Nanotechnology is poised to revolutionize the fields of materials knowledge, physics, mechanical executive, bioengineering, chemical engineering and the majority of the other areas of technology. It is thus imperative that this technology will have many potential applications in the maritime environment. The actual fact that any dispatch is a home sustained entity according of all walks of life helps it be advisable that no area of the ship will be untouched by request of nanotechnology. Many of these applications are in the conception/infancy level and therefore are referred to as potential applications. The potential applications of nanotechnology in a variety of areas of the marine environment are mentioned in this chapter. The main element guiding criterion analysed for every single broad section of application are:-

(a) Does software of nanotechnology give distinct advantage over the prevailing technologies for the desired purpose?

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(b) Is the application of nanotechnology feasible for the desired purpose or could it be like a fictional concept?

(c) May be the request of nanotechnology for the required purpose economically viable?

Structural Applications

2. Any sea vessel which is intended for any function ranging from weapon carrying system, cargo carrier to research vessel has to have sea worthy composition. Nanotechnology guarantees numerous modified materials which can give phenomenal strength benefit by nanostructuring the materials. That is practically achieved with the aid of composites. The various potential applications of nanotechnology in composites for naval applications are reviewed in pursuing paragraphs.

3. Nano Aluminium Composite. It has been found by research workers in United states that by usage of advanced nanoscience in the control of aluminium results in superior material for difficult and compact structural applications. This process is recognized as cryomilling and it requires producing nano aluminium in the typical aluminium. This process leads to the formation of nanoscale aluminium oxide and nitride contaminants, making the material better and stabilizes the microscopic orientation and structure. The tests conducted on the yield and tensile power have shown improvements of 150 percent in power over untreated aluminium. This nano-treated aluminium is definitely an extremely efficient substitute for making aluminium hulls, aluminium superstructures and various other ship buildings where light weight and high power are highly appealing.

4. Clay Nanoparticles. They are made up of several aluminosilicates and are called as nanoflakes. These, when designed in composites, can incorporate fire retardance, anti-ultraviolet and anti-corrosive behavior. As being a quantitative solution, an addition of 5% of the mass portion of these nanoparticles in composite fibres shows a rise by 40% in tensile durability and 60% higher flexural power as against their typical counterparts. These composites can be used to make sturdier sails, composite structures, sail boat hulls and even as additives for paints.

5. Metallic Oxide Nanoparticles. These are nanosize debris of TiO2, Al2O3, ZnO and MgO. These nanosized material oxides when put into fibres and paint coatings show to raise the antimicrobial, ultraviolet blocking function and self-decontaminating function as against their conventional counterparts. These metallic oxide additives can be utilized for making better fibres and coatings. sturdier sails, composite structures, boat hulls and even as additives for paints.

6. Carbon Nanotubes. This is one of the very most talked about material with nanostructured bottom part. It really is one sixth the weight of material with 100 times the strength and excellent thermal conductivity much like purest precious stone and thermal conductivity very much like copper. These can be impregnated into polymers for explosion facts structures, safety harness and electromagnetic shielding. These can be utilized for various riggings and weight bearing applications.

7. Nanocellular Foam Composition. This structure is made by introducing specific amount of nanoporosity in material which results in light in weight, good thermal insulation and high cracking amount of resistance with no bargain in the mechanised power. This aspect can be utilised in providing superior insulation materials that happen to be extensively found in the outfitting of the dispatch structures.

8. Evaluation. The use of nanotechnology in composites as reviewed above guarantees increased durability for lower weight which is an ideal situation for weight sensitive marine applications. Any weight preserved can be translated into useful payload or cargo carrying capacity depending on end use of the dispatch/vessel. Hence, it is inferred that the structural nanocomposites have potential request in maritime applications view following:-

(a) The quantum of tangible benefits achieved using nanotechnology structured structural composites can’t be achieved by existing micro based mostly structural composites.

(b) The composites are attainable and have been manufactured as part of research/ in situ evaluation.

(c) The price benefit evaluation is not so clear at this stage. However, with the success of research/exams and the results like 100 times increase in strength as in case there is carbon nanotubes, it is a realistic estimation that in future these applications will become affordable.

Application of Nanotechnology for Protective Coatings

9. Sea environment is one of the harshest any structure could go through in the lifecycle. Corrosion therefore becomes a required evil for any marine structures and poses a difficult challenge. It is therefore imperative that considerable research and development switches into ever improved defensive coatings for marine structures. Nanotechnology guarantees a new age in protective covering that is known as nanocoating. They are coatings that are made by use of at least one element at nanoscale to obtain desired properties. The lately reported potential application of nanotechnology for improved protecting coatings for sea structures are discussed in pursuing paragraphs.

Wear rate for traditional zirconia (A) finish v/s nano zirconia coating(B)

10. Nothing Resistance. The coloring coatings are added with scratch resistant additives to improve scratch and abrasion resistance and maintain a stylish appearance over long periods of time. Nano-sized (< 50 nm) inorganic contaminants have been discovered to provide far better wear and scrape resistance in comparison with same materials at microscale. Further, nanoparticles because of the small particle size, do not result the transparency of clear coats. The wear rate for (A) traditional zirconia covering v/s (B) nanostructured zirconia coating are shown in number. It is evidently seen that the performance of nanostructured covering is a lot superior.

Colour change as time passes in QUV weatherometer for organic UV filter, nano ZnO20 and nano ZnO805.

11. Ultra Violet Resistant Coatings. The photochemical degradation brought on by ultra violet(UV) rays is common function of inability of most of the finish systems. This causes the oxidation and decomposition of polymer movies along with inorganic or organic pigments which contributes to discoloration and breaking of paint films. Using nano particles like titania or zinc oxide (ZnO) have shown improved UV resistance in the coatings. The experimental results of high UV opacity of the nanoparticle form of zinc oxides against regular zinc oxide in the covering applications is shown in the amount. It is plainly seen that the nano ZnO addition brings about significantly less yellowing.

Photographs of normal water and olive oil droplets on nano particle layered panel.

12. Normal water and Essential oil Repellent Coatings. The addition of nano debris to finish systems increases the surface and pore size, which in turn increases the surface roughness of any surface. This has been observed to make the surface as drinking water and engine oil repellant. Water and petrol repellent surfaces can be exploited for self cleaning mirrors, building exteriors, domes and ships. It has been reported that addition of titanium oxide nanoparticles in the polymer coatings brings about water and engine oil repellent coatings. The picture of drinking water and olive oil droplets on nanoparticle revised covering is shown in the figure and is clear that this particular and petrol droplets cannot wet the covered surface.

13. Lotus Result. Another interesting request of the nanoparticle addition in coloring coatings is the personal cleaning of surface using ‘Lotus Effect’. In the lotus result, oxidation and chalking of the paint film is bound to the near surface levels such that over time, rain water will wash the very best layer leaving an root clean fresh surface. This development of self applied cleaning paint areas can be considered a boon for exteriors of large buildings, constructions and ships, that may clean on their own and will require lowest maintenance.

14. Open fire Retardant Coatings. Recent research in to the request of nano-size particulate on flame-retardant finish has proven that nano-fillers can improve fireplace retardancy of the coloring films. It’s been noticed that the flame get spread around rate reduces with upsurge in weight percentage of nanocomposites as shown in the desk below. This leads to flame redundancy for the coating with increased effect time for flame fighting with each other. These coatings can be a major development in the open fire basic safety for the coatings applied inside the ship compartments.

Flame get spread around rate with upsurge in weight ratio of nanocomposites

15. Improved upon Anti Corrosive Coatings. The nanoparticles for their greater surface can absorb more resins compare to regular pigments. This reduces the free space between your pigment and the resin. Thus, nanoparticles boost the density of coating, reduce the transfer way of corrosive kinds and enhance the protective performance. A comparison of the anticorrosive properties of layer with optimum degree of nanoparticles show much better results than a conventional layer.

16. Anti-Bacterial Effect. Avoiding contamination from surface contact is vital in specific conditions like onboard boats in the galleys and sickbays. Experimental results show that the power of the nanoparticles to demolish bacteria is preferable to the conventional microparticles. This aspect has been researched to provide a coating that is hygienic and damages any pollutants like bacteria on the surface.

17. Anti Fouling. A team of analysts at the Hanover Institution of Veterinary Medication in Germany have learned that whale’s skin area has a specialised nano-structure that can stop the build-up of microscopic organisms such as barnacle larvae. They intend to mimic the theory in anti-fouling paints with provision of nanoridges in polymer matrix to give effect just like whale’s skin. This may potentially remove the requirement of anti fouling paints.

18. Nano Ceramic Layer for Underwater Valves in Submarines. The ball valves that regulate drinking water flow in submarines during diving and surfacing, suffer from metal-on-metal friction and resultant corrosion. Repair by replacement brings about costly and frustrating techniques such as pressure hull lowering. This leads to submarine being out of functional availability for prolonged durations. The perfect solution is of the problem has been attempted using aluminum-enhanced nano ceramic finish. The results are encouraging and the preliminary results show that the ball valves may carry on the life of the submarine.

19. Smart Coatings. These coatings as the name suggests are not smart in themselves plus they have no built-in intelligence as can be done when designing active smart systems. They are passive structured coating systems offering a desired pre-determined reaction to a exterior stimulus. They react to exterior conditions, such as temperatures, stress, pressure or the surroundings, in a selective way. With the advent of nano-technology in smart coatings, it is possible to have coatings which can predict starting point of corrosion, can release recovering agents to get rid of coating cracks and invite protective coatings to release corrosion inhibitors on demand to mention a few applications. Future development of defensive coatings will take good thing about this facet of covering technology and are likely to be the coatings of 21st hundred years.

20. Examination. The use of nanotechnology in defensive coatings as talked about above promises upgraded scratch resistance, corrosion resistance, ultra violet resistance and some novel ideas such as fireplace retardant coatings, do it yourself cleaning coatings, nano based mostly anti fouling coatings and smart coatings. These increased properties and potential book concepts can bring paradigm shift in the way coatings function. Hence, it is inferred that the application of nanotechnology in protecting coatings have potential software in maritime applications view following:-

(a) The quantum of tangible benefits achieved using nanotechnology in protective coatings cannot be attained by existing defensive coatings.

(b) The coatings are achievable and also have been manufactured within research/ in situ evaluation.

(c) The cost benefit analysis at this time is not favourable, however, with advancements in the processing processes and the benefits accrued by novel ideas like home cleaning coatings, open fire retardant coatings, these coatings can be a potent feasible solution in near future.

Nanotechnology in Stealth for Sea Applications.

21. Stealth. The use of stealth technology in warship construction to reduce radar cross section, magnetic signature and infrared signature has been the ongoing undertaking of the ship designers. The advancement of nanotechnology has given new ideas in neuro-scientific stealth technology. The significant nanotechnology founded stealth applications for warships are mentioned in pursuing paragraphs.

22. Adaptive Camouflage. Adaptive camouflage is a thought where the material surface changes exterior appearance in response to a preprogrammed stimulus in the surroundings in which it works. In order to achieve adaptive camouflage the material surface is cover with slender plastic linens. These sheets have numerous inserted light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The colors and patterns exhibited on the sheet are managed by the LEDs with inputs from a camera which scans the environment. This adaptive change of colour and routine can be used as a effective deception tool in tactical situations. Several nanotechnology enabled techniques are in research and development level and can be employed for adaptive camouflage. The two major variants of the adaptive camouflage are the following:-

(a) Working Systems. These systems use light techniques, mainly predicated on miniaturised LED-technologies. These systems have a coating of fibers which are attached to super shiny LEDs. These LEDs can emit any shade which is aimed by microchip through the battery source. The materials are at first colorless but their color can be manipulated by managing the emitted electricity by the LEDs. In case a optical sensor is attached then it is possible to change the colour of fibres according to the colours of the encompassing. This is often a like a real-time camouflage and can effectively be used as a innovative stealth feature in the warships.

(b) Passive Systems. These systems use tunable photonic crystals. At the University or college of California, Riverside, nanotechnologists have succeeded in controlling the color of very small, nanosized contaminants of iron oxide (photonic crystals) simply by applying an external magnetic field to the answer. The breakthrough has potential to control the exterior appearance predicated on a passive exterior stimulus. Iron oxide crystals will be the first examples of photonic crystals that is totally tunable in the noticeable range of the electromagnetic variety, from violet light to red light.

23. Propeller Layer for Minesweepers. The minesweepers have to avoid magnetic materials to make them immune system to magnetic underwater mines. The propeller shafts are purposely created from bronze to control the magnetic personal, Bronze is softer than metal and susceptible to frictional putting on in the operating environment. Swapping these shafts requires dry-docking which adversely impacts the operational availability of the ships. The nano enhanced ceramics have been used on experimental basis on these bronze shafts. The primary results point out that the covering is unaffected by highly erosive shaft operating conditions. This is often a highly effective solution of the erosion corrosion in the shafts of minesweepers without reducing the magnetic signature of the dispatch.

24. Research. The use of nanotechnology in stealth as discussed above assures a distinct bounce in the idea of stealth Hence, it is inferred, that the application of nanotechnology in stealth have potential in maritime applications view following:-

(a) The principles such as adaptive camouflage achieved using nanotechnology are not feasible using the current micro based technology.

(b) The ideas have been achieved in the ongoing research and development attempts.

(c) The price benefit analysis in not applicable as the stealth features achieved are not achievable by the prevailing concepts.

Nanotechnology in Marine Electrical Applications

25. Artificial Intelligence. Artificial intelligence simply means the use of computer to to be able to think, reason, connect and create things along the lines of mind. Machines can connect and discuss data in a much more efficient and perfect manner than the mind. Biological human being thinking is limited to 1016 calculations per second (cps) per mind (predicated on neuromorphic modeling of brain areas) and about 10 26 cps for those human brains. It really is expected that the use of nanorobots could help improve the 100 trillion very slow-moving interneuronal associations with highspeed exclusive connections. While using development of nanotechnology the handling capability of non-biological cleverness or strong man-made intelligence is likely to exceed biological cleverness by the mid-2040s. This may open up great applications like nanorobots manning unmanned vehicles, paradigm transfer in decision making of automated controls and could be the use of virtual crew to man automated ships.

26. Nano Battery pack System. The option of uninterruptible power supply (UPS) on naval boats is a essential requirement. In order to ensure UPS two generators are stored online to ensure uninterrupted power supply Research has been taken in USA to create a large-scale nano lithium titanate military services battery system. In case the principal generator fails, this nano battery pack system is envisaged to provide UPS till supplementary generator comes online. This will enable ships to run only one most important generator. The energy cost savings are anticipated to be nearly $1 million per vessel for a six month cruise.

27. All Electric Ship. The naval research workers in United States will work on the feasibility of design and structure of all-electric ship. It is envisaged that the use of nanotechnology will miniaturise the large systems used as on particular date. These miniaturised systems will take up smaller space and with considerable electricity available, it may be feasible to build up an all electric dispatch. As you will see massive amount electric power available the feasibility of developing a electric rail gun-which, is one of the Navy’s weapon into the future is also being researched.

28. Inefficient IC Design at Nanoscale. The look of involved circuits (IC) faces a big concern in terms of efficiency of the transistors. This brings about issues such as problems of timing closure, eliminate global clocks and tolerate parametric variant. It has emerged that usage of nanotechnology can lead to usage of several available transistors and reasoning devices so that using each one with maximum efficiency will no longer be considered a binding consideration. This may be possible with IC design at 45 nanometers and below. These IC will involve some area inefficiency and lower gate usage, however electric power and performance goals will be met much more successfully than the conventional IC as greater range of ICs can be built in smaller area.

29. Asynchronous Circuits at Nanoscale. The use of asynchronous architectures in IC design takes away the problem of timing closure, eliminate global clocks and tolerate parametric variance. However these circuits are two to six times the area of synchronous circuits. However, at nanoscale, these asynchronous circuits can be produced at significantly reduced areas. This application of nanotechnology will make asynchronous circuits a feasible option at 65 nm and below. These circuits will be a more reliable solution for critical applications such as flame contol systems. .

30. Evaluation. The application of nanotechnology as discussed above mainly discusses concepts that are futuristic and you will be a major growth in the manner systems are handled and manipulated with present solutions. Hence, it is inferred that the application of nanotechnology in unnatural intellect, IC design and power backup systems have potential in maritime applications view following:-

(a) The principles such as inefficient IC design, asynchronous IC design, UPS for ships and artificial brains to control ships are not possible using the current micro based systems.

(b) The concepts are in inception/design board level of the ongoing research and development attempts.

(c) The price benefit evaluation can be carried out when the ideas become certainty from the design boards. However, advantages outweigh the price criterion and work must be sustained for researching applications in these areas.

Nanotechnology for Warfare Concepts

31. Under Water Warfare. Research is vigorously on to improve future anti submarine warfare/ mine warfare functions by using nanotechnology. The capability to develop nano based micro-sensors that could be scattered on the sea floor to discover enemy submarines could lead to a paradigm change in the Navy’s undersea warfare systems and capacities. The same idea can be tailored for detecting adversary mines in the littorals. These furturistic nano based mostly detectors will be networked and can be laid/manipulated from faraway locations.

32. Research for Combat Outfits. A substantial amount of research is directed at use of nanotechnology for ‘lightening the load’ of soldier/sailor in fight. You can expect that nanotechnology structured soldier-worn systems will be launched in the near future. In 2002, the Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) was created at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), with a five-year grant of $50 million from the united states Army. The aim of the research is focused on revolutionary developments in nanotechnology concentrating on the next aspects:-

(a) Greatly improve the protection and survival of the troops.

(b) Real-time monitoring of the vital health guidelines through the combat outfit.

(c) Improvement in the agility and recuperation from accidents.

(d) Nanofibers for purification and chemically safeguarded membranes for increased NBC security.

(e) Nanolayered materials for smart/interactive textiles to help observe soldier’s performance.

(f) New lightweight translucent armor for ballistic protection, aimed energy (eye)protection, and environmental security.

33. Nanotechnology for Battle Safe Insensitive Munitions. The Navy’s point of view of growing munitions is much more cautious generally because the personnel and the munitions coexist on boats. There’s a unending quest to build up more powerful and effective energetic systems. However, it is to be ensured at all times that these system do not operate unintentionally or on false security alarm. Nano-based materials can contribute to revolutionary advancements in lively materials including a paradigm switch in insensitive munitions built around the idea of “Combat Safe” Insensitive Munitions. Nanostructured materials will play a significant role in developing these new school of dynamic materials with controlled and personalized energy release. Nano-based energetics is forecasted to be a key enabler of advances in armed service systems within the next 30 calendar year.

34. Viable Fuel Skin cells Using Nanotechnology. The petrol cells are based on the electrochemical principle of formation of water vapor by reaction of hydrogen gas and air. These cells are costly to create and the platinum/ruthenium alloy catalyst used for the anode in traditional proton exchange membrane (PEM) gas cells gets fouled by contact with even trace levels of carbon mono-oxide(CO). This contributes to even the best designed fuel cells to fail prematurely. This has averted the viability and commercialization of petrol cells

35. A research team in Cornell University’s Energy Materials Centre has fabricated a nanotechnology-based catalyst which is less expensive plus more carbon mono-oxide tolerant than the material used in conventional PEM fuel cells. The use of nanotechnology has the potential to decrease the weight of electrodes as well concerning boost the conductivity and electrochemically energetic surface of catalysts. The mechanical properties, conductivity and corrosion resistance of interconnect and bipolar plates could also be improved with nanocoatings. These properties are expected to ensure commercial availability of fuel skin cells in near future.

36. Examination. This program of nanotechnology to deliver fuel cells could make hydrogen fuel skin cells a commercial viability in forseeable future. These fuel cells can be used for air impartial prolusion of submarines. Further, view miniaturization using nanotechnology these cells could help save phenomenal places in submarines by upgrading the voluminous diesel electric/ nuclear propulsions being utilized presently. It is therefore inferred that the application of nanotechnology in gasoline skin cells have potential program in maritime applications view following:-

(a) This request of nanotechnology to produce fuel cells could make compact hydrogen energy cells a commercial viability in near future. The fuel cells using the existing technology are heavier rather than commercially viable.

(b) The application form has been attempted in research and the email address details are stimulating. Further nano based fuel skin cells will be small giving them different benefits for applications in air independent applications for submarines.

(c) The price implications of the existing fuel skin cells is a significant hurdle in the commecialisation of the gasoline cells.

Nanotechnology in Novel Marine Applications

37. Home Therapeutic of Materials. The biggest challenge in materials knowledge is to create “smart” materials that can sense the occurrence of any defect and actively re-establish the continuity and integrity of the broken area. Such materials would significantly expand the life span and reduce breakdowns of created items. Nanotechnology has potential to create a system that can recognize the looks of a nanoscopic split or fissure and then could point agents of repair specifically to that site. The power of nanotechnology to tailor the surface chemistry of nanoparticles supports building self-healing materials. Both recent computational studies on self-healing of materials which may be of immense used in sea applications are as follows :-

(a) In a recently available study concerning nanoscopic polymer gel allergens a coating has been designed that undergoes structural rearrangement in response to mechanised stress, and in that way avoids the catastrophic failing of the material.

(b) In another recent research, the healing brokers are encapsulated sound nanoparticles that can deliver the encapsulated nanoparticles to specific breaks on the substrate. Once the healing nanoparticles are transferred on the desired sites, the fluid-driven tablets move further. This strategy is called “repair-and-go” and has negligible impact on the accuracy of the non-defective parts and involves nominal levels of the repair materials.

38. Fossil Energy Security. The research is on for alternative fuels on ships, improvements of systems using nanotechnology, to put cross types drives which can generate electricity from the power going to propellers. It really is being expected that future progress and breakthroughs in nano technology like all electric boats will help decrease the Navy’s dependence on fossil fuels.

39. Nanorobots for Essential oil/Water Testing. The current practice of olive oil and water testing onboard boats is using examples which are time-consuming and has drawback that the contaminants not contained in the sampling get skipped out. . Researchers at the School of Southern California will work on expanding technology to make nanorobots which is able to monitor essential oil/water for impurities. The sensors in nanorobots will be able to communicate with one another and you will be active in order to move around and make decisions.

40. Examination. This software of nanotechnology discussed above are futuristic novel principles. These have potential maritime applications subject to these ideas becoming reality. These concepts can’t be compared with existing technology as they are in infancy phases and no comparable alternatives can be found for self therapeutic materials, nanorobots and everything electric ships for meaningful evaluation.