Patient 2A three- years old child with a fracture to the femur. other symptoms include deformed legs(below) and shorter than average for age. History confirms the child was breastfed with no supplement.The three years old child with a fracture to the femur, I think she is suffering from rickets. What is Rickets?Rickets is a skeletal disorder that caused by a lake of vitamin d, calcium, or phosphate. These nutrients are important for the development of strong, health bones.
people with rickets may have weak and soft bones, stunted growth, and in sever case, skeletal deformities. vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium and phosphate from your intestines. You can get vitamin D from various food products, including milk, eggs, and fish. Your body also produces the vitamin when you’re exposed to sunlight.A vitamin D deficiency makes it difficult for your body to maintain sufficient levels of calcium and phosphate. When this occurs, your body produces hormones that cause calcium and phosphate to be released from your bones.
When your bones lack these minerals, they become weak and soft.Rickets is most common in children who are between 6 and 36 months old. Children are at the highest risk of rickets because they’re still growing. Children might not get enough vitamin D if they live in a region with little sunlight, follow a vegetarian diet, or don’t drink milk products. In some cases, the condition is hereditary.CauseCause factors for rickets include the following:AgeRickets is most common in children who are between 6 and 36 months old. During this time period, children usually experience rapid growth. This is when their bodies need the most calcium and phosphate to strengthen and develop their bones. DietYou have a higher risk of developing rickets if you eat a vegetarian diet that doesn’t include fish, eggs, or milk. You’re also at an increased risk if you have trouble digesting milk or have an allergy to milk sugar (lactose). Infants who are only fed breast milk can become deficient in vitamin D as well. Breast milk doesn’t contain enough vitamin D to prevent rickets. Skin colourChildren of African, Pacific Islander, and Middle Eastern descent are at the highest risk for rickets because they have dark skin. Dark skin doesn’t react as strongly to sunlight as lighter skin does, so it produces less vitamin D.Genes One form of rickets can be inherited. This means that the disorder is passed down through your genes. This type of rickets, called hereditary rickets, prevents your kidneys from absorbing phosphate.What are the symptoms of rickets?Symptoms of rickets include: pain or tenderness in the bones of the arms, legs, pelvis, or spine stunted growth and short stature bone fractures muscle cramps teeth deformities, such as:o delayed tooth formationo holes in the enamelo defects in the tooth structureo an increased number of cavities skeletal deformities, including:o an oddly shaped skullo bowlegs, or legs that bow out o bumps in the ribcageo a protruding breastboneo a curved spineTreatment Treatment for rickets focuses on replacing the missing vitamin or mineral in the body. This will eliminate most of the symptoms associated with rickets. If your child has a vitamin D deficiency, your doctor will likely want them to increase their exposure to sunlight, if possible. They will also encourage them to consume food products high in vitamin D, such as fish, liver, milk, and eggs. Calcium and vitamin D supplements can also be used to treat rickets.Patient 3The fifty years old man presents with trouble walking due to a painful, I suppose he is suffering from osteoarthritis.Definition Osteoarthritis, which is also known as osteoarthrosis or degenerative joint disease is a progressive disorder of the joints caused by gradual loss of cartilage and resulting in the development of bony spurs and cysts at the margins of the joints. TCauses and symptomsOsteoarthritis results from deterioration or loss of the cartilage that acts as a protective cushion between bones, particularly in weight-bearing joints such as the knees and hips. As the cartilage is worn away, the bone forms spurs, areas of abnormal hardening, and fluid-filled pockets in the marrow known as subchondral cysts. As the disorder progresses, pain results from deformation of the bones and fluid accumulation in the joints. The pain is relieved by rest and made worse by moving the joint or placing weight on it. In early OA, the pain is minor and may take the form of mild stiffness in the morning. In the later stages of OA, inflammation develops; the patient may experience pain even when the joint is not being used; and he or she may suffer permanent loss of the normal range of motion in that joint. Until the late 1980s, OA was regarded as an inevitable part of aging, caused by simple “wear and tear” on the joints. This view has been replaced by recent research into cartilage formation. OA is now considered to be the end result of several different factors contributing to cartilage damage, and is classified as either primary or secondaryTreatmentOsteoarthritis treatmentOsteoarthritis is a chronic (long-term) disease. There is no cure, but treatments are available to manage symptoms. Long-term management of the disease will include several factors: Managing symptoms, such as pain, stiffness and swelling Improving joint mobility and flexibility Maintaining a healthy weight Getting enough of exercise Physical Activity One of the most beneficial ways to manage OA is to get moving. While it may be hard to think of exercise when the joints hurt, moving is considered an important part of the treatment plan. Studies show that simple activities like walking around the neighbourhood or taking a fun, easy exercise class can reduce pain and help maintain (or attain) a healthy weight.Strengthening exercises build muscles around OA-affected joints, easing the burden on those joints and reducing pain. Range-of-motion exercise helps maintain and improve joint flexibility and reduce stiffness. Aerobic exercise helps to improve stamina and energy levels and also help to reduce excess weight. Talk to a doctor before starting an exercise program.The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that everyone, including those with arthritis, get 150 minutes of moderate exercise per week.Weight ManagementExcess weight adds additional stress to weight-bearing joints, such as the hips, knees, feet and back. Losing weight can help people with OA reduce pain and limit further joint damage. The basic rule for losing weight is to eat fewer calories and increase physical activity.StretchingSlow, gentle stretching of joints may improve flexibility, lessen stiffness and reduce pain. Exercises such as yoga and tai chi are great ways to manage stiffness.Pain and Anti-inflammatory MedicationsPhysical therapy Medicines for osteoarthritis are available as pills, syrups, creams or lotions, or they are injected into a joint. They include transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) applies an electrical current through the skin. It controls pain by numbing some of the nerves endings in the spinal cord. A TENS unit is usually connected to the skin using two or more electrodes.Thermotherapy uses warm and cold temperatures to help reduce pain and stiffness in the joints. A hot water bottle filled with either hot or cold water, or hot and cold packs, can be applied to the affected area. Hot and cold packs can be cooled in a freezer or heated in a microwave.ConclusionThese three diseases are common and osteoporosis is mostly attack to older people because of the life style they are following, such as no being active, retire from work, no exercise and etc..On the other hand Rickets is a skeletal disorder that’s caused by a lack of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate. These nutrients are important for the development of strong, healthy bones and Osteoarthritis, which is also known as osteoarthrosis or degenerative joint disease is a progressive disorder of the joints caused by gradual loss of cartilages.By doing this assignment I have learnt many things and I will be aware of these diseases by avoid everything that can cause to be occurred these sickness on me.