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Nov 19th, 2019

new final report Essay

MAZE SOLVING ROBOT

MINI PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by

R.LAWANYA (171EC202)

I. NAVARATNA (171EC230)

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

BANNARI AMMAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

(An Autonomous Institution Affiliated to Anna University, Chennai) SATHYAMANGALAM-638401

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NOVEMBER 2018

MINI PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by

R.LAWANYA (171EC215)

I. NAVARATNA (171EC230)

2353310215265                        

                                            

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

BANNARI AMMAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

(An Autonomous Institution Affiliated to Anna University, Chennai) SATHYAMANGALAM-638401

NOVEMBER-2018

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

        

Certified that this project report “MAZE SOLVING ROBOT” is the bonfide work of “R.

Lawanya and I. Navaratna” who carried out the mini project work under my supervision.

SIGNATURE

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT

Dr.C.PoongodiDepartment of ECE

Bannari Amman Institution of TechnologySathyamangalamSIGNATURE

SUPERVISOR

S.KarthikeyanAssistant ProfessorDepartment of ECE

Bannari Amman Institute of Technology

Sathyamangalam

Submitted for Viva Voce examination held on ………………

INTERNAL EXAMINER                       EXTERNAL EXTERNAL

iTABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER TITLE PAGE NO

TABLE OF CONTENTS ii

LIST OF FIGURE iii

LIST OF TABLES iii

ABSTRACT iv

1

1.1

1.2 INTRODUCTION

Aim of the project

Objective of the project

1

1

2

2 LITERATURE REVIEW 3

3

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6 COMPONENTS USED

Arduino Uno IR sensor

DC motor

Motor driver-l239d

Wheel

Jumpers

4

4

5

6

7

8

8

4 ALGORITHM 9

5 CONCLUSION 13

REFERENCES 14

iiLIST OF FIGURES

CHAPTERS TITLE PAGE NO

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

Arduino unoIR sensor

DC motor

Pin diagram of L239d

Driver IC-L239d

Wheel

Jumpers

Left turn

Right turn

U-turn

Right and forward paths together

Right and left paths together

4

5

6

7

7

8

8

9

10

10

11

11

LIST OF TABLES

CHAPTER TITLE PAGE NO

2 Specifications of IR sensor 5

iiiABSTARCT

Robotics plays a major role in industries as of most heavy works are now done by the robots. This also gives clear and transparent output. The main objective of the project is to built a fully maze solving robot that works in a complex environment. Self autonomous navigation is a special feature that allows a robot to move independently and tries to find the shortest path to reach the destination. When a robot having its own sense of judgment to the path which it follows, would be introduced then a high efficiency in performance could be achieved along with increase in reliability and affordability of the manufacturers could be seen. This robot is also such a kind. There are many such algorithms and methods for the implementation. This mainly tries to explore, analyze and then finally find the shortest path to reach the target. This will only implement the shortest way and eliminate large or equally large ways to reach target.

ivCHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

A maze is a complex structure that has path or collection of paths. This has a starting point and a ending point. The ending point in this can be reached by many ways.

The maze-solving task is similar to the ones in the Micro Mouse competition where robots compete on solving a maze in the least time possible and using the most efficient way.The robot must know where the starting location is and the destination is. The robot must undergo all type of analysis and the finally determine the correct way to reach the destination. This is the first line for the new emerging technology “Artificial intelligence”. This Maze solving robot follows the algorithm “Left Hand On Wall” as the robot mainly tries to its left side whenever there is a possible way to change its path. First of all this navigate nook and corner of the maze and apparently find the easiest or the shortest way to reach the destination.

AIM OF THE PROJECT

To learn about the various fields and aspects in robotics and related fields.

To know more about the working principle, algorithm and functioning of maze solving robot.

To gain knowledge in the area of robotics.

To implement the idea of the project using the appropriate components.

1

OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT

The main objective of the project is to implement the idea of maze solving robot into an product and further develop it for the future uses.

To drive through the maze using left hand on the wall algorithm and reach at the destination (target).

To analyze and find the shortest path to reach the destination and minimize the time taken for it.

2

CHAPTER 2

LITERATUE REVIEW

In the middle of the 20th century, maze solving problems became an important field of robotic

In 1999, Michael Gims, Sonja Lenz and Dirk Becker from University of East London developed a micro-mouse. They used a non-graph theory algorithm, Wall Following Algorithm. But their robot did not move intelligent in the map and it could not solve maze with a loop.

Then in May 1977, the fast US Micro-mouse contest, called “Amazing Micro-mouse Maze Contest” was announced by IEEE Spectrum. From then, this type of contest became more popular and many type of maze solving robots are developed every year.

In the year of 1972, editors of IEEE Spectrum magazine came up with the concept of micro-mouse which is a small microprocessor controlled vehicle with self-intelligence and capability to navigate a critical maze.

Babak Hosseini Kazerouni, Mona Behnam Moradi, Pooya Hosseini Kazerouni,“Variable Priorities in Maze Solving Algorithms for Robot’s Movement”.

3

CHAPTER 3

COMPONENTS USED

This part of the chapter explains about the components used for this project .3.1 Arduino Uno

Arduino is the heart of this project. All program of this project is stored in its microprocessor. It is an open source hardware development board. Arduino hardware consists of an open hardware design with an Atmel AVR processor. It is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328 (datasheet). It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz ceramic resonator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header and a reset button.It contains everything needed to support microcontroller.

Fig 3.1 Arduino Uno

4

3.2 IR Sensor

IR stands for Infra Red rays. They have the capability to detect the motion of any of the object present and also to measure the amount of heat present in that object. They so not emit IR rays of its own. They just analyze the IR light emitted from the object. Infrared rays are much smaller than microwaves. Infrared sensors are made with sharp proximity. The range of this sensor ranges between 15cm to 150cm(approximately). The basic idea is that black has a lesser value of reflectance (as black absorbs light) as compared to other lighter shades. This low value of reflectance is a parameter for detection of path.

SPECIFICATION OF IR SENSOR

Operating Voltage – 3.0 – 5.0 V

Range – 50 – 150 cm

Current consumption – 3.3 v

Active output level – Output logic is ‘low’ @ detections

Table.1 Specifications of IR sensor

Fig 3.2 IR sensor

5

3.3 DC Motor

DC motors are continuous actuators that convert electrical energy to mechanical energy. For achieving this stage the dc motor produces a continuous rotation that is used to rotate the component that is externally connected to it. The most common types rely on the forces produced by magnetic fields. This is the first form of the motor to be used worldwide since it works on the direct current. In DC motor there is a linear relationship between the applied voltage and its speed ie) when the voltage is increasing from low to high the rpm also responds to it by increasing from low to high. With all speacilized features it finds application in conveyors, cranes, pumps, fans and etc..,

Fig 3.3 DC motor

6

3.4 Motor driver IC – L293D

Motor driver IC-L293D is a typical driver IC that drives the dc motors connected to it in either directions. This has the capability to run two DC motors connected simultaneously. This is a dual H-bridge motor driver integrated circuit. In circuit they act as current amplifiers to produce high current signals that can drive the motor.

Fig 3.4 Pin diagram of L239D

Fig 3.5 Driver IC-L239D

7

3.5 Wheels

Wheels are usually connected to the DC motor for movement. These are legs of the bot for movements and help to reach the destination as fixed by it.

Fig 3.6 Wheel

Jumpers

Jumpers are the short length electrical connectors used to open,close and by-pass an electrical circuit or other prototype.Individual jumper wires are connected to the component or to the breadboard by interconnecting the end wires.They are of two types as

Male to male jumper wires

Male to female jumper wires

Female to female jumper wires

Fig 3.7 Jumpers

8

CHAPTER 4

ALGORITHM

The algorithm used in maze solving robot is “Left Hand on the Wall”. As its name itself signifies it always prioritize left option or left movement than the right option or right movement.

4.1 Features of algorithm

This algorithm makes the bot to turn to is left direction most of the time whenever there is possibility to turn.

The algorithm also instructs the bot to turn right when there is no path or at the point of intersection.

At the last or the dead end of the maze it takes 180? U-turn and then the bot follows the algorithm followed before

When the right path and the left path are available together the bot prefers the left path.

At time of availability of both forward path and the right path, the bot proceeds along the forward direction

9

These description will clearly explains about the working of the maze solving bot using the algorithm.

i) the bot to turn to is left direction most of the time whenever possible

Fig 4.1 Left turn

ii) the bot to turn right when there is no path or at the point of intersection condition

Fig 4.2 Right turn

10

iii) At the dead end condition of the maze the bot takes 180? U-turn

Fig 4.3 U-turn

iv) Availability of both the forward path and right path then,

Fig 4.4 Right and forward paths together

11

v) As the bot finds left and right paths together it prefers left path to right path

Fig 4.5 Right and left paths together

12

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION

The maze-solver robot performs perfectly and solves any open loop line maze without any error. This shows that the algorithm has been implemented perfectly and there are no errors in the program as well. But, due to lack of intelligence it is unable to solve the maze in shortest way. The robot cannot solve any closed loop maze. Several tests were done on the robot to come to these conclusions. The knowledge gained from this project will have a significant impact on future work.

FUTURE ENHANCEMENT

For future we are looking forward to make the maze-solver able to find the shortest path to complete the maze and also make changes so that it may complete any type of maze, may it be an open loop type or closed loop type.

13

REFERENCES

[1] Ibrahim Elshamarka and Abu Bakar Sayuti Saman, “Design and Implementation of a Robot for Maze-Solving using Flood-Fill Algorithm,” International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887), Vol. 56, No. 5, 2012 pp. 8.

[2] Mohamed Alsubaie, “Algorithms for Maze Solving Robot”, Manchester Metropolitan University, unit code64ET3590, 2013, pp. 12-15

[3] S. C. Law, “Maze Solving Robot”, Bachelor of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi, Malaysia, 2010

[4] Y. C. Chang, “Micromouse Maze Solving Robot,” Bachelor of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi, Malaysia, 2009

[5] Michael Gims, “Micromouse – Microprocessor Controlled Vehicle,” Bachelor of Engineering, University of East, S. L. D. B. 1999

[6] Sandeep Yadav, Kamal Kumar Verma, Swetamadhab Mahanta, “The Maze Problem Solved by Micro mouse”,International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT),ISSN: 2249 – 8958, Volume-1, Issue-4, April 2012

[7] Swati Mishra, Pankaj Bande,”Maze Solving Algorithms for Micromouse”, 2008.

[8] “Maze Solvers Archives – cyberneticzoo.com”, cyberneticzoo.com, 2017.

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