Solar energy Merits Demerits Technology is mature. It has high reliability and long lifetimes Performance is dependent on sunshine levels and local weather conditions Automatic operation with very low maintenance requirements Storage/back-up usually required due to fluctuating nature of sunshine levels/no power production at night.No fuel required High capital/initial investment costsHydroMerits Demerits Technology is relatively simple and robust with lifetimes of over 30 years without major investment Very site-specific technology (requires a suitable site relatively close to the location where the new power is needed)Overall costs can, in many cases, undercut all other alternatives Droughts and changes in local water and land use can affect power outputAutomatic operation with low maintenance requirements High capital/initial investment costsBioenergy Merits Demerits Conversion technologies available in a wide range of power levels at different levels of technological complexity Production can create land use competitionFuel production and conversion technology indigenous in developing Often large areas of land are requiredProduction can produce more jobs than other renewable energy systems of a comparable size Production can have high fertilizer and water requirementsGeothermalMerits Demerits Low cost Source is close to volcanic activityInexhaustible Some plants use lots of water ” creating water pollutionNo environmental impact Supply could changePumps can store heat for later use High startup costTidal energy Merits DemeritsNo pollution Presently costly*expensive to build and maintainRenewable resource Connection and runMore efficient then wind because of the density of water Technology is not fully developedPredictable source of energy vs.
wind and solar Barrage style only produces energy for about 10 hours out of the day Wave energy Merits wave Demerits Wave energy is free it comes from waves of oceans The distance between generation and load center is moreWave energy does not generate pollution Machines may cause harm to fishesThe waves generated in the ocean is almost continuous so no need for power storage Initial cost for installing machines may be costlier These are some advantages of wave energy Stung wave may destroy the device Wind energy Solar energy Hydropower – The need for energy systems and global energy demand over the short to long term using actual demand and consumption curves.
In this curve shows* Wind energy was not consumed in the past to generate electricity, as it began to use wind energy in the production of electricity in 2010 by a very weak rate and then after that appeared depreciation of this energy in the case of an increase was not in large proportion, but may be to light many places, where The use of this energy in the short term will have many losses on the plant of this energy if used to light a house, but if used in the long term may be expensive to build but then save a lot of money.* Hydroelectric power: This energy was discovered from the beginning of 2000 and this energy in the case of increasing but it may be expensive if it is used in the near term and cannot be used in lighting a house or places simple for this to be used in the long term to work stations to be related Great utility* Solar energy this energy has been used to reduce the use of renewable energies and this energy is less energy costs if used in the near term and can be used to light a house and cost relatively little relative to other energiesTask1 -4Energy Sources CO2 SO2 NOx PM Estimation Solar energy 71 g/kwh 215 mg/kwh 260 mg/kwh 600 mg/kwhWind energy 29 g/kwh 0 810 mg/kwh 30mg/kwhBiomass Energy 51 g/kwh 940 mg/kwh 80mg/kwh 5mg/kwhEnergy Sources Lend use Water use Solar energy 20 m^2per mwh/yr 760 gal/mwhWind energy 96 m^2per mwh/yr 0Biomass Energy 490 m^2per mwh/yr 140 gal/mwh* The best way to manage your energy consumption?There are some points where energy consumption can be improved:1. Measure your energy consumption and data collection: The more data you can get, the more details, the better. The detailed energy consumption data makes it possible to see patterns of energy wasting that would be impossible to see in another way.(There are two ways to perform data collection)- Read the counters manually once a week or once a month. This is largely routine work, and weekly or monthly data is barely reaching the data that comes easily and automatically from the modern approach.- Use measurement systems that measure and record energy consumption automatically at short and regular intervals such as every 15 minutes or half an hour.2. Find and measure opportunities to save energyThe detailed meter data you collect will be of high value to help you find and measure energy saving opportunities. The easiest and most cost-effective energy saving opportunities usually require little or no capital investment. One of the simplest ways to save a large amount of energy is to encourage employees to turn off the equipment at the end of each working day.Although your detailed meter data will not necessarily help you find these equipment-related opportunities, it will be helpful to help you identify potential savings that each opportunity can bring. Your savings estimates can be based on real measured data over thumb rules alone. It is very important to determine the amount of savings expected for any opportunity you are considering investing a lot of time or money – it’s the only way you can figure out how to stick to the largest and easiest to save energy first.3. Target energy saving opportunities4. Track your progress in energy savingOnce you take action to save energy, it’s important to discover how effective your actions are: * The energy savings that come from behavioral changes require constant attention to ensure that they continue to be effective and maximize their potential. costs * Consumption analyzes: a common consumption of the main meter and price, which captures the monthly consumption data when processing utility bills. For systems that are offered, with different customizable alerts. Unusual consumption alerts allow you to take a proactive approach to managing the use of the tool.*After we did the work of managing the energy consumption, the main results were reducing costs and reducing the energy consumption energy trends for Egypt for the short and long terms (e.g. by 2020 and by 2050).The percentage of Plan 2030 in Egypt, where the UN and the World Bank doubled the global average to improve energy efficiency and double the share of renewables in the global energy mix by 2030, from 30% now to 80% by 2050 and 90% in 2100 Dispose of fossil fuels (rock gas) at the end of the century.EU says:Twenty-seven percent of renewable energy by the end of 2030Reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 40% in 2030Setting a framework in 2030 for energy and climate policiesTo reduce emissions by 80 percent in 2050Reduction of 17-21% of emissions through energy savings in 2030 below 2005 levelInternational Committee on Climate ChangeRenewable energy should be saved from 30% currently to about 80% in the energy sector by 2050 and rock fuel to be disposed of at the end of the 2100sReduce greenhouse gas emissions from 40% to 70% by 2050 and close to 0% by 2100, the end of the century to reach the global target of only two degrees Celsius.The Climate Action Network “was talking about 100% of renewable energy by 2050 at the maximum.Greenpeace said the peak of greenhouse gases in 2015 and zero% and the disposal of shale gas in 2050.Friends of the Earth:Europe should aim for a minimum of about 60 percent of domestic emissions and submerge it below the 1990 level or even 80 percent by 2030, according to recent studies.Friends of the Earth support 100% renewable energy by 2050 for Europe and 50% for energy consumption is reduced to 50% by 2030A law has been issued to stimulate investment in the field of new and renewable energy, which includes a set of measures that help the investor to enter into this activity and ensure the management of the land required for the establishment of projects by the state in return for the right of use estimated at 2% of the value of energy produced from the project, To purchase all the energy produced from the private sector projects, and to provide the sovereign guarantee that preserves any investor’s rights in any project.*Energy Payback Time. Task2-1 Energy managementWhat is Energy Management?Energy management is called energy saving in companies, government institutions and homes: energy saving means meaning of Energy Saving Control, control and maintenance of energy in a building or institution.This management is performed by several steps* Measure your energy consumption and data collection.* Create opportunities to save energy, and estimate how much energy each opportunity can provide. That can be through- Analysis of the meter data to find and quantify the waste of routine energy- Investigate the energy saving that you can provide by replacing the upgrade road to isolate the building.* Track your progress by analyzing your meter data to see how successful energy saving efforts is.* Why energy management is considered an important thingPower management is the key to saving energy in your organization. The importance of energy saving stems from the global need to save energy – this global need affects energy prices, emission targets and legislation.* We need to save energy for:- Reduce our dependence on fossil fuels that are increasingly limited in supply.