In this modern world, terrorism has become a hazardous threat to all the countries around the world as it will cause devastating casualties and economy impact in any of the countries. According to Krueger and Maleckova (2003), the term terrorism is defined as “premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience.” Terrorism is basically an act of the terrorists to convert a message such as ideological, religious or political object through violence or destruction.
The more destructive it is, the more audiences they will have. Thus, terrorists will be greatly increased if they can influence people around the world to achieve the objectives or goals that the terrorists’ group has plotted. In addition, there are factors that made other people to join terrorism and the effects of it.
While terrorism is still in active around the globe, what has causes this dreadful act that harm many people live and property and what are the reasons behind this Keet (2003) stated that one of the causes is formation of nationalist or separatist.
He emphasize that colonized nations which made nationalist movement has a high chances to become a terrorism organization. Mahatma Ghandi was the only one who gets along with the freedom movement without using any violence act. Extreme nationalism, on the other hand, has set up or upholds language rights, religious belief and symbols. They persuade on a regional-ethic party and less accentuate on the political rights and privileges. Lawson (2001) too claimed that resistance against an oppressor is a contributing factor that will lead to terrorism. He remarked that the dominance of terrorists’ land and their people from any oppressor are apparent to have high chances of conducting terrorism. The IRA, the Basque separatist group ETA, the Palestinians, the Tamil Tigers, the Chechens, and Iraqi insurgents are some of the examples of organization that used forces to fulfill their political goals (Lawson, 2001).
Keet (2003) reviewed an important factor that is related to terrorism was social stratification and disproportion of division of limited resources such as food, water and clothing. In this study, lack of economic management has give a huge impact on civilian for their survive needs. Based on the studies shown in Keet (2003) 15% of the population for the poor countries consumes 85% of the overall resources. He stated that if those people can’t get a satisfactory amount of resources they needed, they will use force or violence to get what they wanted in order to keep them alive. Thus, these circumstances have formed a new society or organization that will lead to terrorism.
The contradictory of theory of disaffected intelligentsia, which is simple minded people that are lack of moral and social knowledge, were the ones that mislead the people (Keet, 2003). They are the reason that dehumanizes terrorists and, in this manner, they wanted to be heard, and acknowledge by the society or the world, that they have the equivalent of human rights. This indicates the inner reason of terrorism, decreeing from the point of its viewpoints, mindset, method of approach and the consequences as studied by Keet (2003).
In addition to the dehumanization of terrorists, Keet (2003) claimed that religion is essential cause for the terrorism as it stressed on the Muslim extremists in the Middle East. The research showed that Islamic terrorism rejects the ideology of democracy and individualism, while Islamists dislike the concept of capitalism and believe in Caliphate (the idea of leading Muslim community in worldwide). People believed that the social issue was connected to the war is the religion and realm which indicates on different belief have a higher chance to engage in a battle than those share the same belief (Keet, 2003). Despite of the above, all religion accentuates that we must treat others as we are wished to be treated and killing is prohibited on most of the religious’ teaching.
In 2004, Borum studied the behavior among terrorists and found out that most of them were perceived from injustice, wanted identity and unfortunately, they were the targeted victims of terrorism. Traumatize from the childhood abuse, they felt injustice as well as humiliated and as a result, they joined the terrorists’ group as they are the majority in the organization (Borum, 2004). People who search for their identity often trap by the terrorist organization in many ways as one of them is referred to “identity foreclosure” when the idea or mindset of a terrorist organization is being accepted without serious inspection (as cited in Borum, 2004, p. 25). They often accept the mindset as they couldn’t take any more of the complexity and stressful world and they are usually classified as lifeless or monotonous person.
Similarly, the studies based on Borum (2004) has emphasizes on the motivation of terrorists as a root to terrorism. Motive is defined as the passion or aspiration to get something done. The opportunity to get into action, the belonging needs, the wish to get acknowledge in society and the acquirement of material rewards are the motivations go get involve in terrorism (Borum, 2004). Moreover, Borum (2004) stated that the remedies of an injustice were the essential motivation for terrorism as it can help them to get their revenge back and the best motivation is to help others to avenge but not themselves. The need of belonging that was remarked earlier on has great impact on radical extremist groups as they felt connected and associated with the group. They were expelled and rejected from their society but the organization accepted them and they felt the warmth and kindness just like a family does (Borum, 2004).
The causes on terrorism in this world are unavoidable indeed. On the other hand, the effects on terrorism as stated in Bennett and Bray (n.d.) are on tourism industry. After the incident on 9/11, the impact on world travel and tourism council has reported that over 10% of the travel and tourism demand on worldwide has decreased and consequently, 8.8 million people have lost their job in airlines, hotels, tour operators, car rental and credit card companies, thus it decreased 1.7% of total GDP for the world economy (Bennett and Bray, n.d.). With the attacks on the world trade centre, Bennett and Bray (n.d.) reviewed that international arrivals around the world in 2001 has greatly decrease which estimated 4 million that were less than the previous year and it was indicated clearly that people have the fear to take flights. Bennett and Bray (n.d.) stated that it was disastrous for the airlines companies as the passengers numbers were declining. Similarly, AFP (2010a) stated airports and other travel centers as well as tourist attractions across Europe have been heightened with security forces as al-Qaeda has linked with terror plot that targeted in London, Paris, Berlin and other European countries. On the other hand, AP (2010) mentioned on terrorism that was on the alert to those Americans living in or traveling to Europe.
The economy around the globe has badly influenced from the act of terrorism. As Abadie and Gardeazabal (2007) reviewed that the capital stock, either in physical or human form, has greatly reduced after the act of terrorist in a country. In addition, the country itself needs to increase expenditures on counter-terrorism and in order to get the resources or capital; they need to obtain from their productive industries for the sake of the country’s security (Abadie & Gardeazabal, 2007). The incident of September 11th terrorist attacks on US economy have affected the total production assets which decreased 0.06% of it. Walters, Sachsida and Sandler (2006) indicated the stocks in US direct investment has lower drastically after the terrorist assaults against US interest in OECD countries. Similarly, Persitz (n.d.) claimed that due to intense terror in Pakistan, the consumption and government-expense section increases while investment, exports, and imports of production decreases.
In the market, people are devastated from terrorist acts as human tragedies happened most of the time. Because of fear, many people didn’t want to take the risk to start a business as terrorism could strike anytime and anywhere and eventually it brings down the economy (Market, n.d.). Furthermore, the costs that cover the security purposes were a burden for most of the companies as they might decrease the price of the stock that will lead to disappointment from the stockholders. Market (n.d.) stated that resilience will occurred even if a terrorist attacks, the society will united together to overcome the catastrophe that changes the security system and become more secure and confident than before. For examples in the Kennedy assignation, the World Trade Center Bombing, and the Oklahoma City Bombing. What’s more about effect of the market is the human loss in a terrorist act is heartbreaking news for the victim’s loved ones. The loss of potential labor workers in a company suffered more hardship than losing profits (Market, n.d.).
In 2007, Creekmore (2007) claimed that after the incident of September 11th, social conflict has been arising due to fear and horrified by the incident among citizens. After past few days of the incident, people were lined up around the gas station before gas prices rose two dollar a gallon. The governor of Mississippi took immediate action against local gas suppliers as they were found guilty on raising the gas prices (Creekmore, 2007). Eventually this has set off havoc between the local gas suppliers and customer in different states, and people were fighting for the gas. In addition, Creekmore (2007) mentioned about the rumors which were spread about the shortage of food due to the gas prices and soon everyone felt the state of panic.
Media (2008) reviewed that the Internet has many useful functions for the terrorist, such as cyber-terrorism, coordination of plans of attack, communication with cells, or propaganda and information. Convenient, easy to use and access, much quicker to send precious information and inexpensive are the factors for terrorists to use the Internet. As the functions mentioned above, it brings huge impact on the media because the Internet act as a direct medium (Media, 2008). A Mexican-based terrorism organization, EZLN, also known as Zapatistas, has brought catastrophe to its country as it uses Internet to leak information throughout the world. Media (2008) has also remarked that Internet media offensive was started by al-Qaida that their message were translated into European languages and as a result, radicalization process is happening much faster, broader, more mysterious in the Internet era.
Instead of having traditional weapons such as sword and spear, The Effects (2006) claimed that terrorists’ weaponry has stepped forward to a more advance technology, that is chemical and biological weapons. It was dated back then after Persian Gulf, thousands of US troops went home after the war has ended. Unfortunately, they have come across an illness which includes symptoms like chronic fatigue, severe joint pain and headaches, intestinal track problems, internal bleeding, and memory loss (The Effects, 2006). The veterans were then diagnosed with “Gulf War Syndrome” as a result of war. The Effects (2006) reviewed the terrorists have been doing many illegal activities such as counterfeit the document and statements as well as take apart the equipments and tear down important documents in order to conceal their production of biological weapons. AFP (2010b) remarked the Taliban militants have claimed two raids which around 60 trucks were torched and three people died in this incident. On the other hand, Pakistani authorities have reported 24 attacks since September 3rd which have claimed more than 140 lives.
Over the years, terrorism has caught international attention as it has destructive goals that would bring casualties and economical impact around the world. The research on terrorism was insufficient and the data is not fully complete yet. There are still many unknown causes that would lead to terrorism. However, as times goes by, the secrets behind terrorism will eventually reveal to the world and it must be eradicate as soon as win-win solutions are being discovered and implement into the society.