi-angle aspects, furthermore, the linguistic features or the cosmetic features have been protected as well as the humanistic study. However, the cosmetic study of Mao Zedong’s poetry has less referred from the formal and the rhetoric perspective, thus this thesis is merely an effort to the field.
To present a specific account of the research, here is the outline of the thesis: The advantages briefs the writing motive of this thesis; Chapter Two reviews Reception Aesthetics theory and its own core concepts, as well as feasibility studies for the translations of Mao Zedong’s poems with RA; Section 3 reproduces formal beauty and rhetorical beauty of Mao Zedong’s poems; Chapter Four is a comparative study of how the development, rhymes, rhythms and rhetoric of Mao’s poems are reproduced and rejuvenated in the four English editions (Oxford version, The official version, Zhao Zhentao’s version and Xu Yuanchong’s version); Section Five makes a summary of the assessment and talks about the losses and profits in Mao’s poetry translation and analyzes the reasons. The conclusion sums up the whole thesis.
1. 1 Release to Mao Zedong’s Poetry
In Mao’s life span, he had written 67 poems completely. Among them, 42 poems were revised and agreed by him to create finally during his life. While another 25 poems were released to the general public after his loss of life. The writing of Mao’s poetry is closely related to his living background, as well as the modern record of China and the world. So, only carefully review the history history and the concrete procedures of several great incidents, as well as Mao’s experience, thoughts, identity and mentality, we can show the wealthy and deep connotation of Mao’s poems.
Style of poetry refers to poem’s characteristics and personality of some poet. All good poems have their own styles, and all poems by famous poets have their own styles, so do Mao’s poems. In the same way Mao Anqing got commented his father “Father is a guy of affectionate dynamics. When his thoughts exalt to poems, his poems find their lives. Regardless of grief and happiness, or vulgarism and style, all break his feelings on poeple. So, to learn his poems is to know him. ” (Xu Yuanchong, 1993:3). Thus Mao constructed his poems with his whole heart and soul and the living background. Besides, Mao prefers reading and learning classical Chinese language poetry, talking about about poems and arts with poets and scholars, and loves summarizing his poem creative experience to create his unique characteristics.
1. 1. 1 Profound Ideological Contents
As mentioned previously, the amount of Mao’s poems is small. But each of them is full of luxuriant imagery, profound meaning and school of thought. On the other hand, covering various themes like nature, world and life, these poems are abundant with epochal personality and combativeness, and always encourage visitors to pursuit higher concentrate on.
In order to review, the 42 poems can be divided into four groups regarding to diachronic: The first group has 4 poems produced from the founding of the Chinese Communist Party to First Great Trend (Apr 1918-July 1927). “Changsha, tune: ‘Spring in a Pleasure Garden'”( †·-†) is a good example. These poems are Mao’s youth work, which are slightly inferior compared to later ones. But they are also very inspiring because of their lofty spirits and soaring determinations.
The second group has 16 poems produced from the Agrarian Revolution and the Anti-Japanese War ( August 1927-August 1945), like “The Fall Harvest Uprising, Tune: ‘the Moon on the Western world River'” ( ± ·¶·), “Mount Jinggang, Melody: ‘the Moon above the Western River'” ( ± ·- ±±)etc. This period is a prolific period in Mao’s life. Saving the most difficult historical period of the Chinese trend, the poems are ingeniously conceived with great subjetcs and full of lofty cutting edge heroism and optimistic spirits.
The third group has 2 poems created during the Conflict of Liberation (September 1945- Sept 1949), like “Capture of Nanjing by the People’s Liberation Army”( · -) etc. Though the volume of poems is small, these were written prior to the success of the Chinese trend, with strong reality, wonderful style and clear attitude.
The previous group has 20 poems made up of the perspective in Mao’s poems from trend to socialist change and construction, following the founding of People’s Republic of China in 1949, like “Swimming, Tune: ‘Prelude to the Melody of Normal water'” ( ·) and so forth. The poems have quite a new method of the things with enterprising heart, more allusions and humorous language, which can be rich in affectionate color and high artistry.
However, relating to synchronism, Mao’s poems can be split into three teams: The first group concentrates to spell it out natural landscapes, such as “Changsha, tune: ‘Planting season in a Pleasure Garden'”( †·-†), “the Yellow Crane Tower, Melody: ‘Buddhist Dancers'” ( ·») etc. These poems display magnificence of natural scenes and extol the life span of nature.
The second group mainly explains society and history, such as “Mount Jinggang, Melody: ‘the Moon within the Western world River'” ( ± ·- ±±) and two music of “Pride of Fishermen”( ¶†) and so on. These poems focus on describe the fighting with each other of people’s army and the historical changes of whole society.
And the last group mainly details life and love, such as “Seeing Luo Zhanglong off to Japan”( ·). These poems show the poet gets the experience of fatality and parting, and even loneliness as normal people.
In a expression, no matter how classify, no subject how size it is, Mao’s poems create an absorbing poetic imagery with wonderful design, wealthy ideas and sentiments, and are proficient at expressing the complicated historical triggers with terse terminology.
Distinct Artistic Style
Style is the initial spiritual personality and creative personality proved in authors’ own works by themselves. It operates through all works of a copy writer, as well as every writing’s theme which composes the task, such as rhyme, tempo, diction, rhetorical devices, and wording structure and so forth. Therefore, “style is the writer” (Buffon1753). Mao’s poetry is full of candid and energetic creative style.
First, from the internality of poetry, Mao enjoys Li Bai, Li He and Li Shangyin (known as “Three Li”) very much, and is also in especial love of poetry by Cao Cao. Their poems are packed with broad imagination and high aspirations, which punch a chord in Mao Zedong, for love is the mental attribute in Mao’s life. Mao also said “only writing down the writer’s own bosom and sentiment in poems, it can affect a responsive chord in viewers and make sure they are fired up. ” ( ±2002:19). Second, from the varieties of poetry, Mao pursuits the varieties of diligence, fortitude, largeness and boldness. He once said “I prefer Cao Cao’s poems, with powerful spirits and grieving thoughts, which shows him a true man. ” (” ”»200367). Mao also said “Li Bai’s poems are unconstrained and imaginable, which make people laid back and happy. So, reading Li Bai’s poems more will make readers open up their minds. ” ( ±2002:191). In all, the spirits of vigor, determination and self-reliance in these poems tally with Mao’s poetic features well. Third, from the expressions of poetry, Mao loves romantic works together with rich creativity and usages of exaggeration and personification. So, Mao admires the famous poet Su Dongpo of powerful and free university in Tune Dynasty very much, as well as the famous poetess Li Qingzhao of refined and concise college. Therefore, Mao’s poems have characteristics of the two schools, equally he criticized himself “I has a bias in favor of the design of boldness, but never totally ignore the design of gracefulness” (¶1955:413).
1. 1. 3 Magnificent Imagery
Just like other classical Chinese poems, Mao’s poems are tending to use various images. Mao even revealed his frame of mind toward poetry creation in a letter to Chen Yi that poetry conveys ideas by means of images.
First, on images, Mao usually expresses thoughts by nature, which makes the image great and amazing. The most used phrase in his poems is “”(sky), such as “”, “±»±”, “” etc. “±±”(mountain) and “”(wind) are second, like “‘±±”, “±± “, “±±-†”, “» ‡ -“. “±”(river), “”(water) and “·”(sea) are third. As a result, Mao prefers things with imposing vigor, but never uses “”(hill), “”(stream), “†”(creek). Besides, Mao also prefers snow, rainwater, breeze and frost in characteristics. According to information, there are 12 “”(rain), 13 “”(snow) and 8 “”(frost) in Mao’s poems. In term of “”(sky), Mao’s use is different from the ancients. “”(sky) in traditional Chinese poetry mostly mapped a gloomy and mournful image, for example, “-’·· ±±”, ” -“”, ” “, “-‡ ‡” or “»” etc. instead, “”(sky) in Mao’s poems shows a solid revolution will, and it is often used to spell it out the glories and the foibles of man, such as “» ·”, “†† »”, “±”, “†-– -“, “·-‡’»” and so forth, which obviously represent Mao’s heroic persona and broad mind.
Second, Mao’s images in his poems are vibrant. Among various colors, Mao loves red best. For example, ” ± ±”, “±±”, “±—»” etc. While, in “»»'”»” “, metonymy is vividly used to describe rainbow’s magnificence with seven basic colors.
At last, Mao is good at using creative and impassioned verbs to present a dynamic and exultant picture of aspect. Exactly like “»-±-“, “»”(cleave) is more forceful than “”(fly), while “”(glide) is quicker than “”(swim). A comparatively still object will move in Mao’s poems. Take “±±”(mountain) for example, “- »”, “±±±· ±-“, “±± “¶”. “±±”(mountain) in Mao’s poems is not secure and silent, but could boogie, take flight, walk and even run, in every, with kinds of ways to move. (††2005)
Therefore, images of Mao’s poems are amazing, glorious, moving and dazzling colors. These not only show his heroic bearing as a giant of Chinese trend, but produce unique abundant images of classical Chinese poetry. When translating Mao’s poems, translators should focus on these characteristics.
1. 2 Release to Four Selected English Versions
According to incomplete statistics, domestic types of Mao’s poetry attended to more than 200 now, including Chinese language versions, minority variations, foreign variants, as well as handwriting types, copybook variations and melodization versions and so on. Among them, the most influential ones are Mao Tze-tung: Nineteen Poems, Mao Zedong Poems (37 parts), Collection of Mao Zedong’s Poem (50 bits) publicized by People’s Literature Posting House and Collection of Mao Zedong’s Poem (67 bits) by Central Committee Documents Posting House. Various variations of Mao’ poems not only make a profound and lasting impact in poetry circle, but lay a basis for the further research.
Since rhetorical devices translation in four British editions of Mao’s poems will be analyzed in this thesis. it is essential to learn about the four chosen English editions. This part gives an overall introduction to these versions; the essential information about each version will be presented in the table below:
Basic publishing information about the four determined English versions
Michael Bullock&Jerome Ch’en
Yuan Shuipai, Ye Junjian, Adler etc.
Mao and the Chinese Revolutio: with Thirty-Seven Poems by Mao Tse-tung
Mao Tse-tung Poems
Mao Zedong Poems
Selected Poems of Mao Zedong
Oxford College or university Press
Foreign Dialects Press
Hunan Normal University or college Press
China Translation Press Company
New York; London;
Among the four editions, the former one is translated by foreigners and the second option three by Chinese language. The former some may be in the form of prose and the last mentioned three are in the form of poetry with rhyme and tempo.
In the following part, more detailed information about the translator and the format and general characteristics of every version will be provided respectively for detailed and better understanding of their translations.
1. 2. 1 Oxford’s Version
It is the translation it doesn’t come from Chinese language translators, but sinologists aboard. Among these translations, the translators’ special position chooses “there never occurs any stress and fear, and there also has you don’t need to bow in worship before the original author. ” For the things of translating will appear in the horizons of visitors from the English-speaking world first as a literature works, the translators consider more needs of this kinds of readers when they convert. Also, it is easy to discover that the translating activities by international scholars mainly occurred in 1960s-1970s, so there will be more chance to get commons among these translations for the short time-span.
In 1965, the Chinese language (-Given birth to) American scholar Jerome Ch’en collaborated on Mao and the China Trend: with Thirty-seven Poems by Mao Tse-tung with American scholar Michael Bullock, and posted it in London and New York by Oxford College or university Press. As a brief history teacher, Jerome Ch’en studies Chinese language motion of communism and understands much about China’s revolution and has a relatively comprehensive and deep knowledge of what Mao’s poetry writes about. There can be an benefits to Mao’s poems prior to the translations. After every translated poem, records like the writing track record and explanations of some important Chinese cultural things are given to help English readers gain a relatively complete understanding of the poems.
1. 2. 2 The Official Version
The standard translation is Mao Tse-tung poems released by Foreign Language Press in 1976. On this book, there’s a photography of Mao Zedong and one of his calligraphy on the preface. The subject of each poem was imprinted in red, while the subtitle and the lines of every poem were all printed in blank. After these translated poems, there is a “NOTE WITHIN THE VERSE FORM” by translators to briefly clarify the style of the poem.
Because the original creator Mao Zedong was occupying the first choice of the nation in those days, the translating activities was held by officials and became a significant political task under the guidance of leaders from country’s most powerful office. The translation was completed by Mao Zedong poems translation group and released by the government. Many of these made the 1976 translation have great difference with others, no subject from articles or varieties.
1. 2. 3 Zhao Zhentao’s Version
The name of Zhao’s version is Mao Zedond Poems with thirty-nine poems. It had been printed by by Hunan People’s Publishing House in 1992. You will find two prefaces in the version: an example may be written by Han Suyin and the other by the translator himself. The translator also wrote two articles about several issues in the translated types of Mao’s poetry. Both articles mainly explain the faults or something improper in the translated types which show the translator’s carefulness and earnestness on the knowledge of Mao’s poetry and his great faithfulness to the original especially in details. In this version, the translator adopts the proper execution of Chinese-English contrast and provides the simple notes after each translated poem.
1. 2. 4 Xu Yuanchong’s Version
This version is known as Seletced Poems of Mao Zedong made up of forty-seven poems and it is published by China Translation and Posting Organization in 1993 for the ram of the 100th anniversary of Mao’s delivery. In such a version, there are British notes after every poem. Xu Yuanchong, the gifted and well-known poem translator, who’s a teacher of Beijing College or university and has achieved a lot in neuro-scientific translation, has idea of “translating poetry with poetry”. With his translation theory of “three beauties”, he thought the translated poem should be as stunning as the original in sense, audio and form, which among the list of three beauty, beauty in sense comes first, and beauty in sensible second, and beauty in form third, and this if it’s impossible to accomplish all beauties at the same time, the resemblance in form should come first and then in audio concerning achieve faithfulness and beauty in sense. (Xu Yuanchong, 1992)
In this version, there’s a photography of Mao Zedong with Mao Anqing and Shao Hua on the first web page and the short preface written by them. Besides these, there is the preface written by the translator himself in both Chinese and English about his translation views and guidelines, mainly about the application of Three Beauty Rule in translating Mao’s poems. The translator also adopts the proper execution of Chinese-English contrast and the English notes and some background information after each translated poem.
The above editions are short for Oxford’s, the state, Zhao’s and Xu’s individually in the following discussion.
2. 1 A Brief Advantages to Reception Aesthetic Theory
“Reception theory is neither an over-all study of substance of aesthetics nor a study of criticism about literary skill theory. It is extremely the machine of methodology regarding the study of succession of factors and laws in readers’ reception process, predicated on the theories of phenomenology and hermeneutics and aimed at visitors’ reception in the literary work. ” (Davis, Linell, 2001:33)
Reception aesthetics (or reception theory) originated in German, arouse in the later of 1960s and matured in 1970s. Its main staff are some professors from Constance College or university of south German, such as H. R. Jauss, W. Iser. RA broke through the traditional critical molds with “copy writer centre” and “works middle” and turned to the mold with “reader center”, which opened up the view of fine art criticism. Regardless of how great difference and divarication the within of reception aesthetics exist, there’s a common basic theory, which places visitors (or reception things) in the central position of books activities. Relating to reception looks, literature is a new communication activity and it must have certain condition and place. The artworks are a medium (or tool) for artists and visitors to speak. If the words written by authors haven’t read by readers, they are just semi finished articles (i. e. word) and also have the potential ability to be books works, but not real ones; only read by receptionists (viewers), they will be real books works. According to the theory, writers must preset a reader (i. e. “implied audience” or “potential reader”) when writing, “Literature works are seen as a active communication form between word and reader, but not a free thing. ” So, writing for article writer is to connect and make dialogues with his preset audience.
Reception Aesthetic theory troubles traditional author centered or text centered theories which disregard the function and status of viewers as well as the discussion between visitors and text messages. Reception theory soon spreads all over the world, and becomes an essential theory of books and criticism. Just as Holub said, “Nearly, every methodological point of view and part of literary effort has responded to the task that has raised by reception theory. ” (Houlb, 1984:15)
2. 2 Key Ideas of Reception Aesthetics
2. 2. 1 Horizon of expectation
“Horizon of Expectation” is the main conception of reception looks, which identifies receptor about oriental subconscious structural schema. This directional feelings is altered from the current life and appearance experience, which is a mental groundwork for aesthetics, like the education level of receptor, living experience, appearance and literature interest, as well as experience, knowledge and works expectation shaped from the familiarity about various forms and skills, which have been gotten from the whilom appearance experience. Among these factors forming horizon of expectation, the changing times, land, culture and category where viewers are make radical influence on receptors’ gratitude and hobbies.
“Horizon of Expectation” theory points, the literature participation of any reception content is just an activity that their horizon of targets seek expressing. Only if the works must conform for readers’ horizon of expectation, they’ll arouse their hobbies and setup a channel for reception objects and content, then, enter the reception process. If works’ horizon of expectation is a long way away from viewers’, the works will eventually lose their attraction and the channel will not be built, finally, the works will fail to make receptors get into the reception process. Translation also needs readers as objects. The direct receptor of translation is the key body of reading—readers. If there are no viewers, the meaning, connotation and expression forms cannot become the objects of appearance, and translation also cannot have a definite object in view when conveying its information. Therefore, in this theory, viewers are regarded as an important part of translating to analyze.
2. 2. 2 Fusion of horizon
Since we have horizon of visitors, it isn’t weird that horizon also includes the author’s horizon and the translator’s horizon. The author’s horizon has influence on the creation of works, which means, with different backgrounds and encounters, different authors will generate different styles of works. The reader’s horizon mainly concerns about the procedure of reception. The translator, actually, has the function as a bridge. Using one side, the translator is the audience who appreciates and knows the initial works. On the other hand, they’re a translator. Because different translators have different history like personality, skill, education, interest, views to the earth and so on. So, the translator’s version and reputation about translation activity and original works will be diverse. In order to let the translated types be accepted, the translator should develop his translation skills and strategies to cater to the reader’s horizon. The experience of fusion of horizon happens between past experiences that are contained in the original works and present interests of its nowadays visitors. It is a active process.
2. 2. 3 Indeterminacy and blank of meaning
Iser mainly targets the gap or indeterminacy of the text. To Iser, the most crucial difference between a literary and a non-literary work is merely the indeterminacies that have within the works. There are lots of indeterminacy that constitutes the most crucial elements for literary works, “Meaning is not contained in the text itself, but instead is generated during the reading process. It is neither strictly textual nor totally subjective, however the consequence of an interaction between the two: the magnitude of our participation and the degree of the work’s determinacy defines the type of text with which were dealing” (Selden, 1986: 327-329).
It is the lifestyle of these “blanks” and “gaps” that push and stimulate viewers to recreate and concrete. Iser proposes that literary works have two poles: artistic pole and visual pole, in which, the creative pole just means the original words created by the writer, the aesthetic pole is about the realization of meaning completed by the readers.
The meaning of 1 certain work can only just be recognized through the experience that readers fill in the indeterminacy during reading. When viewers browse the works, they’ll commonly make prediction or pre-judgment. When experienced with blanks or gaps, they will fill them up positively from they own creativity, skills and so forth. This technique is the so called “concretization of reading”. In the creation of literary works, the writer usually describes the main features of the written text fully and evidently, while at exactly the same time, omits purposely some unimportant features or hints and leaves these to the reader for aesthetic impact and semantic function.
When Jauss was doing research on the role of books ever sold, Iser decided to analyze and examine the reading process and the role of readers. In Iser’s head, it is the reader who helps to form the meaning of text message by filling in “blanks” or “gaps”.
2. 2. 4 Implied reader
Maybe the most distinctive feature of reception looks is its emphasis on the notion of readers. Different visitors have different horizon of anticipations before activity of reading. It isn’t odd that different understanding may occur toward the same literary work. To the theorists of reception theory, literary works are created for readers; viewers help to realize the meaning of literary works to a huge extent. It’s the historical position of literary works. “Implied audience roots deeply in the textual framework, the introduction of textually and structurally anticipated acceptor and you don’t have to explain the acceptor. ” (Iser, 1971:19). Iser asks for an actual reader or empirical reader, but doesn’t consider the expression of the reader.
The romance of implied reader and the written text is the central concentration for Iser, “The implied audience embodies all those predispositions necessary for a literary work to exercise its result predispositions laid down, not by an empirical outside simple fact, but by the written text itself. Subsequently, the implied audience as a thought has his origins firmly planted in the framework of the written text; he’s a build and by no means to be identified with any real audience” (Zhu Gang, 1998:116).
Reception aesthetics thinks that the process of literary creation is not really a self completed task, it isn’t self-sufficient. The procedure is also an activity that really helps to converse thoughts, ideas, and emotions etc to the other folks. Literary works can only be seen just as one lifetime before being read and understood. Only after the reception of readers can literary works’ relevance be noticed. While through the procedure for reception, the receptive activity is not a passive one but an effort one. The readers not simply simply read the works, but he or she will complete the “gaps” and “indeterminacies” with his or her own imagination, life experiences, hobbies, etc. Without involvement of the audience, literary works are not true. The visual sense and function of literary can be achieved only through the conversation with readers. It’s the audience that creates the wonder and vitality of literary works consistent.
2. 2. 5 Appealing structure
The concept of “Appealing framework” is submit first of all by Edmund Husserl’s learner Roman Ingarden. Iser has consumed many ideas from Ingarden, among which, the concept of indeterminacy and blanks were Iser’s center point. It is the presence of indeterminacy which links back to you the authors’ ideas along the way of writing and the reader’s reception ideas along the way of reading that produce literary works lively and vital “only through readers’ effort can the writer’s ideas shown in the text be actualized or concretized in different ways and reappear in different looks in readers’ head. Indeterminacy of the written text and vacancy of so this means urges readers to consider this is of the text; as a result, readers are given the to participate in creating this is: this is is the consequence of an connections between wording and reader somewhat hides in the written text to wait to be found out. Thus an open up text and its own so this means blanks form the basic structure of the written text, which is exactly what we called ‘interesting framework’. ” (Houlb, 1984:25).
In conclusion, reception appearance breaks through the traditional text-centered theories and establishes readers-centered viewpoint. It proposes that the meaning of literary works is depended on the readers. The dynamic conversation of the visitors’ previous encounters and the written text gives birth to the concept of the visitors’ response. The visitors’ creativity and interpretation can be completely became aware from the “indeterminacy” and “gaps” that are contained in the text. The interesting structure causes the readers to take part in the relationship with the written text and also to actualize the concealed meaning of the text. To reception theorist, literature’s historical value is based on the viewers’ pre-experience which joins books to history. Different viewers with different history, interests, education, aesthetic abilities and so forth will interpret the same words differently.
Reception looks is either important to literature theory or to criticism. Just like Jauss brought up, “Reception Aesthetics opened up a view the opportunity of renewing literary background, fatigued and mired in positivism, giving it the task of seeking a fresh understanding of the annals of literature as a communication process between all three functions, namely, the writer, the written text and the viewers. ” (Jauss, 1989:117).
2. 3 Appropriateness of Reception Aesthetic Theory for Mao’s Poems Translation
2. 3. 1 Application to Translation
According to reception appearance, literature translation is the process of dual communication between the content material and the audience, the author and the audience. The final consequence of communication is to make the reader realize the purpose of the author and his content material, and to fulfill the reader’s “horizon of expectation” and identify with the writer. Actually, “horizon of expectation” is not only conditioned by literary form, but influenced by the ex – reading connection with the reader. While the value of the work lies that it’s in conflict with the reader’s anticipating level, and comes up the distance of beauty appreciation. Therefore, to analyze “horizon of expectation” and the experience of real beauty appreciation is effective to understand the former fine art standards.
Reception aesthetics is dependant on the reception practice of people, which increases the reader’s position. Reception aesthetics thinks the reader performs an important role along the way of reading. So, the “reader-center” reception theory could be utilized to clarify some phenomena in translating. For “reader-center”, both the meaning and the worthiness of the initial text is understood by the reading of the reader. Translating is the process of understanding the source wording (ST) and expressing the prospective text message (TT), which couldn’t depart the audience. During the procedure for understanding, the translator is the audience of ST, who’s influenced by his own pre-understanding, national cultural factors, the literary wording and so forth. However, through the process of expressing TT, the translator is the author; he is inspired by target readers and really should consider their needs. (See Fig. 1)
Figure 1: Translation Process
In the above picture, on the first stage of translating, as a audience (i. e. visual subject matter), translator communicates with ST positively and tries to make his own “horizon of expectation” inosculate with the horizon of ST maximum, in order to produce ST for translator.
On the other hands, from the point of view of reception appearance, as the copy writer (i. e. creative subject), translator should think about the communications and horizon inosculation between your translation audience and TT. The purpose of translating is to create TT for visitors. Even though the communication between viewers and TT is came to the realization after translating activity, translator should think about the understanding needs of visitors and their reception level. “During literature works writing, there always exists an implied audience in writer’s head. In fact, the process of writing is the process of narrating experiences and making dialogues for the implied reader. ” Gu Zhengkun once said, “Translators all the time and in around the globe provide their implied visitors involuntarily when translating”. Therefore, there must be”implied audience” in translators’ brains, and they communicate with and dialogize one another at any moment when translating. As a audience of TT, translator even can simulate through himself or herself to realize horizon inosculation between readers of TT and TT.
In all, “writer is the creative subject matter; reader is the visual subject; while translator is not only the aesthetic subject matter, but creative subject to some degree. ” (Ge Xiaoqin, 2006)
2. 3. 2 Appropriateness for Rhetorical Devices Translation in Mao’s Poems
Rhetorical device is indispensable to prose and poetry still more. As a skill of terminology, rhetorical device could enhance the effect of vocabulary expression. With its profound semantic extension and cosmetic function, rhetorical device expresses information in the written text in an implied and implicit way so that the text can have a bit of space for which viewers can search, explore and enjoy separately by them. Actually, the information which can only just be sensed alternatively than said is the inherent beauty of terminology.
Why is reception cosmetic theory applied to rhetorical devices translation? Because its natural nature is strongly related to principles of reception appearance, such as: “horizon of expectation”, “indeterminacy”, “meaning bare” and “implied audience” etc.
Taking Mao’s †· SNOWTune: Spring and coil in a Pleasure Garden
for example. Though this poem is entitled as “SNOW”, it does not extol the snow landscapes, and represents the snow in a particular time and area. The long march acquired come to an end in 1936, and Mao, together with the Red Army, would fight against Japanese invasion. To market research the surfaces, Mao Zedong climbed Qin Jin Plateau with heavy snow, and the beautiful landscape made him sigh with sentiment. Therefore, when translating this poem, translator should try to get into the initial world along with his “horizon of expectation” to see the poet’s sentiment and understand why source text message (ST). Only in this way, translator can interpret ST and dig in to the lines until he comes to “fusion of horizon” with ST. For instance, the line “±± “¶±” (Mountains like sterling silver serpents dancing, Highlands like waxy elephants advancing) in the poem. Translator straight uses the simile “dance magic serpents and elephants” to describe the mountains and highlands covered with snow, which reveals a vivid surroundings for readers and provides readers abundant thoughts as poet! Especially, hyperbole in “†‡-‡” (All try to match the sky high) shows Mao’s lofty sentiments and great aspiration. Understanding this series, it is important for translator to try every solution to show the author’s vision and nature to meet visitors’ expectation horizon.
During “fusion of horizons”, translator must fully meet visitors’ needs, and make readers’ horizons and his horizon integration before TT. For example, there are allusions in “±-“-– ” (But alas! Qin Huang and Han Wu/In culture not well bred, /And Tang Zong and Songs Zu/In letters not huge read. ). For most foreign readers, they don’t find out about “Qin Huang and Han Wu” (±) and “Tang Zong and Music Zu” (–). To make translation conciseness, translator usually uses transliteration but contributes notes after the poem, which make viewers accept the translation better.
In target words (TT), if aim for readers want to have similar response as ST does indeed among its visitors. It is better for translator to keep the original blanks and appealing structure maintained in translation, to leave much room for viewers’ “fusion of horizons”. Take “- -‡† ±»»”(Behold! Within and without the Great Wall structure/The boundless land is clad in white, /And along the Yellow River, all/The endless waves are lost to view. ) for example. The reduplication words “” and “»»” are adjectives in ST, but turn into nouns in TT: One filled with color and the other energetic in visual impact. So, keeping the fuzziness is more important than concretizing them. However in some respects, translator should concretize some blanks to help concentrate on reader understand TT better. “±±±”(Our motherland so rich in beauty) is an excellent example. “±±±” is “river” and “mountain” in the literal sense, but it refers to “motherland” or “country” in simple fact.