The reason for this research is to show examples of the use of creativity in language, through the written and spoken mediums, describing also some theories, which support the utilization of this process. Therefore, to analyse the procedure of imagination, the technique used for this research was to analyse imagination throughout one of the very most creative vehicles in the written form and literature sub-genre: the novel. In cases like this, the book analysed was: The Curious Occurrence of your dog in the Night-Time by Tag Haddon.
The complex limitations about important principles involving imagination in terminology, for example, books; literary/non-literary; novel; ingenuity; factual; fictional; and greater gratitude of using creativeness in the written medium instead of the spoken, made this analysis adopt some theories and perspectives from noble personalities to support how creativity is seen in both mediums, writing same literariness features and proving that they stay in a continuum and creativity must be observed in clines.
Finally, written and spoken mediums are also settings of communication, because of this, creativity is also mixed up in communicative process and central components of this trend to transmit an effective communicative note, for instance, audience, register, format, purpose and context.
Creativity; Communication; Clines; Literariness; Novel
Creativity is seen everywhere inside our daily bases. A non-literal eyesight of the world, almost all of the time, is an break free for the monotony inside our lives. Viewing something new, novel, creative is more memorable than regular things in our regular lives. It brings flavour, expands or destroys limitations between ideas and concepts, changing cultural and cultural prices; turning creativeness into multi-personal process and not simply an individual mental development.
Most of that time period, creativity is sent by vocabulary through written or spoken mediums. Advertising, conversations, novels, jokes, idioms are just some few examples, where in fact the creative phenomenon takes place. Each one of the examples mentioned earlier, also reflect the various settings of communication, types of dialect, types of word and their multiple purposes. Therefore, words and creativeness are intertwined and mixed up in communicative process, not only in the encoding of a note, but all the contextual aspects, which impact the interpretation and full understanding of a note by the addressee.
So, the individual we are speaking with (spoken medium) or the reader (written medium) must also be likely to understand the use of creativity in terms. Therefore, one of the most crucial issues about creative imagination is to consider if the utilization of creativity in language is an typical process or not.
In spoken medium, most of the time, creativity is not a different or difficult way of using words, which requires an intense study of topics involving words. It is just a usual feature of every day language, which is often realized by everyone, demonstrating the addresser and addressee common cultural background and same knowledge of vocabulary expressions. However, the majority of the time, creativity in the spoken medium is not even noticed due to its properties and bias on the written vocabulary.
Therefore, the goal of this review is showing the use of creative imagination in dialect, through the written and spoken mediums, explaining as well some theories, which support the utilization of the process.
Thus, the strategy requested this task was to show concrete examples, where the creative process can be used in terminology throughout one of the most creative vehicles in the written form and books sub-genre: the novel. In this case, the book analysed was: The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time by Draw Haddon, where the key identity and narrator, is an autistic teen called Christopher Boone. Christopher is a excellent mind child I know all the countries of the world and their capital places» (p. 2) where everything for him should be logical I sometimes think of my head as a machine» (p. 7), human being feelings make no sense and pets or animals are less perplexing You always really know what your dog is pondering» (p. 3) than humans.
The use of this novel it isn’t only to show examples of the work of creativeness in vocabulary, but also try to explain some complex questions, that happen to be connected with the creative imagination process in terms and still increase some uncertainties today, mainly because of divergent viewpoints and theories. Creativity is not an isolated process and there is no true form for this, creativity must be observed as a dialogic process and in clines not forgetting also socio-cultural backgrounds, which impact the perception of the process.
There is not any specific description to explain just what is creativity and exactly how is associated with vocabulary and the communicative process. The explanations for imagination are extremely much ambiguous and are detached, relating to multiple principles, where every one of them are related to specific psychologists, linguists, authors, etc. , details of view, changing also as time passes and matching to different socio-historical and cultural positions. The explanations for the creative process can be split into three different methods: cultural histories, internal, and socio-cultural techniques.
In regards to cultural histories, creative imagination relates to other keywords like: creation, divinity, novel, originality and inventiveness. Creation is intrinsically related to mythological, spiritual beliefs and the word creature, as a divine process, where humans could never change this present.
In the Renaissance period, the idea of creation is separated from a process, which only could be divine, turning into a human take action. Later, in the eighteenth century (Post-Romantic Age), this notion of creation, the present to build something new and being creative, is became a method manipulated by the musician. At this time, also the mean of Skill is changed, turning out to be a thought related to the creation of new, fictional and original things intertwined only with the creative process.
However, it was never disassociated from people characterized by their high and superior knowledge beyond the normal charts, making also a link to the word genius. Only people who have extraordinary intellect could achieve and replicate the divine process of creation and therefore the creative phenomenon.
In one of the ways, the view of your genius person can be related to the main character of this Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time, Christopher. He is a very smart person, with a ranking of intelligence beyond the ordinary level, I know all the countries of the world and their capital locations and every perfect quantity up to 7, 057. » (p. 2). All the way through the book, the reader can see Christopher expressing himself in an exceedingly creative way, which is explained further.
Also in the eighteenth century and in relation to literature, a new art form appeared the book, which brought up for controversy, a broader conception, which fiction, something made or invented, can creatively symbolize individual human encounters.
The psychological way concerns on discovering the characteristic solid of head and the properties of the mind associated with creative functions, the ideas and perspectives are grouped into: functional and pragmatic, psychometric, psycho-dynamic, biographical, cognitive, natural, social-personality and ‘systems’ methods, as possible seen in the following table:
Practical and Pragmatic
Use of creativity for problem handling.
Measurement of creativity use by checks, like IQ.
Creativity impulse is an infliction of unconscious wishes for the originator.
Attempt to isolate features of imagination in lives of highly accomplished individuals.
Understanding of mental procedures that involves creative thought.
Physiological procedure: Investigating the brain activities which require creative thoughts.
Supportive surroundings help and stimulate the origination of creativeness.
Creativity is only seen where there is a change in a domain, a change that it’s transmitted through time which is accepted by others, relating to their ethnical background.
Table1: Summary of all psychological techniques about creativeness.
Finally, socio-cultural approach divides the creative process relating to locations and ethnical backgrounds, mainly into Eastern and American interpretations of the creative process. In a single hand for European countries, creativity is closely connected with originality, but originality becomes creative imagination only when it is made to fit and it is accepted, accepted by the community peers of the creative individual and by the most knowledgeable persons of a specific artistic or scientific domain, that your inventor works.
On the other palm, in Eastern countries creative imagination is more an oriented process to attain a self-realisation fulfillment, according to cultural values and customs, accomplishing as a pattern.
Although creativeness is a difficult phenomenon to measure, it could be outlined some consensual characteristics: creativity is a mental process, which everyone can reach it very easily. It could be detailed by an progressive and non-literal way of resolving problems and interpret truth, it changes relating to socio-cultural backgrounds and specific time-space relationship, turning into an adaptive process. Also, creativity can be a non-individual process. Sometimes is an organization activity, involving the notion of performance, which my indulge the audience, with the intent of involving her in the creative process, this happens, for example, in poetic duels, where the creative process is developed with the conversation of several different folks.
Finally, according to the Russian psychologist, Mihaly Csikszentmihaly, dad of the “Systems” internal theory, the creative process also should be accepted culturally and should not deviate to definately not accepted norms with the intent to be accepted by others, affecting three major ideas, culture (site), contemporary society (field) and personal backdrop (person).
Until recently, items and set ups most typically within spoken communication have not been fully detailed; most solutions of the utilization of the creative process in vocabulary had a inclination for the written dialect.
However, spoken and written terminology lives in a continuum, for example, in politics speeches, lyrics, online chats and email messages. Recently, there has been a greater understanding of the utilization of terms through the spoken medium with linguists such as Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky, discussing the spoken terms as the true langue.
Use of language, along the way of communication, it has already been a practice of imagination in order to communicate, in comparison to non-human communication. Relating to Charles Hockett, there are some features, which distinguish human being and animal language, turning the utilization of human words into a creative process: displacement, we can talk about situations from our former and future plans and about places that we have never went to, arbitrariness, permits the lack of any intrinsic hyperlink between your linguistic form and its own meaning, production or creativity, we can produce novel utterances whenever we need, cultural transmission, is vital to pass dialect from one era to the next, discreteness, relates to the fact, that your individual sounds of any language may not seem to be so very distinctive from the other person and yet these differences are significant, and duality, which shows the actual fact that in terms of speech creation, there are two degrees of patterning. Each vocabulary has its own discrete noises (phonemes). The may seem have to be combined in different ways to make important morphemes.
These features also run into in different perspectives of what is considered creativity and exactly how is employed in terms. The efficiency/creativity feature of human language is mentioned by Noam Chomsky. For Chomsky creativeness is composed as a capacity for creating an infinite number of rule-governed dialect choices that are for the most part new to both speaker and listener and yet readily recognized by both. » (Ronal Carter, The Fine art of Common Discussion, p. 77). This also highlights the value of the context where creative imagination is used in the communicative process and also the acknowledgment created by the one who is receiving the meaning (addressee), regarding not also specific aspects of the addressee, for example, if they are experts or lay down persons, individuals or children, but also their social background, emphasizing as well the cultural transmission of terminology.
Creativity is merely not a vague expression or act in an open space, where no person understands, it is totally the opposite, as mentioned earlier and matching to Mihaly Csikszentmihaly, creative imagination should be embraced culturally to become recognized and transmitted. Thus, creativeness is not merely an individual development; it is also a cultural phenomenon and sometimes requires more than a person. For Mikhail Bakhtin, the utilization of imagination in spoken medium is an all natural process and is awakened very quickly between two different people on an interpersonal relationship (dialogic process), being the reason, why creativity in the spoken dialect is seen as non-individual process.
In terms of written words, the utilization of creativeness it is associated with literary texts (literature), however the notion of books has improved during time, in line with the Oxford Concise Dictionary of Literary Terms, Since the 19th century, the broader sense of literature as a totality of written or published works has given a lot more exclusive explanations bases on requirements of imaginative, creative, or artistic value, usually, related to a work’s absence of factual or useful reference»; Until the mid-20th century, many kinds of non-fictional writing  were counted as books  which deserves to preserved within current creation of meanings within confirmed culture» (p. 124). Today, literature is classified as a genre, which is divided in sub-genres, fictional and factual, and every one of them (sub-genres) has its types of texts.
The main problem related to books and the use of creativeness in the written dialect, it is to explain, which kind of texts are literary and non-literary texts and, which of these use terminology in an innovative way, being truly a highly complex boundary to determine and establish. There is no specific meaning to classify text messages from literal and non-literal because involves ethnical views, which defines imagination itself. So, it is better to see creativeness in clines, interpretation, in a graduation, analysing not only the use of terminology, but also the framework and purpose. There is no determinant boundary defining which kind of text is creative, each type of text message is pretty much creative than others. However, for a few linguistics the fictional sub-genre is the most creative one (paraliterature).
Consequently to analyse or evaluate a text to be more creative than others, there is a keyword, which must be presented: Literariness. Relating again to the Oxford Concise Dictionary of Literary Conditions, literariness is comprehended as a series of deviations from ‘standard’ terms. It thus shows up as a relationship between different uses of words, in which the contrasted users are liable to shift regarding to altered contexts. » (p. 123).
Literariness relates to the deviation theory, which is the use of words beyond its literal meaning or within an inappropriate form (Norm/Standard), involving the use of imagery and figurative figures in speech, which can be found not only in the written medium, but also in the spoken medium, for example, in a daily talk analyses, where it can be found, for occasion, jokes, proverbs and idioms. Nevertheless, some figures of talk require more extensive treatment than others, a few of them require a complete stretch out of text for their function to be realized, bringing the idea again, which creativeness must be seen in clines.
So, this criterion can be used to distinguish literary text messages by being pretty much creative, for example, instructions, papers, where written terminology is associated with other methods and of communication, usually with visual rules, which not use words in a creative way, confirming only factual encounters.
However, some concerns still can be brought up according to this statement by making a connection with The Curious Event of the Dog in the Night-Time by Draw Haddon book, which through the publication it can be seen the utilization of multiple type texts, which are considered non-literary texts, within a type of content material characterised as paraliterature, a sub-genre that is defined by its imagination (novel). How this can be possible? The response because of this question will be developed in next subject.
According to Mikhail Bakhtin, the novel can be an exceptional literary kind of words of the imaginary sub-genre, because it does not need a proper structure or format to be diagnosed. For him, a novel is the manifestation of the narrator and heroes way to be and their sociable condition to the fullest.
Thus, there is absolutely no specific form associated to the way the narrator and each figure must point out their thought process and their social and social backdrop. Every one of them expresses themselves differently and readily, even if they embrace other types of text that aren’t characterised as non-literary, this trend is named by Mikhail Bakhtin as heteroglossia. Normally, the character types express themselves in a different way in comparison to the narrator of the novel. Also, this could be related to 1 perceptive supported by Guy Make meals that is called: Schema refreshment.
Schema refreshment is composed with a refreshment of your mental strategies (schemata) of how the world is identified by different types of words and discursive methods.
All of the is seen in Draw Haddon book, The Curious Event of your dog in the Night-Time, where Christopher, an autistic teenager, who may have his own way of experiencing the world because he will not understand human feelings, expressing himself through schemes, timetables, draws, etc. Regarding to Ronald Carter, inside the Artwork of Common Have a discussion, The novel departs from formal conventions but as effect also works to renew belief and understandings of politics process. Schema refreshment in literary texts brings about new ways of seeing and taking into consideration the world. » (p. 60).
Additionally, multiple types of texts, which not show literariness features, is seen in the book, like: written symptoms, letters, notices, maps, pictures, stamps, graphs, formula and statistics.
Types of Text messages and Examples of Creativity in the Written and Spoken Mediums within the Curious Event of the Dog in the Night-Time by Symbol Haddon novel:
n, The Curious Occurrence of the Dog in the Night-Time by Draw Haddon novel, the reader can see the utilization of multiple types of text which are not considered literary texts, but get excited about the creative work of the novel, almost all of them related to tips of view of the narrator and main persona. Each of these texts, portrays another goal and through this, also a different class of discourse. Some types of word mixed up in novel are: schemes, advertisements, written signs, characters, notices, maps, pictures, stamps, graphs, equations and characters.
Moreover, throughout the novel, the readers can easily see many types of creative imagination in the spoken and written medium. First of all, in relation to the spoken medium, the readers can easily see many expressions designed to use language in an innovative way and are a result from conversations by using an social level, reflecting not only the people social position, but also their ethnic background, through, idioms, proverbs and jokes.
Secondly, in the written medium, the visitors can also see some expressions, which involves a creative process, although they are few because the narrator, also main identity, do not embrace creativeness in his way of writing, when he wants to establish comparisons and express emotions, essentially, when he’s pressured by a chaotic environment, a creative use of terminology involves surface.
Both methods of communication use imagery and figures of speech and word play, contributing very notably for the literariness process, as can be see in few illustrations on the following table:
Examples of Imagination in the Spoken Medium
Examples of Imagination in the Written Medium
“He said, “Someone killed her dog?”
I unhappy, “With a fork. “
He said, “Jesus Christ. “” (p. 36).
“Father said, “Just try and keep your nasal area out of other people’s business. “” (p. 20).
“We’ve got to get out of this town, kiddo. ” (p. 45).
“Swindon is the arsehole of the world. “(p. 45).
“Christopher, if you don’t act I swear I will knock the living daylights out of you. ” (p. 47).
“You will drive me into an early grave. ” (p. 48).
“See you later alligator” (p. 78).
“And he directed and said, “Through those doors there. But I’ll be keeping track of you, understand?” (p. 162).
“I’m going to hit the hay”; “It’s brass monkeys away there”; “Let’s rustle up some tucker. ” (p. 43).
“I laughed my socks off, He was the apple of my eyes, They had a skeleton in the cupboard, we’d a real pig of a day, Your dog was stone useless. ” (p. 15).
“There was something subtly incorrect with the face, some coarseness of manifestation, some hardness, perhaps of eyes, some looseness of lip which hitched its perfect beauty” (p. 71)
“He also acquired an extremely hairy nasal area. It looked as if there have been two very small mice hiding in his nostrils. ” (p. 17).
“Then I discovered in the utility room.
Then I recognized in the dining area.
Then I discovered in the living room” (p. 92).
“THEREFORE I continued walking. And I could still feel the feeling such as a balloon inside my torso” (p. 169).
“The folks are like cows in a field” (p. 172).
“And then there was a appear to be people fighting with swords” (p. 176).
“It had been falling so hard that it looked like white sparks” (p. 103).
Table2: Examples of Creativeness in the Written and Spoken Mediums inside the Curious Event of the Dog in the Night-Time by Draw Haddon book.
In conclusion, creativeness is a complex phenomenon and incredibly difficult to measure. With help of some noble perspectives from many personalities, like, Person Make, Charles Hockett, Mikhail Bakhtin and many more, it could be highlighted some common features to characterise the creative imagination process. Creativity is a common development in all human beings not only only in designers. It really is a non-literal vision of the world to solve problems or focus on negative or positive features about things that encompass us influencing not only us, as individuals, but our culture and contemporary society, which embarrasses, sometimes, also this perspective.
Language is one medium, which transmit this process through multiple methods of communication, but essentially, through spoken and written mediums, where literariness performs a special role.
The book is one special vehicle that although represents a books text, accept other non-literary types of wording to genuinely signify the use of creativeness by all humans, The Curious Occurrence of the Dog in the Night-Time by Make Haddon, is merely one of these perfect vehicles, which bears creativity.
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Carter, R. and M. McCarthy, Cambridge Sentence structure of British: A Comprehensive Guide – Spoken and Written British Grammar and Consumption, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 82.
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Keyword: book, Clarke, Richard, http://www. rlwclarke. net/courses/LITS3304/2008-2009/07BBakhtinDiscourseintheNovel(Overview). pdf, seen on: 15th November of 2012 at 15:13 p. m.
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