This chapter presents various related literature and studies. Related literature includes commentaries and reviews of other folks regarding the reading, terminology acquisition, and anxiety. Related studies include various researches, thesis, or studies related to the present investigation.

Foreign Literature

Bernhardt (32) thinks that is important to identify that second language reading is a fresh and different literacy. Therefore this can be a complex social and psycholinguistic process that can’t be separated into reading components and language components. Indeed, it can be hypothesized that second terms reading is in part centered of first vocabulary literacy and other language operations.

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Chan and Wu (5) talk about the three perspectives from which research studies on anxiousness are conducted. They are trait anxiety, express stress, and situation-specific nervousness. Trait anxiousness, a purpose or acquired behavioral disposition that predisposes an individual to perceive a wide range of objectively non-dangerous circumstances as intimidating, and to reply to these circumstances with anxiety condition reactions disproportionate in power to the magnitude of the target hazard, is relatively everlasting and regular personality feature (Spielberger 10). Express anxiety is apprehension experienced at particular instant, for example, prior to taking tests. This anxiety can be provoked in the confrontation of the perceived threat (MacIntyre & Gardner 157 – 158). However, it is momentary and altered with time. To be able to attribute the experience to a particular source, researchers choose situation specific perspective to the study of stress. This perspective focuses on the situations where panic is aroused which kind of anxiety is therefore termed as situation-specific nervousness. Unlike characteristic and state point of view, situation-specific point of view requires the respondents to attribute their panic to particular resources. Specific situations may offer more understanding to particular stress in diverse situations.

Worde (Students’ Perspectives on Foreign Language Anxiety) talks about that some students were unacquainted with foreign language anxiousness, others were doubtful, but still conscious of a generalized feeling of uneasiness. He mentions that the shortcoming to comprehend that which was being said in the class provoked considerable stress and anxiety among students. Other factors which donate to anxiety include:


Speaking activities

Pedagogical and instructional practices

Error correction

Native speakers

Language anxiety, matching to Zheng (8) is a pervasive phenomenon, especially among the spanish learning population. Rather than assuming its generic property as one type of stress and anxiety, it is essential to deal with this conceptually intricate psychological feeling from diverse angles. Language anxiousness is not only an additional factor that is negligible in second/international language learning. It is indeed a central emotional construct that is essential in influencing second/international language learning. He mentions that terminology anxiety threshold is a level of language anxiousness below which second or spanish learners feel challenged, yet not overwhelmingly restless. Hence, it is important to comprehend language nervousness threshold in order to help learners and instructors to be aware of the comfort level of the students.

Due to the characteristics of situation stress, “the term situation-specific nervousness has been used to stress the persistent and multi-faceted dynamics of some anxieties” Corresponding to Horwitz, Horwitz, and Deal (113), foreign language stress and anxiety belongs to situation-specific stress and anxiety.

In this article “Overcoming Vocabulary Anxiety”, Guess expresses that what appears to be some sort of panic attack or an instance of chronic stage fright could be occurring on college or university campuses every day. He mentions that students may not be alert to their problem and there could be lots of factors that might have an impact on their learning (par. 3).

Garza, Horwitz, and Saito (204) developed the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Range (FLCAS) and Foreaign Terminology Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS). FLCAS (Horwitz, Horwitz, and Cope 129) was developed to assess the degree to which a respondent seems anxious in a spanish classroom predicated on the construct of spanish classroom anxiety being truly a amalgamated of communication apprehension, concern with negative evaluation and test nervousness. The range is a 33-item 5-point Likert range which include 24 favorably worded and 9 adversely worded items. FLRAS on the other side elicits students’ self-reports of nervousness over various aspects of reading, their perceptions of reading issues in their concentrate on terms, and their perceptions of the relative difficulty of reading as compared to the difficulty of other dialect skills. It includes 20 Likert range items also have scored on the 5-point scale. The theoretical amounts of the FLCAS and FLRAS scales are from 33 to 165 and from 20 to 100, respectively.

Local Literature

Foreign Studies

Kimura (iv) conducted a report to research second language listening anxiety (L2 hearing stress and anxiety) among university or college students learning English in Japan and demonstrate that L2 hearing involves social concerns that are specific to L2 adjustments. Successful performance in aural relationship presupposes common understanding, and L2 listeners have good reason to become restless when it is doubtful whether they properly comprehend what others say. The verbal data advised that L2 tuning in stress and anxiety was receiver-specific for the reason that it engaged concerns over comprehending and responding properly to aural messages. They also indicated that the degrees of L2 listening nervousness were (a) vunerable to individual variations, and (b) affected by different interpersonal situations.

Bordbar and Shariati (179) looked into the interrelationship of Foreign Language Reading Panic (FLRA), Reading Skills (RP) and Word Feature Understanding (TFA). The analysis surveyed and analyzed 74 students from Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. The results suggested that there is no significant marriage between RP and RA, positive significant romance between RP and TFA and negative significant romance between TFA and RA. Also results uncovered that there is no factor between foreign language reading anxiousness, reading skills and wording feature awareness ratings of guy and feminine students, because of this; there is no romance between gender and these three constructs.

Cubukcu (133) explored on the consequences of stress and anxiety in the spanish classroom. The aim was to concentrate on the partnership between nervousness and second language learning and the ways to cope with anxiety among college or university students. 120 students were asked to write down the things that led these to feel anxious in the classroom and then the researcher placed interviews with these students in regards to what caused stress in the division. The main sources of anxiety were recognized as: (a) Presenting before the course, (b) Making flaws, (c) Shedding face, (d) Lack of ability expressing oneself, (e) Fear of failure, (f) Teachers, and (g) Concern with living up to the expectations. It is figured teachers should consider the opportunity that nervousness is in charge of the student behaviors before attributing poor university student performance to inabiility, inadequate history or poor determination.

Zhao (x) explored the topic on the foreign language reading anxiousness among learners of Chinese language in colleges in the United States. A total of 125 learners of China in a sizable public research college or university in the U. S. had taken part in this survey study. The primary data source originated from the two anxiety instruments, namely, SPANISH Classroom Anxiety Range and SPANISH Reading Anxiety Scale in addition to a record information questionnaire. The conclusions recommended that reading was as anxiety-provoking to learners of a non-cognate non-western dialect as speaking performed. The new scripts were found to be the major source of foreign language reading stress, which proved one of the hypothesized sources of Saito in 1999.

Song (vi) shown his study, investigating the consequences of spanish reading nervousness on Korean ESL learners’ reading strategy use and reading understanding. Data were collected from forty-five Korean students who were signed up for either ESL programs or graduate programs at UT. The students required the foreign language reading anxiety size (FLRAS) followed by a track record questionnaire. Based on their FLRAS ratings, six participants who have been grouped as high, mid, and low stress and anxiety were invited to an individual reading study. The results exhibited that there is a fair amount of FL reading anxiousness among Korean ESL learners. Although it seems at first glance that reading in a FL is not anxiety-provoking, the effect indicated it can indeed arouse nervousness in some learners scheduled to distinct features of FL texts including a different orthography, textual organizations, and social subject areas. The results showed that highly restless students who have been occupied with off-task thoughts tended to make use of more local strategies while less troubled students hired more global strategies and background knowledge strategies.

Liu and Sammy (1363) surveyed a complete of 189 Taiwanese college or university students from assorted majors at a college or university in North Taiwan to learn the role of Chinese-English syntactic dissimilarities in English reading anxiety. With the use of the SPANISH Reading Anxiety Size and the Survey of Stress in Reading Chinese-English syntactic differences (SARCE; a self-designed measure), the analysis showed that Chinese-English syntactic differences in the unaggressive and relative constructions were an important factor attributing to the members’ English reading anxiousness.

Mohd. Zin and Rafik-Galea (41) shown their findings predicated on a report which investigated the relationship between reading stress and anxiety and comprehension performance of academics text messages among ESL Malay students. A complete of 218 first-year low skills ESL learners participated in this research. The findings demonstrated that the stress influenced the topics’ reading performance significantly.

Wu (273) conducted a study investigating the partnership between language anxiousness (LA) and reading anxiety (RA), of course, if students’ reading comprehension performance differs across different levels of LA and RA. The issues of whether students’ LA and RA vary with gender and the length of language learning were also explored. The results from two options of anxiousness, and two reading comprehension exams completed by 91 school students confirmed that RA was related to LA, but they were two different phenomena in spanish learning. Although reading comprehension performance did not vary significantly with the students in various levels of LA and RA, a general craze of lower LA and RA going with higher performance was revealed. Students’ LA decreased with the learning in reading classes while RA confirmed no distinctions. These results suggest that students with LA generally have RA. Decreasing students’ anxiety and creating a low-anxiety school room environment will help improve students’ reading understanding performance. Since RA appears to be a more stable construct as compared to LA, dealing with RA may require more.

Le (v) researched the affective characteristics of North american college students learning Chinese language in China, including their reasons for learning Chinese language and studying overseas, their values about dialect learning and their spanish stress. The students were split into 3 groups predicated on their ethnic traditions. The influence of their ethnic dialects and cultures and other related track record factors on three ethnic communities’ reason, beliefs and stress were explored through quantitative analyses and cross-comparison analyses. A total of 133 American students (4. 52% of the prospective population) signed up for Chinese programs in seven key colleges in China participated in this research. The findings of this study showed that American students learning Chinese in China were highly encouraged but also highly restless foreign language learners. A substantial majority of them had an extended history of spanish learning, savored learning languages, and presumed that they might ultimately figure out how to speak Chinese very well.

Garza, Horwitz, and Saito (202) investigated in foreign language reading stress and anxiety. Three-hundred eighty-three students enrolled in first-semester university French, Japanese, and Russian courses (n=192 for France, 114 for Japanese, and 77 for Russian) participated in this analysis. Two equipment were used in this research: the FLCAS3 and a musical instrument specifically developed to evaluate stress and anxiety related to FL reading, the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Range (FLRAS). The finding suggests that students with higher levels of FL anxiety also tended to acquire higher levels of FL reading stress and vice versa.

Local Studies

Go, Lucas, and Miraflores (94) conducted a study to determine the causes of anxiousness in English vocabulary learning of overseas students in the Philippines. Findings claim that these kind of learners used vocabulary technique to successfully learn the British language also to handle their English school anxiety. Two hundred fifty overseas students were the respondents of this study. The prospective participants were foreign school students taking any course in these organizations provided that these are enrolled in any English course during the time of the administration of the questionnaires. It has been discovered that the employment of this strategy enables the learners to have demand of their own learning as this serves as their basic help to learn other macro skills in the mark language.

Del Villar (159) recognized starting student’s attributions about their dental communication anxieties. A total of 250 students were contained in the study. Results disclosed an eight factor model detailing 69. 11% of the full total variance in the data. The factors are expectation, training and experience, audience, self-worth, rejection, verbal fluency, planning and previous unpleasant experience.

Cao (73) likened the two types of foreign language class anxiety level (FLCAS). FLCAS was constructed where items reflect the characteristics of foreign language anxiety. There exhibited two types of FLCAS which can be three factor model and four factor model. The three factor model has three domains which can be communication apprehension, test panic, fear of negative analysis. The four factor model has four domains which are communication apprehension, test nervousness, fear of negative analysis, and fear of British classes. The FLCAS was implemented to a sample (N=300) and the factors were validated using Confirmative Factor research (CFA). The results confirmed that the three factor style of FLCAS gets the better fit.

Cequena and Gustillo (280) investigated on the connection between writing nervousness and writing performance. The respondents of the analysis composed of 17 freshman college students, majoring in Computer Studies. Results of the quantitative analysis of writing panic revealed that there surely is a positive correlation between essay results (argumentative and definition essays) and writing panic.

Balili (1) analyzed level of dialect anxiety and its effect on dental performance in English of Teachers University freshmen of the School on Mindanao. Using the descriptive correlational method, with the SPANISH Classroom Anxiety Scale and Clark’s Four Range System, it was found out that there is no significant marriage between your two variables since Bouchard’s Picture Discuss their language anxiety. The result recommended that a similar analysis be conducted but using analysis tools that would clearly measure that language anxiousness and the dental performance of the students.

Synthesis and Relevance of the Related Literature and Studies

The overview of related literature and studies is relevant for this study in discovering precise evaluation and interpretation of data compiled. The prior studies also helped the researcher in planning the conceptual platform and research paradigm.

The studies conducted by Mohd. Zin and Rafik-Galea, Music, Bordbar and Shariati, and Go, Lucas, and Miraflores are specifically most beneficial to the researcher as to the persistence of the relevant research method to use.

Garza, Horwitz, and Saito’s analysis assists the researcher in discovering the research tool and statistical types of procedures to use in the analysis.

The ideas of Krashen’s, Gardner and MacIntyre’s, Eskey, and Horwitz supply the researcher insights into the development of conceptual framework for this review.