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The chickpea or bengal gram Cicer arietinum is a yearly legume of Essay
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Nov 19th, 2019

The chickpea or bengal gram Cicer arietinum is a yearly legume of Essay

The chickpea or bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) is a yearly legume of the Fabaceae family, the Faboideae subfamily.The Cicer genus consists of one species grown, the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and forty two wildlife species. It is likely that Chickpea originated in South – Eastern Turkey adjoining Syria. The Mediterranean, Central Asia, the Near East and India were identified as four centers of diversity, Ethiopia is also a secondary centre (Vavilov, 1951). It is cultivated and consumed in significant quantities from South-East Asia to India and the Mediterranean countries in the Middle East.

In terms of area it ranks second and in terms of production it ranks third among the pulses worldwide. Chickpea seeds are high in protein. Chickpea is a diploid, predominantly self – pollinated vegetable, but it is sometimes cross pollinated by insects (Purseglove, 1968). Two main types of chickpea are recognized based on seed size and shape: the Desi types closer to the suspected parents (C. reticulatum) mainly found in India and Ethiopia with small, angular, colored seeds and a rugged coat.

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Their growth habit is bushy and their flowers are blue – violet. The Kabuli, predominantly cultivated in the Mediterranean area, have wide, beige, owl – headed and smoother seeds. They have a more upright habit and white flowers.Chickpea is a cool-climate food legume produced in many parts of the world, mainly by small farmers. It is an important protein source in poor people’s diets, and is especially important in vegetarian diets. Further, it’s being used as an alternate for animal protein. It is chiefly grown for its protein-rich seeds. The plant also plays a key part in agriculture systems because of its efficient symbiotic nitrogen fixation properties. It may also play an important role as a protein-rich supplement to cereal-based diets of vegetarians in particular and subsistence in the nutrition as a grain legume. Seeds are the main ingredient in the plant and contain approximately 17-24% protein, 64% carbohydrates, 47% starches, 3,8-10,2% fat, 1.7-10% fiber and 6% soluble sugar. It is also rich in essential amino acid lysine but deficient in sulfur containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine as protein content.Chickpea in 139.81 lakh hectares is produced worldwide by 58 countries, contributing to approximately 16.41 per cent of the world region. India stood first in area (99.27 lakh ha.) and production (98.80 lakh tonnes) in the world, then follows Pakistan, Iran and Australia. In China, the highest productivity is 3759 kg / ha, followed by Israel. India’s productivity was 995 kg/ha yields. In the twelfth plan, the total area and gram production was 89.45 lakh hectares and 84.25 lakh tons respectively. Madhya Pradesh ranked 1st contributing an area of 34.39% and 40.32% of total area and production of country. Maharashtra is ranked 2nd for area 15.48 lakh ha (17.30%) and 3rd for production 12.12 lakh tones (14.39%).Whereas, Rajasthan is 2nd in production (14.43%) and 3rd in area (15.48%). The highest yield was recorded in the state of Telangana (1474 kg/ha) followed by Gujarat (1178 kg/ha) and West Bengal (1148 kg/ha). The lowest yield was recorded in Karnataka (619 kg/ha). Chhattisgarh covers 0.276 million ha area with production 0.213million tones and productivity of 771kg ha-1 . (Project Coordinators Report, 2014-15). Genetic variability is the first requirement for any program of crop improvement, since it offers the opportunity to choose an excellent type of plant. It helps you to select better yield attributes for hybridization or selection.The failure to exploit variability was one of the main constraints in improving chickpea productivity. The variance analysis provides estimates of phenotypes, genotypes and environmental variances used to determine the corresponding coefficients of variation. The relative values of such variation coefficients give an idea of the extent of variability in a population. They also show whether or not the selection of character improvement will be worthwhile. The phenotypic coefficient of variation, genotypic coefficient of variation, genetic advance and heritability play an important role in development of superior chickpea genotypes.Chickpea productivity is restricted by a varietal number of abiotic stresses (Gaur et al., 2007) and heat is a major factor in crop growth across a variety of environments (Summerfield et al., 1990), and chickpea yield may be constrained. (Basu et al. 2009),And chickpea yield may be constrained. (Basu et al. 2009) 2009:In the program for crop improvement it is very important for sufficient genetic variability to be available. The amount of genetic variability present in the experimental material is a fundamental requirement for a successful breeding programme. Therefore, plant breeder must use parameters such as phenotypic coefficient of variation, genetic coefficient of variation, heritability and genetic progress to measure variability.Correlation studies help us to better understand the yield components that help the plant breeder select. The plant breeder favors the positive correlation between desirable characters as it contributes to improving both characters simultaneously. Yield being a complex character. It is the result of the actions and interaction of many characters that contribute to the yield, and the environment is heavily influenced. Hence, it becomes necessary to partition the observed variability into heritable and non-heritable components. In order to improve genetic yield the information gathered through path analysis techniques can be used to select indirectly. Yield is a character trait regulated by several genes which would lead in improvement via indirect selection.Heat stress is a major problem for the production of chickpea in warm conditions, under abiotic stresses. The seasonal temperature represents an significant weather factor that can have a deep effect on crop yield. Winter crops during their reproductive stages are highly vulnerable to high temperatures. The transition to a warmer short season environment was great in the chickpea area from the cooler, longer – term environment.Rice fallows are increasing in the Chhattisgarh State area under chickpea. Usually, early rice harvests in the last week of October, medium rice harvests in the second week of November, whereas, late maturity rice harvests in the first week of December. The production of chickpea in the rice fallows mainly depends on the time of harvesting. When grown after harvesting rice, the chickpea acts differently due to changes in climatic conditions. All genotypes do not perform same relationship under different temperature conditions, this indicates that some genotypes perform well in high temperature as regards to yield, flower etc.The objective of the present study is to estimate the total genotypic variability, correlation and path analysis among certain key attributes for selection criteria, that might be beneficial in enhancing the yield in chickpea heat tolerant lines. The following objectives are discussed in the present investigation:1. To estimate the genetic parameters of variation for seed yield and its components in selected heat tolerant lines of chickpea.2. To work out the phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlation coefficients among seed yield and its components.3. To estimate direct and indirect contribution of various yield traits on seed yield at genotypic level.

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