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Nov 26th, 2019

rjas corrected 1 – Copy Essay

Varietal Performance of Groundnut Trend in Tamil Nadu: An Economic Analysis P.Anitha1, R. Senthil kumar2, T.Rajendran3, C.Muralidharan4Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Department of Social Sciences, Agricultural College and Research Institute (AC&RI), Killikulam, Vallanadu, Tamil Nadu, India – 628 252E-Mail: [email protected] Area, Production and Yield of groundnut growing districts like Cuddalore, Dharmapuri, Erode, Kancheepuram, Madurai, Perambalur, Pudukkottai, Salem, Thiruvannamalai, Thiruchirapalli, Vellore, Villupuram districts of Tamil Nadu are calculated. Secondary data for the period from (1998-99) to (2015-16).

Linear function used to compare Trend, Compound growth rate (CGR) and Decomposition analysis are estimated. Linear and Compound growth rate shows that decreasing trend in area & production followed by increasing trend in yield. In decomposition analysis, declining pattern is observed in Tamil Nadu and India due to yield effect and interaction effect.Key words: Groundnut, Trend, Compound growth rate, Decomposition analysis. INTRODUCTION Groundnut an oilseed crop in India, is referred as peanut, earthnut, monkey nut, goober peas, pygmy nuts (Chandra Mohan Misra, 2017).

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Cultivation of groundnut in India, China, Nigeria, Sudan, USA etc., meant for oil and food purpose. Two third of the World Groundnut crop consumed in extracting oil and one third diverted for edible product Groundnut oil, Groundnut Chikki, Groundnut flour. Indian Ground nut accounts 40% of the world area and 30% output (Groundnut ” ICAR). Grown mainly tropical, sub-tropical and in warm temperate regions between 400N and 400S latitudes both Kharif and Rabi crop accounting 26.4 million hectares with a total production of 37.1 2 million metric t. The average productivity is 1400 kg/ha (IOPEPC, Mumbai). Maximum Area in India 70 lakh hectares and second in production 85 lakh metric t (IOPEPC, Mumbai).States where Groundnut is grown are Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The other important northern states where it is grown are Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab.The average area, production and yield of India & Tamil Nadu are given in the annexure and the average area, production and yield of major groundnut growing districts of Tamil Nadu were also given.METHODOLOGYAnalysis namely linear growth rate, compound growth rate and decomposition analysis were calculated based on study made by Agashe DR et.al (2018), Gayathri (2018), Shruthi et.al (2017), Viswanatha Reddy K et.al (2017), Fasih ur rehman et.al (2011). Secondary data were collected from area and production statistics (Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare) from 1998-99 to 2015-16. Data regarding area, production and yield for major groundnut growing districts of Tamil Nadu were collected.1) Linear trend :The following linear regression equation was fitted to area, production and yield of groundnut,y=ax+by = Area/Production/Yield of groundnut in Tamil Nadu.a= Interceptb= Slope co-efficient2) Compound growth rate:Compound growth rates were estimated to know the growth pattern on area, production and yield of groundnut in different districts of Tamil Nadu.The growth model was specified as follows_Y=abt Where, Y = Dependent variable for which growth rate was estimated. a = Intercept. b = Regression coefficient. t = Time variable The compound growth rate (r) was obtained for the logarithmic form of the equation as below: logy=loga+tlogbThe per cent compound growth rate (r) was given as, r=[Antilog-1]—1003) Decomposition analysis : €P=A—€Y+Y—€A+€A—€Y€P = change in production€A = change in area€Y =change in yield A*€Y = yield effectY*€A = area effect€A*€Y= interaction effectRESULTS AND DISCUSSION:Table 1: Linear trend of major groundnut growing districts of Tamil Nadu:District Area Production Yielda b t a b t a b tCuddalore41428.18 -2135.39 -8.2885442.9-3076.26-3.8 1.430.165.14Dharmapuri59375.05-3533.29-5.0296768.95-5118.33-3.731.310.085.02Erode 57994.41-2620.28-7.05101957.59-4748.88-5.031.680.00040.04Kancheepuram42319.17-1919.91-9.24108472.41-3683.27-6.252.430.093.76Madurai 10180.67-501.43-6.2416372.19-752.52-4.941.490.032.93Perambalur46654.52-2923.67-10.7767982.69-3999.13-9.481.40.120.83Pudukkottai39215.11-1819.47-9.5250539.37-1714.7-4.230.90.0884.46Salem 51082.99-2143.65-6.0477344.59-2707.54-2.871.280.0462.79Thiruvannamalai108567.6-2676.51-3.59131468.03673.450.521.110.0664.24Thiruchirapalli23931.2-991.74-4.9237698.31-1161.98-3.291.450.0514.63Vellore 67797.96-1828.81-6.69103130.63-830.07-0.831.320.0663.79Villupuram110443.3-5088.29-5.58164218.35-3876.65-2.791.280.1013.44a= Intercept b= Slope co-efficient t=table valueLinear trend reported in table 1 indicates that Trend in area is found to be negative in selected districts of Tamil Nadu such as Cuddalore (-2135.39), Dharmapuri (-3533.29), Erode (-2620.28), Kanchipuram (-1919.91), Madurai (-501.43), Perambalur (-2923.67), Pudukkottai (-1819.47), Salem (-2143.65), Tiruvannamalai (-2676.51), Tiruchirappalli (-991.74), Vellore (-1828.81), Villupuram (-5088.29).The trend in production is found to positive only in Tiruvannamalai (673.45) and the other districts shows negative trend in Cuddalore (-3076.26), Dharmapuri (-5118.33), Erode (-4748.88), Kanchipuram (-3683.27), Madurai (-752.52), Perambalur(-3999.13), Pudukkottai (-1714.7), Salem (-2707.54), Tiruchirappalli (-1161.98), Vellore (-830.07), Villupuram (-3876.65).The yield shows positive trend Cuddalore (0.16), Dharmapuri (0.08),Erode (0.0004), Kanchipuram (0.09), Madurai (0.03), Perambalur(0.12), Pudukkottai (0.12), Salem (0.046), Tiruvannamalai (0.066), Tiruchirappalli (0.051), Vellore (0.066), Villupuram (0.10).Table 2: Significance of linear trendDistrict Area Production YieldCuddalore-8.29** -3.8** 5.14**Dharmapuri-5.02** -3.74** 5.02**Erode -7.05** -5.04** 0.04 NSKanchipuram-9.25** -6.25** 3.76**Madurai -6.25** -4.95** 2.93**Perambalur-10.77** -9.49** 0.83 NSPudukkottai-9.53** -4.23** 4.46**Salem -6.04** -2.87* 2.79*Tiruvannamalai-3.59** 0.52 NS 4.24**Tiruchirappalli-4.92** -3.29** 4.63**Vellore -6.69** -0.84NS 3.79**Villupuram-5.58** -2.79* 13.44**** Indicates significance at 1% * Indicates significance at 5% NS indicates not significantSignificance in linear trend reported in table 2 indicates that area, production and yield of groundnut in major groundnut growing districts of Tamil Nadu. The area shows negative and significant trend. In production it shows negative and significant trend except Tiruvannamalai (0.52) and Vellore (-0.84) district which shows no significant trend. The yield shows positive and significant trend in all the districts except Erode (0.004) and Perambalur(0.83) which shows not significant.Table 3: Compound growth rate of major groundnut growing districts of Tamil NaduDistrict Compound growth rate %Area Production YieldCuddalore-9.24 -4.65 5.05Dharmapuri-10.98 -7.63 3.75Erode -7.49 -7.43 0.07Kancheepuram-7.72 -5.14 8.98Madurai -8.9 -7.48 1.56Perambalur-21.5 -17.79 4.83Pudukkottai-8.94 -4.76 4.58Salem -6.22 -3.76 2.62Thiruvannamalai-3.16 0.57 3.85Thiruchirapalli-5.95 -3.52 2.59Vellore -3.56 -0.42 3.24Villupuram-7.16 -2.67 4.85Compound growth rate reported in Table 3 shows that area results negative growth rate in major groundnut growing districts of Tamil Nadu such as Cuddalore (-9.24%),Dharmapuri (-10.98%), Erode (-7.49%), Kanchipuram (-7.72%), Madurai (-8.9%), Perambalur (-21.5%), Pudukkottai (-8.94%), Salem (-6.22%), Tiruvannamalai (-3.16%), Tiruchirappalli (-3.16%), Vellore (-3.56%), Villupuram (-7.16%).In production also it shows negative growth rate except Tiruvannamalai district (0.57%) and other districts include Cuddalore(-4.65%), Dharmapuri (-7.63%), Erode (-7.43%), Kanchipuram (-5.14%), Madurai (-7.48%), Perambalur (-17.79%), Pudukkottai(-4.76%), Salem (-3.76%), Tiruchirappalli (-3.52%), Vellore (-0.42%), Villupuram (-2.67%). The yield shows positive growth rate in Cuddalore(5.05%), Dharmapuri(3.75%), Erode(0.07%),Kanchipuram(8.98%),Madurai(1.56%),Perambalur(4.83), Pudukkottai(4.58%), Salem(2.62%),Tiruvannamalai(3.85%),Tiruchirappalli(2.59%),Vellore(3.24%),Villupuram (4.85%).Table 4: Significance of compound growth rateDistrict Area Production YieldCuddalore-12.1** -3.56** 5.14**Dharmapuri-6.69** -3.49** 4.90**Erode -8.10** -5.21** 0.038 NSKanchipuram-14.07** -6.30** 4.07**Madurai -9.26** -6.70** 2.86*Perambalur-8.10** -6.51** 1.94 NSPudukkottai-9.10** -4.09** 4.46**Salem -7.40** -2.26* 2.58*Tiruvannamalai-3.63** 0.61 NS 4.30**Tiruchirappalli-5.42** -3.07** 4.66**Vellore -7.75** -0.4 NS 3.39**Villupuram-7.85** -2.71* 13.44**** Indicates significance at 1% * Indicates significance at 5% NS indicates not significantSignificance of compound growth rate reported in table 4 indicates the significance in area, production and yield of major groundnut growing districts of Tamil Nadu. The area has significant and negative growth rate. In production, Tiruvannamalai and Vellore shows not significant, all the other districts shows significant and negative growth rate. In yield, erode and Perambalur has not significance, all the other districts shows positive and significant growth rate.Table 5: Decomposition analysis of major groundnut growing districts of Tamil NaduCuddaloreeffect/year I period II period overall periodyield effect 24.009 146.68 233.64area effect 67.18 -35.45 -114.98interaction effect 8.8 -11.22 -18.66Dharmapurieffect/year I period II period overall periodyield effect -70.17 29.63 -444.32area effect 190.38 -11.7 667.4interaction effect -20.2 82.07 -123.07Erode effect/year I period II period overall periodyield effect 26.35 63.84 12.27area effect 97.31 61.18 108.9interaction effect -23.66 -25.02 -21.18Kanchipurameffect/year I period II period overall periodyield effect -27.36 20.78 -78.08area effect 112.85 73.02 158.34interaction effect 14.5 6.18 19.74Madurai effect/year I period II period overall periodyield effect -12.09 25.01 1.38area effect 110.33 83.87 99.23interaction effect 1.76 -8.88 -0.62Perambalureffect/year I period II period overall periodyield effect 27.16 179.81 -20.88area effect 71.56 -47.88 26.03interaction effect 1.27 -31.92 94.84Pudukkottaieffect/year I period II period overall periodyield effect 23.41 180.61 259.53area effect 84.99 -71.38 -161.61interaction effect -8.4 -9.23 2.07Salem effect/year I period II period overall periodyield effect 37.1 137.21 -64.88area effect 84.01 -45.51 218.92interaction effect -21.12 8.3 -54.03Tiruvannamalaieffect/year I period II period overall periodyield effect 157.18 259.64 -407.28area effect -45.98 -117.54 384.52interaction effect -11.19 -42.1 122.76Tiruchirappallieffect/year I period II period overall periodyield effect 0.27 3.04 1.33area effect 99.88 91.24 97.92interaction effect -0.16 5.71 0.74Vellore effect/year I period II period overall periodyield effect 3.47 184.56 1206.99area effect 108.6 -77.32 -1153.46interaction effect -12.08 -7.23 46.47Villupurameffect/year I period II period overall periodyield effect 930.54 0.002 293.68area effect -735.83 -0.003 -185.98interaction effect -94.71 100.001 -7.7In Decomposition analysis, the study period was divided into three periods viz., period I (1999-2008), period II (2009-2017) and overall period from 1999-2017.In period I, the output growth is due to yield effect in Tiruvannamalai and Villupuramand in other districts such as Cuddalore, Dharamapuri, Erode, Kancheepuram, Madurai, Perambalur, Pudukkottai , Salem, Trichirappalli, and Vellore it is due to area effect.In period II, the output growth is due to yield effect in Cuddalore, Erode, Perambalur, Pudukkotai, Salem, Tiruvannamalai, Vellore and the area effect in Kanchipuram, Madurai, Trichirappalli. In the district of Dharmapuri and Villupuram it shows that growth is due to interaction effect.In period III (i.e, overall period), it shows that output growth due to yield effect in the districts of Cuddalore, Pudukkotai, Vellore, Villupuram and in Dharmapuri, Erode, Kanchipuram, Madurai, Salem, Tiruvannamalai, Trichirappalli growth is due to area effect. In Perambalur it shows interaction effect.CONCLUSIONSThe above results reveal that area and production shows that decreasing trend and decreasing growth rate. The yield shows that positive trend and increasing growth rate. In decomposition analysis, the change in production is mainly due to the area effect and small amount of change in yield effect and interaction effect. This decrease in the area of groundnut may be due to increase in population of the particular district which leads decrease in area. Decrease in production may be due to the insufficient finance and lack in use of improved technological process in Groundnut cultivation. This can be overcome by creating awareness among the farmers and providing them with proper training and other facilities. The top 3 major groundnut growing areas in Tamil Nadu are Tiruvannamalai, Villupuram and Vellore. The varieties which grown in these areas are TMV 2, TMV 7, TMV 10, VRI 3, VRI 4 5. REFERENCESAgashe DR et.al (2018) Trends of area, production and productivity of groundnut in different districts of Chattisgarh. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2018; 7(4): 1254-1259Chadra Mohan Misra, (2017). Trends in Area Production and Productivity of Groundnut in India: Issues & Challenges, Quest Journals, Journal of Research in Agriculture and Animal Science Volume 4 ~ Issue 7 (2017) pp: 01-06.Gayathri, J. (2018). A Trend Analysis of Area, Production and Yield of Groundnut in India. Shanlax International Journal of Economics, 6(3),15″21Indian Oilseed and Produce Export Promotion Council, IOPEPC, MumbaiRehman, F. et.al (2011). Estimating growth rates and decomposition analysis of agricultural production in Pakistan: pre and post sap analysis. Sarhad J. Agric. 27(1): 125-131Shruthi G., DayakarRao, B., Latika Devi Y & Jolly Masih, (2017). Analysis of Area, Production, andProductivity of Groundnut Crop in Telangana,Agricultural Science Digest ” A Research 37(2) 2017: 151-153Viswanatha Reddy K.,KingslyImmanuelraj T., (2017)Area, Production, Yield Trends and Pattern ofOilseeds Growth in IndiaEconomic Affairs Vol. 62, No. 2, pp. 327-334, June 2017ANNEXURETable 6: Average area,production, yield of groundnut in India and Tamil NaduYear Area(000 ha) Production(000 tonnes) Yield(kg/ha)INDIA TAMILNADU INDIA TAMILNADU INDIA TAMILNADU1996-2001 29.27 36.63 25.41 4.79 26.98 21.522001-06 25.99 26.80 24.30 33.88 29.09 20.412006-11 24.24 20.90 24.92 32.74 5.55 25.702011-16 20.48 15.66 25.35 28.57 38.35 32.35Source: Author’s Calculation using Season and Crop report 2012Table 7: Average area of groundnut in major groundnut growing districts of Tamil NaduDistrict Area1998-2001 2001-2004 2004-2007 2007-2010 2010-2013 2013-2016Cuddalore35.54 21.40 14.62 11.82 8.04 8.58Dharmapuri46.93 19.80 10.07 7.82 8.36 7.01Erode 30.65 16.91 20.94 12.72 9.09 9.69Kancheepuram30.87 19.56 16.40 13.99 11.22 7.96Madurai 31.55 17.97 21.43 12.77 8.86 7.42Perambalur36.16 29.27 23.39 7.79 1.51 1.88Pudukkottai30.34 17.62 18.91 15.73 11.75 5.66Salem 30.22 18.62 16.32 13.03 10.71 11.10Thiruvannamalai18.70 19.72 19.29 17.52 11.69 13.08Thiruchirapalli32.30 13.44 17.80 14.86 11.69 9.91Vellore 21.65 17.56 18.56 16.48 13.72 12.03Villupuram34.53 17.05 14.69 13.83 9.82 10.07Source: Author’s CalculationTable 8: Average production of groundnut in major groundnut growing districts of Tamil NaduDistrict Production1998-2001 2001-2004 2004-2007 2007-2010 2010-2013 2013-2016Cuddalore29.18 19.42 14.46 10.68 10.39 15.87Dharmapuri43.42 16.12 9.76 9.09 11.66 9.94Erode 33.88 13.92 20.19 13.38 8.32 10.30Kancheepuram24.90 17.74 17.39 16.26 14.56 9.16Madurai 30.94 16.27 20.54 13.70 9.90 8.65Perambalur32.71 27.40 22.11 12.68 1.91 3.19Pudukkottai26.20 14.73 20.76 13.88 14.32 10.10Salem 31.64 15.17 13.05 11.60 14.10 14.44Thiruvannamalai15.32 15.82 16.66 19.20 15.66 17.33Thiruchirapalli27.84 12.71 18.52 14.04 14.04 12.85Vellore 22.38 13.17 14.46 16.09 16.12 17.78Villupuram25.09 15.29 14.45 17.33 12.47 15.37Source: Author’s CalculationTable 9: Average yield of groundnut in major groundnut growing districts of Tamil NaduDistrict Yield1998-2001 2001-2004 2004-2007 2007-2010 2010-2013 2013-2016Cuddalore11.94 13.28 14.86 13.43 18.92 27.57Dharmapuri14.06 11.62 14.72 17.59 20.23 21.78Erode 18.72 13.71 16.15 17.93 15.39 18.09Kancheepuram12.54 14.16 16.77 18.37 20.25 17.93Madurai 15.62 14.45 15.96 17.00 18.08 18.90Perambalur9.32 9.76 10.19 40.17 13.06 17.50Pudukkottai12.31 12.31 16.46 13.36 18.22 27.33Salem 17.19 12.46 13.10 14.60 21.41 21.25Thiruvannamalai13.47 12.58 13.98 17.43 21.42 21.10Thiruchirapalli13.54 14.95 16.67 14.98 19.20 20.67Vellore 16.76 11.97 12.62 15.79 18.95 23.91Villupuram10.96 13.37 14.81 18.91 19.13 22.82Source: Author’s CalculationTable 10: Season and variety of groundnut in Tamil NaduSeason/ District VarietyChithiraipattam (Apr”May) Pollachi, Theni and TenkasiTMV 2, TMV 7, JL 24, CO2, VRI 2, VRI 3, ALR 2, ALR 3, VRI 4a) Early adipattam (June”July) Kanchipuram, Tiruvallur, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Cuddalore and Villupuram.TMV 2, TMV 7, TMV 10, VRI 3, VRI 4 5b)Salem, Namakkal, Dharmapuri, Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur, Karur, Pudukottai, Thanjavur, Tiruvarur and Nagapattinam.CO2, CO 3, JL 24, VRI 2, VRI 3, VRI 4, CO(GN)6c) Erode and Coimbatore.CO 2, CO 3, JL 24, VRI 2 VRI 3, VRI 4, BSR 1,Late Adipattam (July ” Aug) Madurai, Dindigul, Theni, Sivagangai, Virudhunagar, Tirunelveli, Thoothukudi, Salem, Namakkal, Kanyakumari, Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur, Karur, Ramanathapuram and Pudukottai.TMV 2, TMV 7, TMV 10, CO 1, CO 2, CO 3, JL 24, VRI 2, VRI 3, BSR1,VRI4, CO(GN)6Aippasipattam(Oct): Kanyakumari,Kanchipuram,Tiruvallur, Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur, Karur, Cuddalore and Villupuram.TMV 7, TMV 2, CO 2, JL 24, VRI 2, VRI 3, BSR 1, VRI 4Summer (Apr ” July)All districtsTMV 2, TMV 7, CO 1, CO 2, CO 3, VRI 2, VRI 3, BSR 1, VRI 4Margazhipattam(Dec ” Jan)All districts except Erode &CoimbaTMV 2, TMV 7, CO 1, CO 2, VRI 2,VRI 3, VRI 4 BSR 1, VRI 4Masipattam (Feb ” Mar) : (New Delta areas of Thanjavur, Tiruvarur, Nagapattinam)TMV 2, TMV 7, CO 2, JL 24, VRI 2, VRI 3, BSR 1, VRI 4Source: agritech.tnau.ac.in

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