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Since the middle of the last century some developing countries such as Essay
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Nov 19th, 2019

Since the middle of the last century some developing countries such as Essay

Since the middle of the last century, some developing countries such as Ethiopia, Ghana, Nigeria, Sudan and Somalia have become one of them. While United Nations statistics show that countries in Asia, southern and eastern Europe are accelerating their actions to determine their development goals, many African countries can not claim the same results. In many ways, economic and social projects in developing countries have proliferated since the mid-1990s due to international trade and responses to the needs of infrastructure development due to population growth in the country.

Development Some of the most common mining countries and products produced by foreign direct investment (FDI) have experienced steady growth in national income, contributing to many projects. Even for economic growth, good ideas and foreign direct investment, development projects have not translated the best living conditions for billions of people in developing countries. To improve this situation, the government and the private sector have been working together to carry out the necessary changes to sponsor projects such as water, sewerage, transportation, energy, agriculture, information technology and telecommunications.

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What is missing is the ability to implement sustainable development. The level of completion of the project. There has also been strong growth in corporate and private partnerships, but there is no lack of effective organization of implementation projects. Therefore, Bill Clinton wrote: “Billions of people deny that they have the opportunity to live a full life, and millions of people die every year because of the application of the law.”Factors leading to development of projects in developing countries.It is not possible to write several projects that have been completed or are still in developing countries. However, the following summary shows the groups selected but not completed Investments in public projectsAccording to the 2007 World Bank report, investment commitments for infrastructure projects and private participation increased by 10% in 2006. A total of $ 190 billion was invested in almost 3,800 projects. Telecommunications projects reached their peak in 2006, representing 55% of investment commitments. Other projects in the order of expenditures are: transportation, energy, water and wastewater. Exhibits 1 to 3 illustrate the trend, project sector and investment commitments across the region. Global Trade Some studies have shown that international trade has contributed to the increase of business opportunities in the last two decades. The fourth exhibition showed a rapid increase in international trade revenues. Globalization leads to freedom of commercialization, changes in economic policy, humanitarian capital and communications. While international trade has led to economic growth during the transition period in China, India, Vietnam, Nigeria and many other economies, it has also led to environmental disasters and the distribution of fair assets. It should be noted that cooperation between international trade and economic development continues to create environmental challenges that can create more opportunities for new project projects. Foreign Direct Investments.According to the report of the Council on Foreign Relations, foreign direct investment (FDI) has grown rapidly and is now the largest and most stable source of private capital for developing countries and economies in transition, accounting for 50% of the flows of capital. The number of projects in which capital enters developing countries has increased. In the private sector, the world economy emphasizes the power of international organizations to conduct business in emerging economies such as India, China, the countries of Eastern Europe, Nigeria and South Africa. The growing demand for industrial oils and other mining industries has also contributed to large projects in Africa, Asia, South America and the Middle East.Role of multilateral and bilateral Aid for development projects Some events have led to a significant increase in the number of projects financed by developing countries in Africa, especially from the 20th century to modern times. Local public finances, international donors, international aid, personal freedom, financing and private investment have increased dramatically. Both (World Bank, United Nations, European Union, African Development Bank, Asian Development Bank, etc.) and two national donors (according to the country’s special assistance programs, such as the United States Agency for International Development, Canada and external support from Japan,etc.). Two international organizations and donors, as well as civil society, have been seeking more investments to reduce the tide of poverty and reduce death and prevention, especially in Africa. The most developed countries (G8) also commit to provide financing to developing countries. Although the real donation project did not fulfill the promise. According to the World Bank, the International Development Organization (IDA) established by the industrialized countries will reduce $ 25 billion in poverty and climate change projects. The UN Millennium Declaration and Development Goals.In September 2000, government officials from around the world met in New York and announced the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in eight areas, which could reduce poverty, prevent HIV / AIDS, provide basic primary education and improve health and welfare. Environment The objective is to establish the 2015 date as a time to reduce these human problems by 50%. To achieve these key policy objectives, in 2005, the United Nations established a senior minister to confirm the commitments of the Millennium Development Goals and increase institutional efficiency. International development, strengthening of national development strategies and strengthening assistance to other countries. This pressure will increase the total amount of grants in 2015 to $ 195 billion. As a result of all these objectives, some development projects such as school equipment, roads, water and sanitation, construction of environmentally sustainable equipment, hospitals and services to provide services in developing countries.Global Explosion of Philanthropic giving.Bill and Melinda Gates (the Gates Foundation) formed the basis of the global list of supplies for disease control and poverty reduction. In June 2006, Warren Buffett donated more than $ 31 billion to the Gates Foundation. Other large organizations have partnered with the Gates Foundation, which has increased many agricultural development projects, HIV / AIDS and other health projects in developing countries. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation recently donated $ 306 million to increase the productivity of small farmers and income-generating projects.International Relief Organizations.The Red Cross, World Vision, Oxfam and the doctors without boarding schools have been contributing to various projects and services around the world. After a series of tsunami events in Southeast Asia and East Africa Pacific in 2004, a large amount of resources and construction projects were supported and implemented.Barriers to Project Management Implementation Despite the popularity of large and medium-sized projects in developing countries, our selection of field research projects and literature audits show that many projects do not give less, intermediate stops, there are no quality tests available a few years ago and the scope is inside. Undoubtedly, project managers in developing countries face these aspects of the system that are very serious for the project manager. It is recommended to identify specific problems for the country or region in order to eliminate restrictions on local implementation capacity before the establishment, planning, implementation, monitoring and closure of the project. That is why we recommend organizing the process as a preview before the five processes (compilation, planning, implementation, control and installation) recommended by PMI PMBOK begin. The Significance of Local Project Management Capacity Regardless of the industry, the evaluation of human and organizational capabilities allows decision-making teams and projects to develop the necessary skills, physical and financial resources, including basic systems and existing mechanisms for sustainable projects. When evaluating and effectively developing the capacity of sustainable development projects, the following objectives must be achieved: Understand the needs of project implementation projects. Capacity issues are reviewed at the level of the organization, the team and the individual levels. Understand the actual expectations and perspectives of all partners and stakeholders that can influence the success of the project in the life cycle process before the project is published. Identify the sources of project financing, security commitments and organizations that support the implementation of the project. Once this is known, the project manager can change the project plan to include project activities, system failures, budgets, and deadlines for parties to provide the expected service. Forster contracts between project partners and interested parties. Increase knowledge of institutional and institutional deficiencies and take steps to open as soon as possible before the implementation of the project. To achieve the development of project delivery capabilities, this should be a step in the right direction Obtain information on local suppliers, procurement processors, contractors, consultants and professional organizations that are critical to providing long-term quality projects, budget constraints and the quality of special meetings. Promote the flexibility of the project and the organizational structure. Promote good judgment about the factors that contribute or can hinder the success of the projectLocal Capacity Project Management Model Capacity repair means evaluating and building the resources needed to implement a message or achieve an objective. The general opinion is that project management teams, national and local governments need many tools to manage their plans and projects effectively. To implement projects effectively, national and local governments, including commercial organizations, need technical tools for scientific support, engineering support, IT technology, support and legal issues, project management, access and support programs. They also need legal authorization to carry out activities such as allowing, implementing, signing, raising funds and managing resources. These problems must be evaluated and resolved during the processing phase, which we consider to be the first gateway to the implementation of the project.The following steps define the main phases for the processes identified under this model:Organizing Process: This is an evaluation project that develops the vision of the project and first explains the ideas of the project. The main activities at this stage include a thorough analysis of the project’s environment. The project environment includes everything that is beyond the five main processes proposed in the PMBOK® Guide, but may affect the scope, budget, time and quality of the project or the delivery of the product. Before the next process, significant evaluations of organizational capacities, internal infrastructure systems, physical space, human resources, collaboration, power and impact, financial management capabilities, governance and transparency and transparency are required. procurement management capabilities. Skills, organizational processes, technical limitations and other resources should be adequately documented and appropriately reduced. If the gap does not fall below this level, it will increase risk management and seek support for the previous administration. The product that can be provided for the first process is the project delivery report and opens the first door (door 1) of the project development phase. Support for small projects and partners should also be open to this stage.Initiating Process: Once the organizational process is completed, the project stakeholders are developed and signed by stakeholders and key partners. The launch must also cover the organizational, financial and human resources commitments during the project phase. The main activities should focus on the evaluations of business cases or projects and on alternative analysis schemes for the delivery of projects. It should also describe the project’s success criteria and provide a basis for success assumptions. Another important activity at this stage is the budget allocation and the commitment to the life cycle of the project. The progress approved by the partners and interested parties through the project charter should lead to the second door of the process, the project plan. The project manager must be assigned and the project must be authorized to enter the final phase. Planning Process: in this stage, the activity will include the development of an original project plan that defines the original, the cost, the schedule, the risk, the communication, the acquisitions, the structural breakdown (WBS) and the quality requirements. The project manager should also be able to assemble the team and develop the responsibilities of the team and the doctor. The main product can be an alternative project and a previous design report based on the project plan. If more details are collected, the plan must be updated and a competitive tender must be developed to obtain and maintain the consultant (if the design work can not be done internally, it means within the executing agency). The project plan provides a complete roadmap and guidance, which includes organization, organization, implementation and control, and elimination. This phase of the project is being reviewed to decide to enter the implementation phase. A basic project plan has been developed for this phase, and any changes can only be approved by the project control committee, and members must have a senior management and project managers. Executing Process: Gate 3 door opens at this point. This is the phase of final engineering and architecture design development. Activities also include construction contract bid advertising, contract award, field construction, development of As-built drawings for the post-construction records. Construction audit report, operations and performance testing. Controlling Process (sometimes referred to as Monitoring): Activities under this process (gate 4) iterate with executing which is essentially to control all the tasks itemized under work breakdown structure (WBS). All project risks, work progress, project deliverables and milestones, testing, quality assurance, project communication, partnership level of interests and commitments are monitored and controlled by the project manager. Other task to be carried out under this process involves project status and management reporting including deliverable acceptance. A major briefing of project substantial completion need to be carried out by the project manager to all the stakeholders and partners. Closing Process: Under this phase, a formal acceptance of the project takes place. This is a ribbon cutting time for project sponsors and partners. This brings the project to a systematic conclusion. Activities include closing contracts and financial appropriation, project team termination and development of a close-out report. Another major component of this close-out phase is to conduct post project delivery assessment to assure that the project benefit the intended users or customers or in some cases citizens. Finally, activity involves archiving of close-out information including lessons learned in the official filing records.Conclusion Due to the high demand from African countries and other developing countries, professional international project organizations such as PMI and international organizations must work with local project management associations to help assess skills and potential shortcomings. Organization Given that PMI objectives are considered “global concepts, organizations will value and use project management and influence their achievements”, the ethics of PMI and other international project management agencies can help strengthen organizations in the countries In development, especially In Africa A special way to explain and solve these problems will be discussed in another forum.

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