Matriarchy: A form of social organization in which social identity and property are passed through the female line. For example, the Iroquois did not have chiefs, they instead traced power through the female line of authority.
Peasants: Farmworkers in Europe who lived in small villages surrounded by fields farmed cooperatively by different families.
Often worked on plots owned by landlords, but later peasants might pay rent to landowners.
Predestination: The Protestant Christian belief that God chooses certain people for salvation before they are born. 16th-century theologian John Calvin was the main proponent of this doctrine, which became a fundamental tenet of Puritan theology.
Animism: Spiritual beliefs that center on the natural world.do not worship a supernatural god; instead, they pay homage to spiritual forces that they believe dwell in the natural world. Animism was practiced by Native Americans in hope of fertile land or successful hunts.
Guilds: Organizations of skilled workers in medieval and early modern Europe that regulated the entry into, and the practice of, a trade.
Reconquista: The campaign by Spanish Catholics to drive North African Moors (Muslim Arabs) from the European mainland. After a centuries-long effort to recover their lands, the Spaniards defeated the Moors at Granada in 1492 and secured control of all of Spain.
Patriarchy: A form of social structure in which social identity and property descend through the male family line and male heads of family rule over women and children. europe, for example, had patriarchal societies. The power given to men was stimulated by Christian teaching, which deemphasized the prominence of women.
Crusades: Series of wars undertaken by Christian armies between 1096 C.E, and 1291 to reverse the Muslim advance in Europe and win back the holy lands of Jesus Christ. It had a profound impact on Christian societies, as religious warfare intensified Europe’s Christian identity and prompted the persecution and expulsion of Jews from Europe. They also introduced sugar and new trade routes across Eurasia to the merchants of Western Europe.
Hernan Cortes: Spanish conquistador who led the expedition(his army of 600 men arrived at the Yucatán Peninsula and overthrew the Aztec ruler, Moctezuma.) that led to the collapse of the Aztec Empire.