Abstract Concrete is a building material made from a mixture of cement, fine aggregate coarse aggregate and water which can spread or poured into the moulds and forms a stone like mass on hardening. In this project an attempt is made to add natural fibers in the concrete and compare the compressive strengths of concrete. Coir, jute, can be utilized in concrete and effect of such fibers on properties of concrete can be analyzed. Concrete containing fibers increase the service life and have a positive effect on social life and social economy.
Concrete is strong in Compression as aggregate efficiently carries the compression load. Concrete is strong in compression but weak in tension, hence by adding these fibers we can also increase its tensile strength. It has been recognized that addition of small closely spaced and uniformly distributed fibers to concrete would act as a crack arrester and would significantly improve its static and dynamic properties. The study also focuses on the comparative study among fiber added concrete with the structural strength of conventional concrete.
In this project, the strength behavior of concrete mixed with natural like coir and jute fibers of fiber cement ratio 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% is compared with the compressive strength of conventional concrete of grade M25 is subjected to curing and without curing condition. The strength behavior of different fibers concrete will be compared.Keywords: Compressive Strength, Conventional Concrete, Different Fibers, Fiber Cement Ratio.1. INTRODUCTIONIt is difficult to maintain strength of concrete and increase its durability, so addition of waste fibers is an economical way to increase strength of concrete. The addition of fibers into the mixture of concrete counteracts its brittleness, produces a material with increased compressive strength, tensile performance flexural strength and other benefits like improve ductility and reduction in steel reinforcement requirement. The characteristic of fiber reinforced concrete is different with different fibrous materials. Fibers increase the structural integrity of concrete. The economy, efficiency, durability and rigidity of reinforced concrete make it an attractive material for a wide range of structural application. The only disadvantage of cement concrete is its brittleness, with relatively low tensile strength and poor resistance to crack opening and propagation and negligible elongation at break. To overcome these discrepancies reinforcement with dispersed fibers might play an important role to absorb mechanical impact, cracking due to both plastic shrinkage and drying shrinkage. They also reduce the permeability of concrete and thus reduce bleeding of water. Some types of fibers produce greater impact, abrasion and shatter resistance in concrete. Fibers are usually used in concrete to control cracking due to plastic shrinkage Effect of bers in concrete and to drying shrinkage. They also reduce the permeability of concrete and thus reduce bleeding of water. Some types of bers produce greater impact”, abrasion”, and shatter”resistance in concrete. Generally bers do not increase the ‚exural strength of concrete, and so cannot replace moment”resisting or structural steel reinforcement. Indeed, some bers actually reduce the strength of concrete.2. OBJECTIVE The study is done to find the mechanical properties of conventional concrete and fiber reinforced concrete and to hence the properties of concrete using fiber by replacing cement with respective percentage of fiber & finding strength variation on concrete in different mix proportions. To reduce the production cost of concrete in terms of natural resources and economical. Natural fibers are cheap and locally available in many countries. So their use as a construction material for increasing properties of concrete and costs are very little. The use of natural fibers in rural construction activities will results in economic structures which will be stronger and more durable there by solving one of the major deficiencies in rural structures. By adding of fibers in concrete to increase their bonding in between aggregate and fiber, thereby increasing compressive strength. The objective of study was to determine and compare the difference in properties of concrete containing with fibers and without fibers. 3. METHODOLOGY AND MATERIALS FOR PROJECTS3.1 METHODOLOGY 3.2 MATERIALS FOR THE PROJECT3.2.1 CEMENTPortland cement is far by the most common type of cement in general use around the world. Portland cement is a basic ingredient of a concrete, mortar and non specialty grout. The most common use for Portland cement is in the production of concrete is a composite material consisting of aggregate (gravel and sand), cement, and water. As a construction material, concrete can be cast in almost any shape desired.3.2.2 FINE AGGREGATEFine aggregates are essentially sands received from the land or the marine environment. Fine aggregate commonly consist regarding natural sand then beaten pitch together with nearly particles opposite shore through a 4.75 mm sieve, as like together with contemptible amount this may stay out of primary, secondary then recycled sources3.2.3 COARSE AGGREGATE Coarse aggregate are particles greater than 4.74mm, but generally range between 9.5mm to 37.5mm in diameter. They can either be form primary, secondary or recycled sources.3.2.4 COIR FIBER Coir fiber is removed from the husk of coconut and utilized in items, for example, floor mats, doormats, brushes and sleeping cushions. Coir is the stringy material found between the hard, inner shell and external layer of a coconut. This fiber is exceptionally shabby and locally accessible in numerous nations. 3.2.5 JUTE FIBERThe strands are first concentrate by retting. Jute is extraordinary interest because of its efficiency, delicateness, length, lustier and consistently of its fiber. It is long, soft & shiny vegetable fiber having off-white to brown color. High tensile strength & low extensibility are some key properties of jute fiber.4. MIX DESIGN a) Grade of Concrete: M25b) Type of cement: OPC 53 Grade conforming IS 12269c) Maximum nominal size of aggregate: 20mmd) Minimum cement content: 300 kg/m3 (IS 456:2000)e) Maximum water-cement ratio: 0.50 (Table 5 of IS 456:2000) f) Workability: 100mm slump g) Exposure condition: Moderate (For Reinforced Concrete)h) Method of concrete placing: Pumpingj) Degree of supervision: Goodk) Type of aggregate: Crushed Angular Aggregatesm) Maximum cement content: 340 kg/m3Final mix ratioIngredients Cement Fine aggregate Coarse aggregate W/C ratioRatio 1 1.81 2.49 0.475. TEST RESULTS AND ANALYSIS5.1 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST:Concrete cube of size 150mm x 150mm x150mm were casted for 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% of coir and jute fibers. This is done by putting cement paste and spreading smoothly on whole area of specimen. These specimens are tested by compression testing machine after 7, 28, 56, and 90 days of curing and without curing conditions. The load should be applied gradually at the rate of 140 kg/cmІ per minute till the specimens fails. Load at the failure divided by the area of specimen gives the compressive strength.The compressive strength of M25 grade is tested for 7 days, 28 days, 56days and 90 days of curing and without curing conditions and the test results are tabulated and plotted below. Table.5.1(a) : Values of compressive strength of M25 grade concrete with different percentage of coir fiber for 7,28,56 and 90 days at curing condition.% of fiber 7 days 28 days 56 days 90days0 33.59 32.28 40.55 45.800.5 33.77 37.73 48.39 48.201 34.31 40.07 45.87 45.431.5 35.94 37.44 38.79 40.87 Graph 5.1 compressive strength mixed with different percentage of coir fiber for 7,28,56 and 90 days at curing condition.Description of Result: From graph it is observed that compressive strength increases from 0%to 1.5% by 0.54%, 2.14% and 7% of 7 days. In 28 days compressive strength increases from 0%to 1.5% by 16.88%, 24.13% and 15.98%. In 56 days compressive strength increases by 19.33%, 13.12% comparing with 0% to 0.5%, 1% and then decreases by 4.34%at 1.5%. In 90 days compressive strength increases by 5.24%, comparing with 0% to 0.5%, and then decreases by 0.8%, 10.76% to 1% and 1.5%.Table5.1(b) : Values of compressive strength of M25 grade concrete with different percentage of coir fiber for 7,28,56 and 90 days at without curing condition.% Of Fiber 7 days 28 days 56 days 90days 0 29.11 28.80 33.53 35.19 0.5 30.70 32.05 41.66 35.68 1 32.21 33.83 38.52 38.98 1.5 32.77 31.68 32.82 37.54 Graph 5.2 compressive strength mixed with different percentage of coir fiber for 7,28,56 and 90 days at without curing condition. Description of Result: From graph it is observed that compressive strength increases from 0%to 1.5% by 5.46%, 10.65% and 12.57%.of 7 days In 28 days compressive strength increases by 11.28%, 17.47% and 10%.comparing with 0% to 0.5%,1% and 1.5%. In 56 days compressive strength increases by 24.25%, 14.88% .comparing with 0% to 0.5%, 1% and then decreases by 2.12% at 1.5%. In 90 days compressive strength increases by 1.39%, 10.77% and 6.68%.comparing with 0% to 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%.Table5.1(c) : Values of compressive strength of M25 grade concrete with different percentage of jute fiber for 7,28,56 and 90 days at curing condition.% of fiber 7 days 28 days 56 days 90days 0 33.59 32.28 40.55 45.80 0.5 39.12 32.02 46.13 36.69 1 35.89 33.06 44.2 33.83 1.5 29.60 30.24 41.02 33.32 Graph 5.3 Compressive strength mixed with different percentage of jute fiber for 7,28,56 and 90 days at curing condition.Description of Result: From graph it is observed that compressive strength increases by 16.46%, 6.85% comparing with 0% to 0.5% and 1% then decreases by 11.88% at 1.5%.of 7days. In 28 days compressive strength decreases by 0.81%, from 0% to0.5%, and increases 2.42% from 0%to 1% and then decreases by 6.32% at 1.5% In 56 days compressive strength increases by 13.76%, 9%,1.16% comparing with 0% to 0.5 %,1% and 1.5% In 90 days compressive strength decreases by 19.89%, 26.14%,27.25% comparing with 0% to 0.5 %,1% and 1.5% Table5.1(d) : Values of compressive strength of M25 grade concrete with different percentage of jute fiber for 7,28,56 and 90 days at without curing condition.% of fiber 7 days 28 days 56 days 90days0 29.11 28.80 33.53 35.190.5 33.77 30.33 42.22 31.651 33.41 30.56 34.88 29.491.5 24.08 27.37 34.55 28.94 Graph 5.4 Compressive strength mixed with different percentage of jute fiber for 7,28,56 and 90 days at without curing condition.Description of Result: From graph it is observed that compressive strength increases by 16%, 14.77% comparing with 0% to 0.5%, and 1% then decreases by 17.28%% at 1.5%.at 7 days. In 28 days compressive strength increases by 5.31%, 6.11% comparing with 0% to 0.5 %, and 1% then decreases by 4.97% at 1.5%. In 56 days compressive strength increases by 25.92%, 4.03%,3.04% comparing with 0% to 0.5 %, 1% and 1.5% In 90 days compressive strength decreases by 10.06%, 16.20%,17.76% comparing with 0% to 0.5 %,1% and 1.5% 5. CONCLUSION On the basis of 7 days test results in both curing and without curing condition, using jute fibers concrete compressive strength increasing from conventional to 0.5% fiber concrete & then strength are in decreasing order. In using coir fiber, strength are increasing from conventional to 1.5% fiber concrete On the basis of 28 days test results in jute fiber compressive strength are increasing from 0% fiber to 1% fiber concrete & then decreasing but in coir fiber concrete on both curing and without curing condition compressive strength are increasing from 0% to 1% fiber concrete & then decreasing. On the basis of 56 days fiber concrete results on both curing and without curing conditions using of coir and jute fibers compressive strength are increasing order from 0% fiber to 0.5% & then it is decreased. On the basis of 90 days fiber concrete results on both curing and without curing condition using jute fibers compressive strength are in decreasing order from conventional concrete to different percentage of fiber concrete. In coir fiber on curing condition compressive strength increasing up to 0.5% and then decreasing and on without curing condition strength are in increasing order from conventional to 1% fiber concrete & then decreasingREFERENCES1. Dhandhania VA and Sawant S Research article open access coir fiber reinforced concrete. 2. Kavitha Saijala A review on natural fibers in the concrete.3. Sajedur Rahman and A K Azad Investigation on mechanical strength of jute fiber reinforced concrete (JFRC) compared to plain concrete. 4. SumitChakraborty, Sarada Prasad Kundu, Aprana Roy and S.B. Majumder Improvement of the mechanical properties of jute reinforced cement mortar.5. VikasSrivastav, P K Mehta and Satyendra Nath Natural fibers in cement and concrete matrices.6. Rai, Amit, and Y. P. Joshi. “Applications and properties of fibre reinforced concrete.” Int. J. Eng. Res. Appl 4.5 (2014): 123-131.7. 6SAANDEEPANI VAJJE, et.al, (DR.N.R.KRISHNA MURTHY) studied characteristic strength of concrete using natural fibers: (2013)8. 5RUSHI PATEL, PROF. V.R.PATEL et.al., studied that behavior of jute fiber in concrete (2009)9. fiber composites for constructive parts in aerospace, automobiles and other areas. (2005)AUTHORS PROFILEPRAVESH JHA (M.Tech) Department of Civil Engineering. Aditya Institute of Technology And Management, K.Kotturu, A.P. INDIA.Third Author personal profile which contains their education details, their publications, research work, membership, achievements, with photo that will be maximum 200-400 words.