Research and critique the following change management theories:Kotter’s 8 Step Change ProcessLewin’s Freeze, Change, Unfreeze modelMckinsey’s 7’s modelHiatt’s ADKAR modelOne other change model of your choice.”Change is the only constant.”” Heraclitus, Greek philosopherManagement Theory definition: -A collection of ideas which set forth general rules on how to manage a business or organization. Management theory addresses how managers and supervisors relate to their organizations in the knowledge of its goals, the implementation of effective means to get the goals accomplished and how to motivate employees to perform to the highest standard.
BusinessDictionary.com. (2018). What is management theory? definition and meaning. [online] Available at: [Accessed 27 Dec. 2018].Kotter’s 8 Step Change ProcessOver 40 years, Dr. Kotter observed many leaders and organisation’s as they tried to transform or implement strategies. He identified and recorded the successful factors and combined them into a methodology, the award-winning 8-Step Process for Leading Change`Step 1: Create UrgencyStep 2: Build a CoalitionStep 3: Create a Vision for ChangeStep 4: Communicate the VisionStep 5: Remove ObstaclesStep 6: Create Short-Term WinsStep 7: Build on the ChangeStep 8: Anchor the Changes in Corporate CultureAdvantages of Kotter’s ModelIt is an easy step by step model which provides a clear description and guidance on the entire process of change and is relatively easy for being implemented.
It focuses on the involvement of the employees for the success in the overall process.Major focus is on preparing and building acceptability for change instead of the actual change process.Disadvantages of Kotter’s ModelSince it is a step by step model, skipping even a single step might result in serious problems.The process can be time consumingThe model is essentially top-down and discourages any scope for co-creation.Can build frustration and dissatisfaction among the employees if the individual requirements are given due attention.Lewin’s Freeze, Change, Unfreeze modelKurt Lewin developed the model – known as “Lewin’s Freeze Phases” – in the early 20th century and it still forms the underlying basis of change management models and strategiesLewin’s three stage theory of change is commonly referred to as Unfreeze, Change, Freeze. This theory can be taken to quite complicated levels, but this is necessary to be able to work with the theory. The theory has been criticised for being too simple. The three steps are unfreezing, movement, and refreezing. The first step, unfreezing, you need to say goodbye to the way things used to be. Managers must understand that employees are being asked to give up tasks and processes that have made them successful in the past and all the emotional and resistance factors will kick in if enough time is not allotted for this step. The second step, movement, is when everyone shifts into neutral. Employees may have given up their old ways of accomplishing tasks, but they may not quite be ready to start using the new process. During this step, employees may seem a little uncomfortable and there is often confusion. Managers must manage this step carefully or employees may try to revert to the old process. The final step, refreezing, is when everyone moves forward and starts accomplishing tasks in the new manner. Again, great care must be taken when managing this step to identify resistance and prevent personnel from going back to the original processAlthough the theory was originally presented in 1947, the Kurt Lewin model is still extremely relevant. Many other modern change theories are based on the 3-stage Lewin modelMckinsey’s 7’s modelMcKinsey 7s model is a tool that analyses organisational structure by looking at 7 key elements: strategy, structure, systems, shared values, style, staff and skills, to identify if they are effectively aligned and allow organisation to achieve its objectivesThe model was developed in 1980s by McKinsey consultants Tom Peters, Robert Waterman and Julien Philips with a help from Richard Pascale and Anthony G. Athos. Since the introduction, the model has been widely used by and remains one of the most popular strategic planning tools. It sought to present an emphasis on human resources, rather than capital, infrastructure and equipment, as a key to higher organisational performance. The goal of the model was to show how 7 elements of the organisation, can be aligned together to achieve effectiveness in a company. The key point of the model is that all the seven areas are interconnected and a change in one area requires change in the rest for it to function effectivelyFigure reproduced from www.mckinsey.com. Copyright © 2016Strategy: the plan created to maintain and build competitive advantage over the competition.Structure: the way the organization is structured.Systems: the daily activities and procedures that staff members engage in to get the job done.Shared Values: these are the core values of the company and the general work ethic.Style: the style of leadership adopted.Staff: the employees and their general capabilities.Skills: the actual skills of the employees working for the company.Mindtools.com. (2018). The McKinsey 7-S FrameworkEnsuring That All Parts of Your Organization Work in Harmony. [online] Available at: [Accessed 29 Dec. 2018].Hiatt’s ADKAR modelThe ADKAR model outlines the five building blocks to achieve successful change management:Awareness – Employees must be made aware of the need for change.Desire – Employees must have the desire to participate and fully support the change.Knowledge – By gathering knowledge about the change process the (ultimate) goal of the change will become clear for the employees.Ability – Because of the ability to learn new skills and by managing behavior, change is accepted.Reinforcement – Reinforcement to sustain the change makes it clear for all employees that there is no turning back.Change occurs on two dimensions: the organisation and the employees. Change can only be successful if the change takes place simultaneously. If stagnation surfaces in one of the building blocks in the ADKAR model, then it is advisable to act with respect to this element. This targeted approach focuses on the element with the highest chance of success.The ADKAR model does not just help to determine in advance what steps need to be taken to achieve the right goal, but it also identifies, with the benefit of hindsight, why changes have not been successful. This evaluation is valuable because it can help realize the change after all.ToolsHero. (2018). ADKAR model of change by Jeff Hiatt (Prosci) | ToolsHero. [online] Available at: [Accessed 29 Dec. 2018].Kјbler-Ross’ change curveElisabeth Kјbler-Ross was a psychiatrist who detailed the five stages of grief in her book On Death & Dying (ISBN: 9780415463997). It may seem an unusual choice, but the Kјbler-Ross model based on those five stages fulfils a specific niche in change management ” allowing you to focus on and deal with the emotional response of those affected by the change.Your employees are ultimately responsible for carrying out organisational changes. Systems can be implemented to follow and training to fill in the gaps, but all the systems and training won’t save your change if the employees are opposed to it.No matter how hard you try to remain consistent, emotions play a massive role in our productivity, and by knowing the following the five stages of grief you can anticipate your employees’ reactions and plan and schedule your response well ahead of time. The five stages are:DenialAngerBargainingDepressionAcceptanceBe aware that people can move through the stages in a random order, and they can jump backward or repeat stages too, because of this it’s important to know how to deal with each step and encourage progression to the next.The Kјbler-Ross model is good anticipating and managing the emotional reaction of your employees, which will impact on their productivity. The emotional take on the change process can also let you see in advance where the biggest problems will arise and who will put up the most resistance.Therefore, knowing how employees react to similar situations will let you limit the damage they do if they take their frustration out on their team or your business.The unpredictable nature of emotions means that not everyone will fit this model, and your team may jump between completely different steps at any given time, making it hard to manage your approach for everyone. Some employees may not even fit the model at all and react completely differently to your changes.