Ner Le’Elefject (2004) talks how to be a leader and how to be manager. A manager ensures implementation of day to day staff activities. The characteristics of leaders are responsibility, vision, passion for project, courage, willingness to take risks, belief in other people, ability to communicate vision and passion to others, ability to develop a team, handles stress well, ability to change, good judgment, ability to problem-solving, creativity and humility. Leaders understand their strengths, weaknesses and they do not criticize the past but provide direction for the future to give a clear sense of policies while managers are implementers as they do much employing and dismissal of staff and more financial management Jain, et al (2013) good leaders are made not born.
If you have the desire and willpower, you can become an effective leader. Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent.
Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership knowledge and skills. There are traits that influence actions and that it is to believe that leaders are born rather than made. While leadership is learned, the skills and knowledge processed by the leader are influenced by traits such as philosophies, values, ethics and character. Knowledge and skills contribute directly to the process of leadership, while the other traits give the leader characteristics that make the leader unique. Ololube,et al (2015) write, leaders are born not made, and they inherit traits that make them better for leadership. Leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational conditions or circumstances. They employ participative leadership that takes the contribution of others into account. Participative leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members to feel relevant and committed to the decision-making process. Leaders have connection with their followers. Despite the many diverse styles of leadership, a good leader inspires, motivates and directs activities to help achieve organization goals while unsuccessful leader does not contribute to organizational progress. Leadership is the process by which a person engages with others and is able to create a connection that results in increased inspiration and goodness.2.1.4 Theoretical Review on The Importance of Governance at school level Nash (2017) the purpose of governance in school is to provide strategic leadership and to create accountability in school affairs. He talks of the executive leaders within school board who are responsible for the internal organization, management and control of school. Their job is to implement the strategic goals established by the board. Boards work to support and strengthen the leadership of the executives, law enforcement in school and intervene in matters if a circumstance arises because of the ineffectiveness of executive leaders. Executive leaders must comply with any reasonable direction given by boards. One of the key characteristics expected for executive leaders (principals) to do is that they should welcome governance and support the board to understand roles and deliver its functions effectively. Executive leaders (principals) should be appropriately providing information to the board. Day & Summons (2016) explains that teachers as principals provide vision and sense of direction for the school. They focus the attention of staff on what is important and do not let them get diverted and unfocussed with initiatives that will have little impact on the work of the students, they know what is going on in their classrooms, they have views of strengths and weaknesses of their staff they know how to build on the strengths and reduce the weaknesses, they can focus the programs of staff development on the real needs of school. They gain views through programs of monitoring and evaluation. Their clarity of thought, purpose and knowledge of what is going on mean that head teachers can get the best out of the staff by influencing work in the classroom and to raising the standards achieved by students. They shape the future through visions, lead learning and teaching, develop spirit of together working, manage the organization, ensure accountability and establishes community network. OECD (2018) the quality of an education system depends on policies that shape teachers on their selection, recruitment and professional development. The policies are the regulations and principles of action at the levels of schools and education systems that shape what teachers do. Existing policies comprise elements related to the preparation of teachers, development of teachers, incentives, the demand for teachers, school processes and practices that influence the work of teachers. By setting rules for the school system and guiding the actions of local decision-makers, education policy makers aim to promote education policies at school-level practices. 2.2Empirical Review2.2.1Emprical Review on The Roles of Teachers The study by World Bank (2010) on Teacher Policies Around The World that focused to investigate on the requirements to become a teacher, teacher preparation, recruitment, employment, Teachers’ autonomy, professional development, monitoring and evaluation of teachers, teachers’ voice representation and school leadership revealed that teachers are not expected only to teach in classrooms, but they hold other responsibilities including supervision of students during holidays or after school, standing in for absent teachers, providing support to new teachers and assuming responsibility for administrative tasks. Giving teachers the autonomy to carry out the tasks they are assigned allows them feel a sense of ownership for their work. There are policies that empower teachers become school principals by basing on requirements and the criteria used for their selection in the school system. The criteria can be number of years of teaching and administrative experience. The emphasis on administrative experience suggest the managerial roles for principals. The types of contracts available to principals and the decision-making authority over how principals are selected and appointed to schools are also important factors for school principals. If a school principal is expected to be a school leader, then it is important to understand what types of powers and responsibilities have, and which types of powers and responsibilities make a principal become leader. For instance, firing decision of teachers, ability to recruit, build and retain teachers, ability to set standards and control over resource allocation within school. According to NEA, et al (2014) teacher leaders have competence in participating in leadership, leads the development and implementation of policy, decisions, participates in research projects, leads sessions at conferences and events addressing policy issues Skillfully manages group challenges, controversy, conflicts offering solutions , promotes the development of fellow teachers by respecting their decisions, engages in inquiry to understand policies, advocates for changes to existing policies and for practices in new policies,connects with policymakers using methods that engage them and enhance their willingness to support teacher leaders to take a role in policy making through the development and support of organizations in policy agenda setting. Teachers participate with fellow association members and organizations in implementing plans to influence policymakers and decision makers to generate desired change. They employ relationships to build networks of leaders to generate significant changes across a broad range of issues that impact school community, policymakers, organizations and unions. According to HakiElimu study a teacher is always a researcher using most of time conducting researches on students. Through research a teacher can understand and identify the ability and talents of students. The study further describes that a teacher play multiple roles stating that, a teacher is the guide, creator, supervisor, assessor, counselor, and a working role model. All other professions originate from the works of teachers as one cannot acquire knowledge and skills without a teacher. The teachers nurture man who in the society. Teachers are capable of interpreting policy into real life. If the teacher wrongly interprets the national educational policy, the expected output will not be realized. The teacher’s profession should be handled with care so as to avoid putting the nation into a mess of illiterate nation. Tanzania Institute of Education (TIE,2011) writes that teachers participate as policy actors in providing civic education on issues related to state, government, politics, citizenship, responsibilities of the citizens and society. At school level, Warren (2015) on the study entitled Influence of Teacher Leaders in Education Policy Development writes, teacher leaders have roles in policy making programs in schools. The school administrators tend to have a lot of responsibilities thus they may not fully place their attention toward the policy making programs. Teacher leaders are the ones that help to create policies for school performance. The teacher leader’s roles consist of coordinating individuals within the school teams and department around the school and beyond the school. The principals tend to have limited expertise as they can have specific instructional knowledge areas. They do not have expertise in every aspect of the school. They need help from a g