The data shows that this article an can be used before words begin with vowels and a before words you start with consonant without considering the quality of notice or phoneme which begins in a word. It is noticeable that ‘an’ is used prior to the consonant ‘h’ which is silent or mute in the beginning of word, and ‘an’ is employed prior to the vowels which have sensible quality of consonant. The reason for the wrong substitution is that the ‘strong pressures of the continually drilled rules an is used before nouns commence with vowel (Agnihotari, 1992) and vice versa credited to such behavior development, the students extent these guidelines as

Above samples signify that the definite and indefinite articles are indiscriminately used before noun phrases / nouns and are unnecessarily omitted where these are required. The article ‘the’ is not used where it is automatically required instead of cataphorical reference. These types of errors have appeared due to the ignorance of the grammatical features of articles, effect of L1 and simplification strategy.

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Further it is available that ‘a’ is predominantly utilized by the students rather than ‘an’ and ‘the’. This can be because of the proven fact that ‘a’ is simple as well as first discovered factor. The students however find certain situations of which article of some kind is required; whenever they encounter such context or such difference, it is generally filled up with ‘a’.

60% of the students have devoted problems in articles. From the 60%, 25% of them have wrongly substituted the articles and staying 35% of the students unnecessarily have added the articles where it isn’t required and also have omitted where it is actually required.

2. Preposition

Preposition as ‘a term’ or group of words’ (e. g. in, from, to, with respect to) is often

placed before a noun or pronoun to indicate place, direction, source, method etc. ,

Further, it connects a noun or pronoun with various other words in a phrase and

makes clear the partnership between your two.

Errors pertaining to the utilization of prepositions found in the students’ performance are categorized into four categories as stated below.

i) Wrong collection of preposition


Incorrect selection —— Right selection

1. I am going on holiday on May —— in

2. I cannot sleep in nighttime —— at

3. Good bye! See you in Friday —— on

4. I usually feel great on the morning —— in

5. Sirisha stayed around in three days —— for

6. We are going for Delhi following day —— to

The wrong collection of prepositions may be as a result of semantic multiplicity of prepositions; for example, the preposition ‘of’ has sixty three meanings shown in the Oxford dictionary, and other prepositions have almost as many meanings as ‘of’ has.

In addition to the semantic multiplicity of the target vocabulary, the L1 too interferes due to the dissimilarities found between L1 and L2.

ii) Extension of the preposition ‘on’

1. I gone Hyderabad on last night.

2. On tomorrow easily became a health care provider I will help the indegent people by studying

3. I proceeded to go a Vizag on previous month.

In British, the preposition ‘on’ is utilized before the times like ‘on Mon’ ‘on Weekend’ etc. So, this guideline is likely the learner to increase the utilization of preposition where it isn’t possible in English, like ‘on last night’, ‘on tomorrow’, on previous month’.

iv) Addition of preposition

1. There have been lots of individuals without food or in education

2. I am going to help the indegent people by in studying

In British certain verbs co-occur with prepositions while certain other verbs do not. The verbs, which do not take place with preposition, may appear with article in the same slot (I purchased a book, I visited Hyderabad). The students under study could not distinguish and differentiate both of these types of verbs and have used them identically. As a result in many a framework, they have erased preposition.

It is identified from the info that the students have a tendency to learn certain co-occurring elements as an device, this has led to using two prepositions in their writing. However, you can attribute improper learning, and semantic multiplicities are as the reason why for not carrying out well in the aspect of preposition.

63% of the students under research have used the preposition wrongly. Within 63%, 35% of the students have wrongly preferred the prepositions, and 11% of the students have over generalized the preposition as given in the sample 1, and remaining 17% of the students have unnecessarily added and dropped the prepositions.

3. Pronoun

Pronoun is a phrase that might be used in sentence in the place of a noun. Pronouns can be categorized as subject, thing, genitive and reflective pronouns. Pronouns agree with the subject and subject in amount, since pronouns are being used as substitutes of nouns. They need to carry the same number, gender and person as the nouns for which they stand.


First person

Second person

Third person































your self





i) Wrong usage of pronouns


1. My happy everyday at day time language media newspaper reading.

2. My bought to by cycle

3. Catalogue will be very useful myself

4. My going is to school

The students have wrongly substituted ‘my’ rather than I and ‘myself’ rather than ‘me’. The reason is having less practice and ignorance of their linguistic features and meanings. Further, it is usually to be mentioned that the 3rd person pronouns (he/she/it) are being used almost properly by the students, and they find no problem in using them. Associated with that the students follow the strategy of positive copy from L1.

4. Adjectives

Adjectives are typically referred to as words or phrases that improve nouns. The adjectives usually look between your determiners and the nouns. Nouns aren’t only revised by the prototypical adjectives but also words from many grammatical classes like verbal participles and noun heads. The use of adjectives has been found to be very limited in students’ writings; however, some incorrect usages of adjectives as found in data are given the following.

i) Using noun instead of adjectives


1. It is nature place.

2. We arranged a head to bus.

3. The market sectors should be shifted to nonresident area.

Errors of this type rarely take place in the writings of the students under review. It really is because of the reality both in English and Telugu languages, noun + noun mixture and adjective + noun combination are relatively identical in the semantic aspect. Thus giving room for using N+N rather than Adj+N. It may also be claimed that this mistake is available to are present as the students follow the positive copy of the first language framework.

5. Nouns

Nouns or noun phrases typically function as subjects, direct objects, indirect objects and subject complements (NPS also function as thing of preposition) A noun that denotes a single person or thing is said to be in singular form and that which denotes several person or thing is said to be in plural form. Plural nouns are developed with the addition of the suffixes that happen to be otherwise called as plural morphemes (like ‘-s’ ‘-es’ ‘-en’ ‘-ren’ etc) to the singular form of the noun.

Formation of plural nouns

Singular form

Addition of plural morpheme

Plural form


Elsewhere at the end












-es after – s/sh/ch/x














Singular form

Addition of plural morpheme

Plural form




















-en, ren








Irregular plural forms



Root modification
















In understanding how to use a noun, one needs to focus on a variety of grammatical factors. Specifically, one must know whether a noun is countable or uncountable and when countable what will be the plural form. So that it is quite intricate and difficult to the learners in producing all the nuances of noun together and to decide on a particular noun to use in a specific context.

6. Verb

The verb (term) is the heart and soul of the phrase. Most of the English phrases contain at least one verb. Verbs hold significant amounts of information; they identify actions, happenings, and states and place these in a period frame. They state whether activities or occurrences, have been completed or occurring and they say whether circumstances is current or regulative. They help command, question, speculate, wish and anticipate.

The students never have properly treated the verbs also. Most of the sentences produced by the students have lost their meanings and functions scheduled to improper use of the verb varieties. Such types of erroneous sentences are as follows.

i) Use of double history in negative sentences

1. I did so not forgot the summer holidays

2. I did so not thinked this examination will held in our school.

ii) Double previous in interrogative sentence

1. When did you completed examination?

2. When does your father arrived Amalapuram?

3. Does you returned to home last night?

4. Performed you wrote exam?

5. Did they came yesterday?

The samples 1 and 2 show that the use of double former; a peculiar kind of error, found in the student’s writing. This type of error occurs because of the reality in Telugu, tense is expressed in main verbs without splitting the verbs whatever can be the sentence type. But in negative or interrogative word of English, the tense is expressed by making use of both auxiliary and main verb (have + pronoun + verb or does + not + verb). The learners know the rule of using tense in auxiliary. However, by the influence of Telugu words, the learners are satisfied only when tense is portrayed through main verbs. Thus, they use two times tense in their writing, especially while writing interrogative and negative sentences.

iii) Use of past form where in fact the earlier participle required

1. I had fashioned saw an accident yesterday

2. I and my family had travelled Hyderabad

3. Has he performed the work

4. Had he ate the fruit

This type of error has appeared in the writings of the students understudy as a result of simple fact that in British, some verbs have certain similar varieties for the categories of history tense and past-participle. (work-worked – performed) almost all of the verbs have this design. Learners scope this rule to all types of the verbs and consequently, ‘a past anxious’ form is substituted for earlier participle form of abnormal type also (see-saw-seen).

iv) Wrong lexical selection

1. I purchased the publication from library and then study in my own house (borrow)

2. Polluting of the environment attacking the body (influences)

In any words, certain linguistic elements show commonness semantically, in other words that all dialects have synonymous, but there will not be any complete synonyms in virtually any terminology. So certain words can be used in certain contexts. The students understudy also have wrongly substituted a phrase for another. This will happen only in the original period of learning. Thus, it is considered as developmental mistake.

v) Overgeneralization of the abnormal verb forms

Sample — Accurate form

becomed – became

binded – bound

bited – bit

Sample — Correct form

thinked – thought

cutted – cut

seeked – sought

writed – wrote

finded – found

buyed – bought

seed – saw

sayed – said

Learners tend to over generalize the verb forms because of the irregularity within the forming of days gone by tense. Some British verbs do not follow the regular morphological process. Rather than taking-‘ed’ as earlier tense marker they internally get changed or they take zero morpheme of the formation of past form. As a result of this deviant morphological process, the learners tend to over generalize already learned guideline of affixing -ed with today’s verb form to make earlier form. It really is discovered that 65% of the students have dedicated mistakes in verbs. Out of 65%, 30% of these have used days gone by form where in fact the past participle is necessary and left over 20% of the students have wrongly picked the verbs and over generalized the unusual verb forms in addition to the use of dual past.

7. Adverb

Adverbs specify the mode of action of the verbs. In British, many adverbs are signalled by the ‘ly’ ending. An adverb is ‘a phrase used to include something to the meaning of the verb’. The function of any adverb in a phrase is significant because of its effect on the verb it qualifies. The efficiency and vitality of the action mirrored by the phrases is denoted through adverbs. Sometimes adverbs meet the requirements the adjectives also. The mistakes in the utilization of adverbs are given below.

i) Over generalization of – ly ending


1. He drived head to bus fastly

2. He drove bus very speedly

3. He gone fastly

ii) Adjectives used as adverb

1. Today I came up to school quick

2. She sing beautiful.

These types of mistakes may be considered as developmental mistakes.

The above data establish a reality the students have got some confusion in regards to to the grammatical categories viz. adverb and adjective. The students have to be properly trained the functional distribution of the above two categories. 20% of the students have over generalized- ly- ending and 21% of the students have used the adjectives as adverb in their writings.

8. Auxiliary Verbs

Auxiliary verb is subordinate to main verb. It can help to make distinctions in spirits, tense, aspect, words etc. It is utilized to structure questions especially label questions. Normally a verb word consists of a primary verb preceded by a number of auxiliary verbs. Within a sentence, the correct collection of the auxiliary verb form is very important to maintaining subject matter verb contract. Students have difficulty in using the auxiliary forms also. The errors within the students writing are grouped and shown below.

i) Addition of auxiliary verb —– Addition

1. I am went to the institution —– am

2. I am noticed the children in the bottom —– am

3. I am observed you are in the shop —– am

The students under study have unnecessarily added the auxiliary verb ‘am’ among the subject ‘I’ and verb (earlier form). The student’s purpose was to mention days gone by event or action. She has conveyed the sense what she has done in the past, but ‘am’ is wrongly used in combination with ‘I’. That is due to the fact that the copula verb ‘am’ functions as a main verb using contexts (I am a student). Due to the impact of this composition, learners unconsciously use ‘am’ whenever they have to make use of ‘I’ in a subject position.

ii) Deletion of auxiliary verb — Deletion

1. When – you go to home? — ‘do’

2. When – you result from Hyderabad? — ‘did’

3. How – you result from Hyderabad? — ‘did’

4. When – the truth is Amalapuram? — ‘did’

The sample demonstrates the students have erased the auxiliary verbs in the interrogative sentences (when + sub+ verb+ noun). This deviant framework is unacceptable. The explanation for the deletion of auxiliary verb in interrogative phrases is the mother tongue interference.

ii) Wrong substitution of auxiliary verb

Given education: Complete the blanks with ideal auxiliary verbs.

Sample ———- Correct form

1. I am working when she appeared. —– ‘was’

2. Now he was writing a notice to his good friend. —– ‘is’

3. These were going to a gathering tomorrow night time. —– ‘are’

4. Six people are hurt in the car accident yesterday ‘were’

The wrong substitution of auxiliary verbs ‘am’ rather than ‘was’, ‘are’ instead of ‘were’ and vice versa is because of the ‘ignorance of the linguistic features of auxiliary verb and inability in understanding this is of the given sentences. As soon as the students see the verb in the ‘ing’ form, they tend to use auxiliary without considering the tense which is implied by the adverb. It really is discovered that there are 52% of the students wrongly used the auxiliary verbs. From the 52%, 32% of the students have wrongly added and removed the auxiliaries, and remaining 20% of them have wrongly substituted the auxiliaries.

9. Concord

Concord is the grammatical agreement between words in quantity, gender, subject, verb etc. In British, number is a feature associated with nouns, demonstratives, personal pronouns and verbs. Nouns have singular or plural statistics and present tense verbs when they include 3rd person singular will appear in agreement with the subject (noun). Errors identified in the students’ writing are categorised and presented the following.

i) Demonstrative adjectives and noun agreement


1. This gases causes holes in ozone coating.

2. The researchers said that for this reason openings world will be damaged with in 200 billion years.

3. Especially establishments favors these air pollution.

4. Therefore to be able to these kinds of pollution the government should take take action regarding pollution

The errors in the aspect of agreement between your demonstrative adjective and noun may be due to ignorance of the functions of the demonstrative adjectives and disturbance of first language.

Subject and verb agreement

1. Petrol run vehicles triggers most serious problem

2. Especially companies favours these air pollution

3. This gases causes openings in ozone layer

4. Preventive steps against air pollution saves our country

The above sentences show the agreemental problem between verb and noun. The students have used the 3rd person singular marker ‘s’ (es) without considering the noun which proceeds the verb. What like ‘vehicles, ‘ ‘Industries’ ‘gases’ and ‘preventive measures’ are in plural forms which require plural verb form but students have mainly used the singular verbs form. So, the third person singular marker has ended generalized where it is not required.

It has been found that there are 67% of the students devoted errors in concord. Of 67%, 29% of the students have dedicated mistakes in the arrangement between demonstrative adjective and noun. 28% of students have committed errors in agreement between subject matter and verb and left over 6% of the students have determined all sorts of mistakes.

10. Syntax

Syntax includes the ways words are blended into larger constructions including sentences. The distinction between the subject and predicate is the essential division within the phrase. The generative grammar of the 1970s exploited tree diagrams in which the subject (called the NP for noun saying) branches remaining and the predicate (called VP for verb word) branches right. S means sentence.

Order change in question

1. Where he was heading?

2. Whenever you will come from Bombay?

3. Why you didn’t come yesterday?

4. Why you didn’t advised the reason for master?

The sample implies that the interrogative sentences have been used in the change order as where + sub + aux + verb (where he was going) instead of where + aux + sub + verb (where was he heading). This is due to the influence of spoken form on writing. The deviant phrase order of question found in the learners’ performance is least acceptable in the spoken setting of Indian British and it is also portrayed through intonation using the similar routine. But previous the first is undesirable order in the written mode.

(iii) a) Imperfect sentences

1. My bought to the by cycle

2. I am decide to the bag

3. Meena is informed the Malathi

4. She make a decision the meeting

5. I ran to the people

b) Discourse with packed with incomplete sentences


My life ambis a tutor I can’t be any life or vizetion so I cannot be educator of life so happy the childrens life the professor life I am like the childrens I am hat reati reavs the life of teachers my life is the last time of educator the childrens the tomorrow do yesterday so was doind my life tomorrow the. . . . . .

Reason for the projection of the imperfect sentences is that some L2 learner at the beginning level just memorizes the passing or linguistic elements for the assessment purpose they try to task it completely in the examinations, but it seems to them impossible to job completely what they have memorized. Then, they transfer the linguistic elements incorrectly whatever it comes from their storage area as shown in the above mentioned sample. This type of error may be considered as error anticipated to linguistic vomiting or it can be an outcome of rote learning.

61% of the students have dedicated errors in the sentence level. Of this 61%, 30% of the students have evolved the purchases in the interrogative word, 21% of the students have dedicated errors due to the impact of L1, and left over 10% of the students have just vomited the linguistic elements in an illogical fashion.

11 Spelling

Spelling performs an important role in the forming of words. Meaning of any word will depend on the graphemes or words which occupy in it. Graphemes also distinguish and differentiate the meaning of words. The spelling guidelines of the language enable both the encoder and decoder to grasp appropriately in the written mode. The spelling guidelines of English are quite complex, and there are some regularities and irregularities and exceptional aspect in the guidelines. Further, one or more than one letters correspond to one sound. As well as the first dialect system, the complexity of the spelling guidelines too is inclined the students or learners to produce misspelt words. In the event the letters used in the words are changed or transformed, the meanings of what will be lost. Alternations or shedding of words in words lead to misunderstandings. Sometimes, misspelt words will make one comprehend various other meanings.

Influence of spoken form on spelling

The students have transferred their incorrect speech behaviors to writing the following:

Sample —– Accurate form

arrived —– arrived

butefull —– beautiful

butifull —– beautiful

survices —– service

Sample Correct form

parasonal personal

witch which

scientests scientists

papper paper

docter doctor

iii) Words showing dropping letters

Sample —– Correct form —– Dropping

arrived —– showed up —– ‘r’

betiful —– beautiful —– ‘au’

droped —– dropped —– ‘p’

equalent —– equivalent —– iv

impretive —– imperative —– e

iv) Words displaying addition of letters

Sample —– Right form —– Addition

unblievable —– unblivable —– ‘e’

playying —– participating in —– ‘y’

dailiy —– daily —– ‘i’

becomeing —– becoming —– ‘e’

secound —– second —– u

v) Words exhibiting modification of letters

Sample —– Accurate form —– Transfer

heppy —– happy —– a-e

parrants —– parents —– e-a

haleday —– getaway —– i-e

impretive —– imperative —– a-e

famile —– family —– y-e

discriped —– identified —– e-i

The analyzed and categorized data show that both disturbance of L1 and learner’s wrong speech behaviors have paved just how for the spelling mistakes instead of consonant clusters. Only the wrong speech patterns mirror in their spelling in the place of vowels and vowel clusters. It is discovered in the students’ data that 71% of the students have determined orthographical errors in their writings.