PCN-540Topic 2: Short Answer Questions Directions: Provide short answers of 100-150 words each for the following questions/statements. Do not exceed 200 words for your response. Use the textbook, and any other scholarly resources to support your responses. Include at least two to three peer-reviewed journal articles beyond the textbook and course readings.What is the definition of and the core meaning of research literacy as it relates to counseling psychology? Research literacy is the ability of individuals to access and interpret scientific information which is an important skill in counseling psychology.
Due to the continuing advancements in medical research, it is necessary for counselors to understand different counseling concepts that they are able to successfully integrate into their profession (Senders, Erlandsen, Zwickey, 2014).
Research literacy gives counselors adequate competence that is important in helping them to use scientific evidence in counseling. This literature is beneficial to counselors as it is meant to provide more effective ways of carrying out different activities that are meant to achieve positive patient outcomes (Senders, Erlandsen, Zwickey, 2014). Research literacy requires that counselors are familiar with the current research articles addressing different counseling aspects. This will help them in retrieving important literature that can be useful in addressing certain counseling problems as well as contribute in research development by providing some of the research problems that need to be addressed (Senders, Erlandsen, Zwickey, 2014). What specific methods would you utilize in beginning your review of the literature within counseling research? Discuss the steps and rationale for conducting a review of the literature.Include specific examples related to the methods and steps for conducting a review of the counseling literature in your response. Literature review is an important process that helps researchers in collecting adequate information related to certain research problems. One of the methods that can be utilized in beginning a literature review includes using a systematic review that focuses on the methodology and the data collected due to the nature of healthcare problems (Sheperis, Young, & Daniels, 2017). This includes identifying research articles that are broad or narrow to specific research questions. The first step for conducting a review of the literature is formulating the research question. This involves justifying the need for conducting the review. The second process involves searching for literature addressing certain aspects related to the research question (Sheperis, Young, & Daniels, 2017). This is meant to guide the decision-making process by analyzing the suitability of the literature in addressing the research question. The third step involves screening for relevance which is a process of evaluating the literature and its applicability based on the research question. The fourth process involves gathering data and other important information from the selected articles. The last step is analyzing the data and synthesizing it in a way that it can be used to contribute to the problem of interest (Sheperis, Young, & Daniels, 2017).Read Self-Maintenance Therapy in Alzheimer’s Disease, located in the reading materials. What were the variables under investigation by this study? What methods were used to obtain the study’s sample? What specific measurements were used to assess or analyze the study’s variables? Discuss any potential methodological problems in this study. Include specific examples in your response. The study aimed at evaluating a short-term residential treatment programme designed to prepare patients with dementia and caregivers for life with a progressive disease (Romero & Wenz, 2001). The variables under the treatment program included the intensive rehabilitation for patients based on the concept of self-maintenance and an intervention programme for caregivers. All patients who had been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease or mixed dementia according to the ICD-10-criteria and their caregivers who had completed the treatment programme at the Alzheimer Therapy Centre in Bad Aibling between May 1999 and April 2000 were selected (Romero & Wenz, 2001). Caregivers who gave their perceptions of patient’s difficulties completed the prepared questionnaires. The study’s variables were analyzed using a systematic approach that was used for evaluating patient’s psychosocial resources and for developing rehabilitation programmes (Romero & Wenz, 2001). This focused on the intra-individual system and the interpersonal support system. Potential methodological problems in this study include the absence of a control group that provided limited possibilities in the results of the study. This requires further controlled studies to support the results reported on this study (Romero & Wenz, 2001). How would you define Evidence-Based Practice (EBP)? Discuss the inherent strengths and limitations of EBP. Be sure to include your comments regarding what is meant by validity of treatments. Evidence-based practice is an approach meant to enhance clinical practice by the application of the best available research. New healthcare practices are continuously being developed to enhance the previous and traditional practices (Senders, Erlandsen, Zwickey, 2014). This is also important in addressing the changing patient’s needs and circumstances that may require different interventions. Evidence-based practice main role is ensuring that healthcare practitioners make informed decisions to promote the health of individuals by applying the best and current evidence practice (Senders, Erlandsen, Zwickey, 2014). One of the strengths of EBP is improving healthcare practitioner’s competence in diverse aspects. Using the current and the best evidence in addressing different healthcare issues has been indicated to enhance a healthcare practitioner’s competence in performing his/her roles effectively (Senders, Erlandsen, Zwickey, 2014). A limitation of EBP is the rapid environmental and social aspects that may render EBP obsolete. This may limit the relevance of EBP and is application in organizations that may affect the expected outcomes. The use of EBP also requires healthcare practitioners to develop new skills to validate treatments by comparing the available scientific research evidence (Senders, Erlandsen, Zwickey, 2014). Watch the Objectivity and subjectivity in social research video. What are the issues of objectivity and subjectivity as they relate to methodological issues in conducting counseling research? Objectivity and subjectivity are important terms in research as they guide how researchers and users of this information analyze information (Scott, Williams, & Letherby, 2014). The objectivity aspect focuses on the truth and reality where this information may apply to all settings where else subjectivity is an aspect that focuses on different scenarios and situations meaning that this information may vary depending on certain factors (Scott, Williams, & Letherby, 2014). Some of the issues of objectivity and subjectivity as they relate to methodological issues in research include the personal attributes of researchers that are involved in conducting research. Subjectivity guides most of the attributes and aspects of research from the selection of the topic, selecting methodologies to use, and interpreting the collected data (Scott, Williams, & Letherby, 2014). Researchers are encouraged to reflect on their personal values and how they may impact the research process. Another issue pertaining to objectivity and subjectivity is the issue of how these two terms may affect each other. Objectivity may nullify subjectivity as it depicts the researcher as a passive receiver of information from external sources. On the other hand, subjectivity may nullify objectivity as the researcher’s values have been identified to define the world in focus during the study (Scott, Williams, & Letherby, 2014). What makes a counseling treatment empirically supported and validated? Include the description of at least two empirically supported and validated treatments from the course textbook and readings in your response. Include the mental health conditions that are treated by the empirically supported and validated treatments identified. Counseling treatment may be empirically supported or validated. An empirically supported treatment involves the use of evidence-based treatments where studies are carried out to determine the most effective approach (Castelnuovo, 2010). On the other hand, empirically validated treatments include treatments that have undergone investigations and experimentation to determine their effectiveness in addressing certain medical issues. Examples of empirically supported treatments include the use of dialectical behavior therapy to treat borderline personality disorder which was developed by Marsha Linehan (Castelnuovo, 2010). This treatment has undergone various controlled clinical trials as well as clinical research regarding it the best treatment for BDP. Another empirically supported treatment is the use of cognitive-behavior therapy in treating panic disorder. Significant research has indicated CBT as the most effective treatment approach for panic disorder with the approach outperforming other treatment approaches (Castelnuovo, 2010). An example of empirically validated treatment is cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for treating anxiety behavior and behavior therapy for treating anxiety. These treatments have been scientifically tested to determine their validity and effectiveness in addressing the specific medical issues (Pintea, 2010). ReferencesCastelnuovo, G. (2010). Empirically supported treatments in psychotherapy: towards an evidence-based or evidence-biased psychology in clinical settings. Frontiers in psychology, 1, 27. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00027.Pintea, S. (2010). The Relevance of Results in Clinical Research: Statistical, Practical, and Clinical Significance. Journal of Cognitive & Behavioral Psychotherapies, 10(1), 101″114.Romero, B., & Wenz, M. (2001). Self-maintenance therapy in Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 11(3-4), 333-355.Scott, J., Williams, M., & Letherby, G. (2014). Objectivity and subjectivity in social research [Streaming video]. Retrieved from SAGE Research Methods.Senders, A., Erlandsen, A., Zwickey, H. (2014). The importance of research literature: Developing the critical skill of interpreting medical research. Natural medicine Journal, 6(8), 45-47.Sheperis, C., Young, J. S., & Daniels, M. H. (2017). Counseling research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. Boston: Pearson.