8. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY8.1. RESEARCH PARADIGM The research paradigm for the study will be to construct knowledge and reflect on its nature to use a World view, which provides with theories, frameworks, values, and methods shared by community of scholars. Paradigm is broadly seen as overall perspective as well as a way of breaking down the complexity of the real world (Hartas, 2010:16). The paradigm chosen as the philosophical framework of this research is the positivism approach. The positivism approach is believed that there is only one objective reality, which is a singular and separate from consciousness (Quinlan, 2011:99; Clark & Creswell 2008:11), and furthermore the positivism paradigm mostly involves quantitative methodology, utilizing experimental methods (or treatment) and control groups and administration of pre- and post-tests to measure gain scores (Krauss, 2005).
Moreover, Positivism strives to investigate, confirm and predict law-like patterns of behaviour, and is commonly used in graduate research to test theories or hypotheses. This research aimed to measure two variables namely Absenteeism and employee’s productivity amongst Cashiers at Shoprite group in Cape Town.
In positivism studies research findings are usually observable and quantifiable; positivism is influenced by quantifiable observations that lead to statistical analyses (Wilson, 2010:123). Positivism is more related to our research problem compared to other paradigm due to the strong belief which lies on the inter-challenge between two variables of how Absenteeism affects the other variable which is employee’s productivity amongst Cashiers at Shoprite, in which the hypothesis testing can be measured through questionnaires.8.2. RESEARCH DESIGN The research design associated with this study is predictive design. Predictive research design focuses on different situations happening in different places. Its main purpose is to investigate different situations by focusing on the hypothesis general relationship. In a predictive research it aims to answer questions such as:Will an employee bonus scheme lead to higher levels of productivity? Predictive research design gives answers of questions like whom’ (Cashiers), how’ (Absenteeism impacting employee’s productivity), and where’ (Shoprite group in Cape Town). It also focuses on present events as well as the future; this is also used in situations where questions such as what if?’ are being asked (Sebunje, 2010). The study has a need to identify the reason behind the absence of employee’s amongst cashiers at Shoprite Group in Cape Town. The outcome that is predictable for the study is to determine whether absent cashiers from different Shoprite group workplace, understand what impact absenteeism can have on other cashier’s performance by not being productive, and furthermore elaborate facts giving insight to the management of Shoprite group to be aware of what could be the factors contributing to absenteeism amongst cashiers.8.3. RESEARCH METHODThe research method suitable for the study will be Quantitative method, given the reason that it is a relationship study which measure two variables. Quantitative research is defined as the explanation of phenomena by collecting numerical data which is then analysed by using mathematical method especially statistics (Cooper & Schindler, 2011:30; Mujis, 2011:10). Furthermore, it is a process of collecting and analyzing data by means of Social surveys (questionnaires, Cards, Logs) and Statistics, as well as interpreting and writing the results of the study (Creswell, 2008:29). Positivism is more related to quantitative, in which it assumes that behaviours can be observed, numerically, objectively measured and analysed. The use of numerical measurement and analysis is referred to as a quantitative approach, which is research that involves measurable quantities’ (Gratton & Jones, 2004:22). This approach gives proper tools that can be used to measure a relationship study and diagnose the hypothesis.8.4 RESEARCH POPULATIONThe population focus for the research study is based on employees (Cashiers) at Shoprite Group. Venter, R & Levy, A. (2013: 161) clearly defines employee as any person employed in the organisation for wages and salaries’. De Vos, Strydom, Fouche & Delport (2007:194), together with Burns & Grove (2005:40) stated that the research population comprises the entire population that the researcher intends to conduct a particular study in. A research population is normally a large collection of individuals or objects that is the main focus of a scientific study. A population can also be defined as a collection of individuals or objects known to have similar characteristics. All individuals or objects within a certain population typically have a common characteristic or trait (McMillan & Schumacher, 2010:23). The research population for the study will focus on the cashiers respectively into age, race, education status, gender, within different Shoprite Group in Cape Town. 8.5 RESEARCH SAMPLINGSampling is defined as choosing some elements of the population and drawing conclusions on the entire population (Strydom, 2005:194; Cooper & Schindler, 2011:36; Shajani, 2015:40); in this study thirty (30) cashiers from different Shoprite Group stores in Cape Town are chosen from the population to be participant in the study. The sampling technique used in this study is probability sampling which is defined as, any element or member of the population that has an equal opportunity of being included in the sample. This method of sampling gives the probability that the sample is representative of a population (Showkat & Parveen, 2017:3)Simple Random is one of the simplest forms of random sampling, in which falls underneath probability sampling. Therefore, this method is a fair way to select a sample and it gives equal probability for each element and each combination of elements in the population of being selected as part of the sample. Simple random sampling can be done by using a number of techniques; questionnaires will be the main technique to use for this study (Showkat and Parveen, 2017:3).8.6 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT(S)Data collection is the procedure of gathering the desired information wisely, with least possible distortion, so that the analysis may provide answers that are credible and stand to logic. There are two types of data collection namely primary and secondary data. Primary data is gathered by the researcher on first-hand, and Secondary data is collected and compiled by someone and is available to the public (Sapsford & Jupp, 2006:68). For the purpose of this study the most convenient method to be used is the secondary data in which we will make use of predesigned questionnaires regarding absenteeism and employee’s productivity within the retail industry. In this study the Questionnaires will include the likert-types scale whereby participant will be giving his/her thoughts on the issues. This will enable the respondents to save time while answering the questionnaires and it is suitable for a working environment such as retail industry. These type of questions are easy to compile and understand the results because they are more precise than yes/no or true/false questions. They are very flexible to use when it comes to measure broad topics or get an understanding for specific topic with different perspectives. 8.7 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE (STRUCTURING AND EXECUTION OF THE RESEARCH) The researchers will use secondary data, which will be a predesigned structured questionnaire. We will use a variety of resources such as journals, textbooks, internet, and previous studies or researches that focuses on the impact of absenteeism on employee’s productivity. Data will be collected through face to face meeting; therefore, an appointment will be taken via email with the store manager, to agree on proper schedule for handing out questionnaires to employees at Shoprite more specifically cashiers. We will hand out thirty (30) questionnaires at three (3) different Shoprite stores in Cape Town. This will be done during lunch time, in order to give them time to complete the questionnaires and return them to the researchers on the same particular day. This procedure is more relevant as this quantitative study, it requires a statistical analysis which necessitates getting feedback rapidly in order to give enough time to the researchers to analyse and interpret the findings.8.8 DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis can be defined as a technique used by the researcher to minimise, organise and provide data in a meaningful way (Burns & Grove, 2003:536). According to Tichapondwa (2013:209), whatever ways data may be collected and however accurate it may be, if it is not assessed or analysed correctly it is not helpful in assisting the researcher to resolve the research question. According to Brink (2002:179) statics are defined as a great instrument available to the researcher when engaging with quantitative data analysis. The questionnaire will be analysed and interpreted through the software of Microsoft Excel statistical, therefore after data collection the total of the questionnaires responses from the respondents will be captured into excel spread sheet for each questionnaire. 8.9 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONSEthics is a philosophical branch that focus on the conduct of people and guides the norms or standards of behaviour of people and relationships with each other people, furthermore Ethics refers to an ethos or way of life, which social norms for conduct are distinguishes between acceptable and unacceptable behaviour (Shah, 2011:205; Akaranga & Ongong’a, 2013:8). Furthermore, in conducting a research it is very important for the researcher to carry out an experimental work in order to be dependent upon the people who are willing to collaborate with the researcher and give their time to participate in the research (Taylor, Sinha & Ghoshal, 2006:63). This study will be undertaken under some ethical consideration in regard of the respondents or participants and management who will take part in this particular research, in order to ensure them that all adequate information that will be provided to researchers will be kept confidential; and voluntary participation in the research study will be relative.9. DEMARCATION OF THE STUDY The research study is about measuring the relationship between absenteeism on employee’s productivity amongst cashiers at Shoprite Group, in South Africa in the region of Western Cape Province in Cape Town City during 2019. The areas of focus will be at different branches of Shoprite which are Cape Town, Mowbray and Wynberg; whereby questionnaires will be handed out approximately to ten (10) for each branch, in order to obtain a wide feedback to reach accurate conclusion to the problem. Therefore, feedback will also lead to get findings and make recommendations wherever possible.10. RATIONALE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The study will bring solution to management at Shoprite, on how they would handle absenteeism among employees in the workplace, as well as contribute to the knowledge of management on how to deal with employees who might be absent at work or present but do not work (Presenteeism) and eradicate the problem smoothly. 11. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Limitations can be defined as boundaries that are beyond the researcher’s control, which may consist of the availability of data, the aspect of the study design chosen, short responses from the respondents (Grant & Tomal, 2013:77). The researchers might encounter challenges for meeting face to face with employees; get clear responses to the questionnaires which can be regarded as company confidentiality; the time frame to hand out and collect data as it will be during their lunch time. 12. OUTLINE OF THE DISSERTATION CHAPTERS DESCRIPTION OF CHAPTERSCHAPTER 1 This chapter includes the introduction and general orientation. It consists of an introduction, background of problem, problem statement, research objectives, aims of the study and hypothesis.CHAPTER 2 This chapter consists of an overview of literature review regarding the conceptualisation of absenteeism, type of absenteeism, causes and impacts contributing to absenteeism in retail industry and its effects on employee’s productivity. CHAPTER 3 This chapter focuses on the research methodology which provides a general view on how the research process is going to be planned, the nature of the sample; the population and the method of data collection are defined. Gives an overview of data collection accordingly.CHAPTER 4 This chapter provides presentation and analysis of the research results which will include the data analysis, findings and the interpretation of the data collected in a meaningfully and presentable format.CHAPTER 5 This chapter will present conclusions and recommendations, in this section the researchers will intend to summarise the findings based on the data that will be collected and make recommendations that could be used to elaborate proper procedures and rules to deal with absenteeism amongst cashiers at Shoprite Group in Cape Town. 13. RESEARCH PLAN 14. SUMMARY The research study will be focused on the impact of absenteeism on employee’s productivity amongst cashiers at Shoprite, more specifically in Cape Town. Absenteeism is most critical issues currently affecting companies, in which several reasons can be approached by employees for being absent at work; which ultimately affects the productivity of the organisation in terms of employee’s performance at work and production of goods and service delivery. Therefore, overtime working hours, to cover up for other colleagues being absent at work may lead in working under stress, pressure, fatigue, and lack of satisfaction in the job (cashiers). The study aims to determine the Relationship between Absenteeism and Productivity at Shoprite Group in Cape Town. However, the study will make analyses on the diagnosis of Ho and H1 to whether there is or no relationship between absenteeism and productivity amongst cashiers. Various study regarding absenteeism and employee’s productivity in retail industry will be explored to get an insight to the problem. The research paradigm will be positivism which is commonly used in graduate research to test theories or hypotheses. The research is predictive, whereby the method used will be quantitative for statistical analyses; however, quantitative method is reliable for relationship studies. The employee (cashiers) at Shoprite will be the population sample, in which a probability of sampling method will be more reliable for the study towards participants willingness. We will make use of predesigned questionnaires in total of thirty (30) questionnaires which will be handed out to three (3) different branches of Shoprite across Cape Town, respectively into ten (10) questionnaires each. Data will be analysed and interpreted through Microsoft Excel statistical software; the study will be conducted with some ethics norms to promote confidentiality and gain a positive regard from the respondents. The research study will be focused in the Western Cape province, more specifically in the following branches: Cape Town, Mowbray and Wynberg. The study will help to give insight to management of Shoprite to be aware of the causes of absenteeism within the workplace and elaborate procedures and rules on how to deal with the problem. However, the researchers may face challenges in regard to time frame for interaction with respondents and be provided of enough information which might be seen confidential to the company.