Background of the Study
Urbanization is a dynamic socio-economic force which has considerable temporal and spatial variations (Ali & Mustaquim, 2007). In the developed countries of Europe and North America, urbanization has been a consequence of industrialization and has been associated with economic development. By contrast, in the developing countries of Latin America, Africa, and Asia, urbanization has occurred as a result of high natural urban population increase and massive rural-to-urban migration (Brunn and Williams, 1983:4). A slum involves much more than housing, deficient sanitary and hygienic facilities, over-crowding and congestion by which it is characterized (Clinard, 1970).
The involvement of the informal settlers is immensely evident in the urban areas. These slums are usually located along the waterways, dump sites, under the bridges, danger zones and the like. In which case, the government has appointed the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA) to tear down these slums and relocate its population at a resettlement site. On another note, legislators, too, have written some policies for the informal settlers and their needs.
Waterways have been clogged by garbage and human waste that stop the water from flowing. Recently, floods claimed many lives and had increased its height from gutter level to waist or chest level.
The government could not afford to spend a lot for flood victims which mostly were informal settlers along the waterways. The main causes of informal settlements are economic, religion, and politics. People from the rural areas are attracted for the great fortune that urban settlers could made. They migrated to the urban areas and tried their luck. Some were due to religion in the case of Hinduism where in there is a caste system that do not recognize the people from the outcast or untouchables. While others because of their political ideology. We aim to supply the necessary and sufficient knowledge for future researchers and for the public regarding the policies on informal settlements. Through this paper, anyone could understand the social vulnerability of these informal settlers especially those who are living along the waterways.
Significance of the Study
The significance of “Policy Study on Informal Settlement: Waterways as Concept” is that: it could be a learning paradigm for the public to enhance their knowledge about the general considerations of informal settlement along the waterways and also to gain knowledge regarding its importance. This study would provide information about the issues on rapid urbanization and inadequate capability to cope up with the housing needs of people in urban areas and on how it have contributed to the development of informal settlements. Living in these settlements often poses significant health risks. Access to health and other services may be limited; overcrowding could contribute stress, violence and increased problems of drugs and other social problems to the society.
Together, these pose special risks to children both during the prenatal period and after birth. This indicator provides a general measure of these risks. To future researchers, the proposed study will benefit and help them as their reference or guide in conducting a more developed study about informal settlement. As Asian Studies major, we will gain knowledge about what is the condition of informal settlers here in the Philippines. We will also know about the policies that cover informal settlers. We will also be able to know the government agencies that monitor the effectiveness of these policies.
Statement of the Problem
1. The policies for informal settlers. 2.1 The implementation and effectiveness of these policies. 2.2 The benefits of these policies and how it affects the social vulnerabilities of these informal settlers.
Definition of terms
1. Policy study – applies a social science perspective to questions of policy and management in modern organizations. It acquires a solid grounding in policy analysis and the policy process. (University of New South Wales) 2. Informal settlement – areas where groups of housing units have been constructed on land that the occupants have no legal claim to, or occupy illegally; unplanned settlements and areas where housing is not in compliance with current planning and building regulations. (Glossary of Environment Statistics, Studies in Methods) 3. Waterway – a river, canal, or other body of water serving as a route or way of travel or transport. (Legal Dictionary)
4. Urbanization – refers to a process in which an increasing proportion of an entire population lives in cities and the suburbs of cities. (Faculty of Fairfield) 5. Social Vulnerability – is one dimension of vulnerability to multiple stressors and shocks, including abuse, social exclusion and natural hazards. It refers to inability of people, organizations and societies to withstand adverse impacts from multiple stressors to which they are exposed. (Peacock and Ragsdale, 1997) 6. Ordinance – an ordinance is a law passed by a municipal government. It constitutes the subject matter of municipal law. (Legal Dictionary)