Most Indian cities are experiencing rapid urbanization and a majority of the India’s population is expected to live in cities within a span of next two decades. The rapid development in urban India has also resulted in a tremendous increase in the number of motor vehicles and in some cities this has doubled in the last decade. Which is the main source of air pollution and poor ambient air quality impacting millions of citizens. This report presents a review of the main causes of this phenomenon and the various measures adopted for their reduction.
Also, cleaner fuels have been introduced along with improved emission control devices. Future strategies like use of alternative fuels and spreading awareness amongst citizens will further help reduce emissions that led to air pollution.
India has the worst air pollution in the entire world, and this problem has attracted special attention in India due to the increase in population, industrialisation and urbanisation. Air pollution has been just below , tobacco smoking, indoor air pollution, blood pressure, diabetes among the top ten killers.
This phenomenal has affected many aspects in India and the most crucial aspect is the health side of it population. However, Indian’s government has made huge steps to reduce the consequences and spread knowledge between citizens.
- Air Pollution
Natural component of fresh air are consist of 78.1 percent Nitrogen, 21 percent Oxygen, 0.95 percent Argon and 0.04 percent Carbon di-oxide. When these typical percentage of air component irregular due to the influence of several ruinous gases then our surrounding environment become polluted. There are some example of harmful elements of air like hydrocarbon gases, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen and some greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane and many more.http://www.thehindu.com/multimedia/dynamic/00905/toxic_air3_905565g.jpg
- What Causes Air Pollution?
Air pollution caused directly through use of electricity, fuels, and transportation.
Increase in industrial activity
India has made fast strides in industrialisation, and it is one of the ten most industrialised nations worldwide. However this status, has brought with it unwanted and unexpected consequences such as unplanned urbanisation and pollution.
Pollution from different types of cooking using coal, fuel wood, and other biomass fuels contributes to some extent, to the overall pollution load in urban areas.
Major reason to increase pollution in the air is the industrial emissions because burning fossil fuel to produce electricity emissions about 40% of carbon dioxide and many harmful gases.
India and specifically Delhi produces much of its electricity depending on different coal-fired plants for industries and supplying for Delhi’s major projects.
Vehicles contribute up to 35% of air pollution in the large cities of India like Bangalore, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai .Also, Engine exhaust (diesel and gas) carries more than 40 dangerous air pollutants.
- Vehicular Pollution
Between 1951 and 2011, the urban population has multiplied, from 62.4 million to 377.1 million, and its percentage has increased from 17.3% to 31.16%. In 1991, there were 18 cities with a population of over 1 million, in 2012 this is estimated to expand to 46 cities . This rapid increase in unplanned urban population has resulted in an increase in consumption patterns and a higher demand for transport and energy.
Between 2005-2006,there were about 8.9 million vehicles sold and it reach 15 million in 2010-2011 which show that the number of vehicles sold in India is increasing fast during the past few years. And as studies shows that when the number of vehicles increased that lead to increase of harmful emissions which will finally be so affected in air quality(air pollution).In addition, vehicles are estimated to be the responsible of producing about 70% of CO2, 50% of HC,30-40% of NOx,30% of SPM and 10% of SO2 of the overall air pollution in cities.