Types of company and associated structures: practical, product-based, geographically based mostly, multifunctional and multidivisional structures, matrix, centralisation and decentralisation.
Organisational sites and linkages: inside and external network structures, flexible working.
Organisational culture: classification of organisational culture – electricity culture, role culture, job culture, person culture, cultural norms and icons, values and values, development of organisational culture.
Authority and ability: organisational graphs, spans of control.
The human learning resource function: a stakeholder point of view, personnel management jobs, personnel procedures, strategies and functioning plans, tactical goals for employees.
Diagnosing behavioural problems: concepts, principles, perspectives, technique.
Perception: description, perceptual selection, conception and work behaviour, attitude, ability and aptitude, intelligence.
Significance and character of individual differences: self and self-image, personality and work behaviour, conflict.
Individual behaviour at work: personality, traits and types, its relevance in understanding home and more.
Relationship between organizational framework and culture: Organizational culture is more of a more substantial picture, a far more general term that refers to a sizable umbrella of smaller topics and issues in a organization. The composition of Mr Smith’s restaurant refers to the infrastructure, and the various methods and tactics within that infrastructure, that helps his restaurant’s culture run with the efficiency and persistence that should be the hallmark of any healthy organizational structure, whether it is in a company, sports team, or any other set up that is large enough to build its own organizational culture.
This makes the structure an integral part of any organizational culture, but also narrows out a very specific segment of the culture as its own responsibility. Organizational structure will deal generally with the create of the culture. How management works, which specific duties supervisors have, what sort of complaint is approved through the ranks-these are all issues within the organizational culture that are immediately linked with how an organizational structure works. The structure is not limited by those three examples, but it could certainly include all of them.
The factors that impact individual behaviour: At According to John Ivancevich and Michael Mattson, the major factors that influence individual differences in behavioural habits are demographic factors, skills and skills, perception, behaviour and personality. Let’s dicuss them and they’re the following:-
1. Demographic Factors: The demographic factors are socio economic history, education, nationality, race, age, sex, etc. Organisations prefer persons that belong to good socio-economic history, well educated, young etc as they are thought to be performing better than others.
2. Talents and Skills: The physical capacity of an individual to take action can be referred to as ability. Skill can be explained as the capability to act in a way that allows a person to execute well. The individual behaviour and performance is highly influenced by capacity and skills.
3. Understanding: There are many factors that effect the conception of an individual. The analysis of perception plays important role for the managers. It is important for mangers to create the favourable work place so that employees perceive them in most favourable way. The employees are likely to perform better if they are going to perceive it in an optimistic way.
4. Frame of mind: The managers in an company need to review the variables related to job concerning create the work environment in a favourable way that employees are lured to create a good attitude towards their particular jobs. The employees can perform better in the company if they form a good attitude.
5. Personality:. Personality can be thought to be the most sophisticated aspect of human beings that affects their behaviour in big way. It could be concluded that the analysis of personality features offers an opportunity to understand the individuals. It helps them properly in directing their effort and motivating them for the success of the organisational goal. It refers to the actual fact that different environmental factors may generate different responses. The study of these replies is very important for the company. Every organisation wants a particular type of behaviour from their workers and such behaviours can be uncovered through observation, learning, subjection, training, etc.
Organizational theory and techniques: Organizational Behaviour studies encompass the study of organizations from multiple viewpoints, methods, and degrees of analysis. For example, one textbook divides these multiple viewpoints into three perspectives: modern, symbolic, and postmodern. Another traditional difference, present especially in American academia, is between the research of “micro” organizational behavior-which identifies specific and group dynamics within an organizational setting-and “macro” organizational theory which studies whole organizations, how they change, and the strategies and constructions that guide them. To this difference, some scholars have added an interest in “meso” — mainly interested in electric power, culture, and the systems of people and units in organizations-and “field” level research which analysis how complete populations of organizations interact. In Europe these distinctions do are present as well, but are more almost never mirrored in departmental divisions.
Whenever people interact in organizations, many factors come into play. Modern organizational studies attempt to understand and model these factors. Like all modernist communal sciences, organizational studies seek to control, predict, and make clear. There exists some controversy over the ethics of handling workers’ behavior. Therefore, organizational action or OB (and its own cousin, Industrial psychology) have at times been accused to be the technological tool of the powerful. Those accusations notwithstanding, OB can play a significant role in organizational development and success.
One of the main goals of organizational theorists is, matching to Simms (1994) “to revitalize organizational theory and develop a much better conceptualization of organizational life. ” An organizational theorist should carefully consider levels assumptions being manufactured in theory, and is concerned to help managers and administrators.
Important spect of the Organizational Behavioral is- Planning – Staffing – Organizing – Controlling.
Different methods to management and ideas of organisation: Basic – Weber’s model of strict defined careers – no peaking at the other person. Formal hierarchy. Formailty, formality, formality. Guidelines, rules, rules.
Bureaucratic – Interpersonal stability through gradual change example: Military and find out movie Brazil
Humanist – People first – A. Maslow and his people needs
-Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone else
-High amount of dependency on the leader
-Can create de-motivation and alienation of staff
-May be valuable in some types of business where decisions need to be made quickly and decisively
Encourages decision making from different perspectives
– Control may be emphasized throughout the organization
-Consultative: process of appointment before decisions are taken
-Persuasive: Leader calls for decision and looks for to persuade others that your choice is correct
-May help motivation and involvement
-Workers feel possession of the company and its ideas
-Improves the writing of ideas and encounters within the business
-Can delay decision making
-‘Let it be’
– The authority responsibilities are shared by all
-Can be very helpful in businesses where creative ideas are important
-Can be highly motivational, as people have control over their working life
-Can make coordination and decision making time-consuming and lacking in overall direction
-Relies on good team work
Leader functions as a ‘father figure’
Paternalistic leader makes decision but may consult
Believes in the necessity to support staff
Different motivational theories: There are a number of different views in regards to what motivates workers. The most commonly kept views or ideas are talked about below and have been developed over the last 100 years or so. Sadly these theories do not all reach the same conclusions!
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856 – 1917) put forward the theory that staff are encouraged mainly by pay. His Theory of Scientific Management argued the next:
Workers do not by natural means enjoy work and so need close guidance and control
Therefore managers should break down production into some small tasks
Workers should then be given appropriate training and tools so they can work as proficiently as possible on one set process.
Workers are then paid in line with the variety of items they produce in a place amount of time- piece-rate pay.
As a result workers are encouraged to work hard and maximise their efficiency.
Elton Mayo (1880 – 1949) assumed that personnel are not simply worried about money but could be better encouraged with their social needs found whilst at work (something that Taylor disregarded). He created the Human Relationship School of thought, which centered on professionals taking more of a pastime in the employees, treating them as individuals who have worthwhile ideas and realising that staff enjoy interacting collectively.
this Mayo concluded that staff are best encouraged by:
Better communication between professionals and staff ( Hawthorne workers were consulted on the tests and also acquired the chance to give responses)
Greater manager involvement in employees working lives ( Hawthorne personnel responded to the increased degree of attention they were receiving)
Working in communities or teams. (Hawthorne workers didn’t previously regularly work in groups)
In practice therefore businesses should re-organise creation to encourage increased use of team working and create employees departments to encourage higher manager participation in caring for employees’ interests. His theory most tightly ties in with a paternalistic style of management.
Abraham Maslow (1908 – 1970) along with Frederick Herzberg (1923-) released the Neo-Human Relationships School in the 1950’s, which centered on the subconscious needs of employees. Maslow submit a theory that we now have five degrees of individuals needs which employees need to have fulfilled at work.
A business should therefore offer different bonuses to workers to be able to help them fulfill each need in turn and progress the hierarchy (see below). Professionals should also recognise that personnel aren’t all motivated just as and don’t all progress the hierarchy at the same rate. They may therefore have to provide a slightly different set of incentives from employee to worker.
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Frederick Herzberg (1923-) acquired close links with Maslow and believed in a two-factor theory of motivation. He argued that there have been certain factors that a business could present that would directly encourage employees to work harder (Motivators). However there have been also factors that could de-motivate a worker if not present but would not in themselves actually inspire employees to work harder (Hygienefactors)
Herzberg believed that businesses should stimulate employees by implementing a democratic approach to management and by improving the type and content of the real job through certain methods. Some of the methods managers could use to do this are:
Job enlargement – employees being given a greater variety of jobs to execute (definitely not more difficult) which should make the work more interesting.
Job enrichment – consists of personnel being given a wider selection of more complex, interesting and challenging jobs surrounding a whole device of work. This will give a increased sense of achievements.
Empowerment means delegating more power to employees to make their own decisions over regions of their working life.
Motivation ideas: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Herzberg’s Inspiration – Cleanliness theory, Vroom and Expectancy ideas, Maccoby, McCrae and Costa – personality sizes.
Motivation and performance: rewards and incentives, motivation and professionals, rewards monetary and non-monetary.
Leadership: management in organisations, managers and leaders, control characteristics, management style, contingency methodology, control and organisational culture
Leadership and successful change in organisations: pluralistic, transformational, communications, conflict
The Dynamics of groups: A collection of individuals, the users accept a activity, become interdependent in their performance, and interact with one another to promote its accomplishment (Harold H. Kelley and J. W. Thibaut).
Normative views identifies what sort of group is to be organized and exactly how its activities are to be carried out
Group dynamics contains a couple of techniques.
Regarding internal character of groups
Various Types of Groups
A friendly relationship groups
Reference point groups
http://www. scribd. com/doc/8146125/Group-Behavior
Group patterns in sociology identifies the situations where people interact in large or small groups. Special forms of large group behavior are:
spectators – whenever a group of men and women gathered together on purpose to participate in an event like theatre play, theatre movie, sports match, a concert, etc.
Public – exception to the guideline that the group must take up the same physical place. People enjoying same channel on television may react in the same way, because they are occupying the same type of place – in front of tv set – although they could physically be carrying out this all around the globe.
Group action differs from mass activities which refers to people behaving similarly on a more global range (for example, purchasers in different outlets), while group action refers usually to the people in a single place. When the group tendencies is coordinated, then it is called group action.
Effective team work: Teamwork can be an art. Integrating turmoil, change with team decisions, Utmost DePree said, “The key elements in the skill of working together are how to approach change, how to approach conflict, and exactly how to reach our probable. . . the needs of the team are best found when we meet the needs of individuals persons. The key elements in the art of working collectively are how to deal with change, how to deal with conflict, and exactly how to reach our probable. . . the needs of the team are best found when we meet up with the needs of people persons. “
Teamwork is to work with every one keeping views and thoughts as if they were told by you. It is not just a case of blue shade or white shade job, but it is circumstance of respecting another person way of thinking.
The effective team work a pathway to success we can separate as below:
Provided autonomy and duties in your team.
Everyone self-disciplined and self-regulated in team.
A leader does one monitor direction to achieve goal.
Set unambiguous, company related, understandable and clear-cut targets.
Everyone in your team acknowledge and commit these focuses on.
Team take responsibility of end result process, quality confidence, customer relationships and grievances in improvable manner.
Team without subconscious distance based mostly job standards and jobs.
Reward system based on performance rather set percentages or role sensible boundaries.
Management style supportive somewhat bureaucratic or administrative.
Have an open up approach and open communication process among you.
Whole team self-committed.
Provide full overall flexibility at work, multi-skilling and interchangeability between job roles.
Find team taking great interest of participation in every task assigned.
Team associates have value and enthusiasm towards one another.
Always successful in resolving grievances and disputes.
Taken enough steps to develop skills, knowledge, and expertise and high performance output in team.
Each member in a position to communicate with every other person in group.
The use of new solutions can improve and occasionally hinder team performing.
As technology changes teams must update and maintain their knowledge to be able to function effectively.
Technologies which have improved team functions