Priscilla Mccathern Dr. Jessica LeaBIO 225-H22February 9, 20195 Requirements of Infection ReportClostridium tetani is a toxin that is derived from a bacterial disease of the nervous system called Tetanus Patterson (2012). Clostridium tetani’s portal of entry is contacted through an animal bite, burns, or by an outcome of surgery Patterson (2012). C. tetani spores exist in the soil and when a wound is exposed to the toxic microorganism, the spores germinate and the bacteria is able to multiply (Thwaites, C. L., & Loan, H.
T. 2015, p.69-77). The disease is not associated through person to person contact but through a tear in the skin for which the bacteria seeps in and the microorganism starts to infect the body. Sometimes the cut is so small, people don’t even notice that they are even hurt. Objects that collect rust are gathered from the outdoors or in housing that anchor anaerobic bacteria Cowan (2012). Clostridium tetani has a portal of entry that is summed up to be through any damage contributing to the breakage of skin, even blisters have a result for the arrival of the toxic microorganism Patterson (2012).
Clostridium tetani can only survive in oxygen poor environments, which means it is formed in particles outside of living creatures or objects Cowan (2012). C. tetani attaches to a host via human or animal through pierced, infected skin and begins the toxic process. C.tetani begins to germinate and produce two chemicals, tetanolysin and tetanospasmin, when the toxic microorganism becomes attached inside the skin Cowan (2012). Tetanolysin is a benign protein that has not be associated to correspond with the host, but tetanospasmin is the exotoxin responsible for the symptoms of tetanus Cowan (2012). C. tetani attaches itself to neurons around the body, chiefly motor neurons, where it obstructs certain neurotransmitters resulting in the escape of acetylcholine in the muscles Cowan (2012). The toxins have the ability to lead to stiffness in muscles.The lack of oxygen conditions in the tissue wound provides an acceptable environment for multiplying and growth of C. tetani (Clostridium tetani, 2011). Clostridium tetani spores are very resistant to heat and the usual antiseptics, and they are also relatively resistant to phenol and other chemical agents (Clostridium tetani, 2011). The toxins are established and released into the blood and lymphatics which makes it susceptible to survive against the host defenses (Clostridium tetani, 2011). Clostridium tetani spores are highly resistant and are capable of surviving boiling water as well as household products regardless of their lack of oxygen and the delicate response to heat (Clostridium tetani, 2011). Clostridium tetani is a gram positive bacillus with a morphology like a drumstick, racket or club Patterson (2012). The virulence factor of the toxic disease is called Tetanus, which is a product of the C. tetani spores Patterson 2012). The Clostridium spores invade the host tissue and release tetanolysin and tetanospasmin Patterson (2012). Some strains of the toxic bacteria also have flagella, making the spores motile. In a recent study (Tetanus: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia, 2019) Tetanospasmin is a poison that obstructs nerve signals from your spinal cord to your muscles, causing severe muscle spasms. The spasms can be so strong that they tear the muscles or cause fractures of the spine Patterson (2012). The heavy chain of tetanospasmin, is a neurotoxin which binds to the presynaptic motor neurons; Tetanospasmin also has a lighter chain which inhibits the release of neurotransmitters glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid from inhibitory neurons to muscles Patterson (2012). The consequences from these two toxins is loss of inhabitation in skeletal muscles and features of muscles rigidity and spasms Patterson (2012). The portal of exit for Clostridium tetani has similar factors like the portal of entry. The vacating of the bacterial toxin is released by tetanospasmin and tetanolysin which is carried into the muscles causing them to become disoriented. Clostridium tetani can spread systemically and cause a wide spread of problems such as muscles and neurological complications since it is corresponding with the nervous system. The portal of exit is the treatment for tetanus because the only way for the toxin to exit the body system is for the animal or human to be treated. According to (Tetanus (lockjaw, 2019) Tetanus infection is treated in a hospital and starts with giving the patient tetanus immune globulin, which is a short term protection against the bacteria infection, to control or contrast the effects of the toxins. Penicillin or other antibiotics also may be given to kill the bacteria as well as cleaning the wound and removing dead tissues can help provide a portal of exit for the toxic host (Tetanus (lockjaw, 2019). Muscle spasms due to the neurological aspect of the toxin can be treated with muscle relaxers (Tetanus (lockjaw, 2019). ReferencesPatterson, C. (2012, December 5). Tetanus. Retrieved February 9, 2019, from C. L., & Loan, H. T. (2015). Eradication of tetanus. British medical bulletin, 116(1), 69-77.Retrieved February 9, 2019.Cowan, S. (2012). Tetanus is a disease caused by the bacteria Clostridium tetani. [online] Austincc.edu. Available at: [Accessed 9 Feb. 2019].Sciencedirect.com. (2011). Clostridium tetani – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 Feb. 2019].Tetanus: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. (2019, January 28). Retrieved February 9, 2019, from Human Diseases and Conditions. Tetanus (Lockjaw) – how long, body, last, contagious, causes. Retrieved February 9, 2019, from