547255519500 SCHOOL OF HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM BACHELOR OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT NEGOTIATIOSNS AND CONFLICT MANAGEMEN (MGT3183)NAME: ALVIN ANTHONY a/l ANTHONY ID: SCM033351SUBMISSION DATE: 22/7/19PERPARED FOR: MISS CLARICE KANGUT Table of content No. Content Page 1) Introduction 3-42) Conflict and negotiation management in hospitality industry 5-93) Conclusion 104) References 11 INTRODUCTION These assignment discuses on the Negotiation and Conflict Management in the Hospitality industry. Mainly focusing on the conflicts in the hotel industry. What is conflict? Conflict is a sharp disagreement or opposition, as of interest, idea, values, and others (Lewicki, Barry and Saunders, 2007) CITATION Lew07 l 17417 (Lewicki, 2007.
)To simply put conflict happens when two or more do not agree on one same topic. Conflict is common at very work place or organization, because every individual has different ideas, suggestions, views and perspective on the same topic or subject. It is good to have some conflict in an organization because it helps them to grow and to think differently which will boost in productivity and creativity in the organization.
In the other and too much of conflict is very negative as it can do the opposite and create a toxic working environment. Organizational conflict is When there is human factor as arguments and conflicts between people or individuals are inevitable as a consequences of individual differences especially in the current environment of intense globalization and competition CITATION Ron021 p 45 l 17417 (Sims, 2002, p. 45) . In the traditional view conflict was looked as negative and should be avoided but now a day its either viewed in the human relation view which says conflict is something natural and it has positive and negative outcomes, or in the interactionist view where conflict is believed to be only positive force in a group or organization but necessity for the organization or group to perform effectively. There are few levels of conflict that can occur in the organizations, such as Interpersonal which is a conflict between two individual, Intrapersonal or intrapsychic which is a conflict that happens within the individual, Intergroup this level of conflict is the hardest to negotiate as it involves large numbers of people, for example 2nd World War. Lastly intragroup is a between a group of individuals for example in a team or department. Before negotiating we also need to know the style of conflict that has raised. There are four styles of conflict which are, aggressive, passive aggressive, non-assertive and assertive. Conflicts that arises can be solved by negotiation. Conflict management can be expressed as a process that involves stages of diagnosing the conflict, identifying its intensity, defining appropriate intervention methods by evaluation of this intensity with regard to its effects and monitoring its results CITATION sev15 l 17417 (sevket yirik, 2015) . Negotiation is the process of interacting with the goal of obtaining agreement or the result desired. Negotiation does not always resolve the conflict that happens because not everything is negotiable as every person has their own values, believes and options that has sometimes restricted the negotiation process. The key is that to identify one’s personal ethics, moral code and values when negotiating options. Conflicts and Negotiations in hospitality Industry The hospitality industry coves and has many sub industries such as Tourism industry, and Hotel industry. Hotel is defined as the place where accommodation, food, and drinks are supplied to the people who are desires to pay for provided-service without any special agreement required by business CITATION SMe72 l 17417 (Medlik, 1972) . The Hotel industry has and may experience higher levels of conflict compare to other businesses CITATION Moh14 l 17417 (Mohamad Sepehri, 2014) as the Hotel industry has a higher number of employee, and direct relation with the guest. This arises a higher level of conflict as gust and employees are in an ono on one relation with the services provided. According to a case study done at selected hotels in Turkey shows the intragroup conflict which is where there are conflicts between departments. The negotiation that is made to resolve this issue is hoteliers must be given necessary training to reduce this kinds of conflicts, and should specify responsibilities of departments and rules of the biasness in written, and at the same time must be careful in watching other departments to avoid infringements into other departments CITATION Moh14 l 17417 (Mohamad Sepehri, 2014). For example, when I was doing my internship in a hotel this situation played out. The food and beverage department and the front office department always have conflict between each other’s departments. The main conflict was the lack of communication and information amongst the two front office department and the food and beverage department. According to the Moore’s Circle of conflict (Moore’s Pizza) this is a data conflict because the departments has lack of information and misinformed about each other’s department. This problem was resolved by collaborating as the two department managers decided to share information and updates in the daily meeting and to brief the staffs and to give proper training. This conflict management brings a win-win situation between both parties as welcoming each other’s information to solve the conflict. This negotiation has a positive outcome of this conflict. Next, according to a case study at la La Palm Regal Beach Hotel in Ghana, the case studies on the conflicts faced by workers in the hotel management and organization of hotel in whole. The case study was conducted by a survey with 250 questionnaires which was given out to the hotel staffs. 200 questionnaires were fully answered and also ten managers were interviewed. The survey concludes that the primary course of conflict in La Palm Regal Beach Hotel in Ghana was discrimination. According to the table of the studied case 70% representing 76 of the responds shows that discrimination is the primary course of conflict CITATION Ant15 l 17417 (Anthony Afful-Broni, 2015). This conflict can reduce the productivity of the hotel organization and can create a negative working environment for the workers and the guest alike as the staffs will not as kine to bring the best services to the customer. The recommendation given by the at the end of this survey is that periodic in-service training need to be implemented and should highlight how to recognize or diagnose conflict in their initial stage so it can be managed completely at the La Palm Beach Hotel. When I was working as an intern at Sheraton Imperial Kuala Lumpur I have seen this conflict has taken place when my friend that wanted to work at a food and beverage department was not given the job at the food and beverage department but was given job at the front office department because of her physical appearances and also because she was a woman. This impacts the staffs in various ways mainly in the self-esteem and it demotes the staffs to learn and to adopt to a new environment which is not good for the staff and the organization alike. Hoteliers’ vision and policies should be followed and adopted by employees. There must not be difference in hotel administration’ vision and mission, which may lead to conflict to arise CITATION Moh14 l 17417 (Mohamad Sepehri, 2014) This conflict can be dissolved by giving better training at the staff and having better trust towards the employees hired. Not just that the managers need to be given better education on how to hire and to interview a new staff.After that, according to the article Managing Distribution and Channel Conflict in Hotel Industry by Juliet Tan and Larry Dwyer talks about another conflict that happens in the hotel industry which is the channel conflict. Channel Conflict is good for the organization or the hotel as it creates good completion to the hotels internal market team to make more sales than the other type of contribution channel such as travel agency and other online hotel booking sites besides that hotels own booking web site for example agoda, travel loka and booking.com. The other contribution channels are considered additional marketing arms for the hotel. There is a potential for conflict between the many channel partners when different pricing are advertised CITATION Jul14 l 17417 (Juliet Tan, 2014) because in most of the time the prices will be consistent amongst all the different contribution channels. The impact that this conflict bring to the organization is that the hotel’s internal marketing need to compete and be creative in making more sales than the other contribution channels. Pricing is the main issue that most channel conflicts is generated and the price reduced in the internet is a concern CITATION Kev02 l 17417 (Webb, 2002). The other contribution sites or channels drop their price low because the customers will go through all the sites even the hotels web site to find the best price and it is easy for the contribution sites to capture more sales by doing such and act that effects the hotels marketing sales to drop. The hotel needs to create strategies that will help them to overcome this conflict. To be more control over the brand pricing, hotel companies need to diverse mechanism to both circumvent online travel service channels and provide disincentive to booking rooms with these distribution channels CITATION Jul14 l 17417 (Juliet Tan, 2014). For example, I have seen this happen when I was working when most of the customers coming to the hotel restaurant made their booking through etigo’ because this contribution channel a food app had promotions up to 50% off the price that the customer would have payed if the booking was made directly to the hotel restaurant. This channel conflict can be negotiated and managed by using collaboration as a conflict management between the contribution channels and the hotel. As this will awake a win-win situation to both hotel and the contribution channels. Then, interpersonal conflict often happens between an originations structure. Role ambiguity is one of the main reasons conflicts happening in an organization. Role ambiguity is the lack of clarity about roles expected from the staffs while doing their job tasks. CITATION Mei11 l 17417 (Mei-Fang Chen, 2011). This conflict is a structural and data conflict according to the Moore’s Circle of Conflict (Moore’s Pizza). This is because the poor encoding of massages; poor human relation and the lack of appropriate information process; bad timing, are some of the factors that eliminate mutual understanding between staffs and might lead to conflict CITATION Tou03 l 17417 (Tourish, 2003). The interpersonal conflict is a conflict that happens between two individual, in the role ambiguity is an interpersonal conflict because it is a problem that happens between the organizations/ higher level managements such as supervisors and managers and lower level staffs. This problem happens also when there is a lack of information and miscommunication between this parties. For example, this situation takes place in a hotel restaurant that I worked, when the manager gave a task to my fellow college and he expected a different outcome without explaining and my college did a different thing and there was a conflict there between my manager and my college because there was a customer compline. The conflict could have been avoided by clear communication and better understanding among the staff and the manager. According to an article Employee’s Conflict Management in Tourism and Hospitality Enterprises in Egypt: An Empirical Investigation of Management Perspective show a case study or survey done that shows that different cultural and environmental factors’ was perceived as the most important reason for employees’ conflict with a mean score of 3.32 CITATION Abu18 l 17417 (Abuelkassem A. Mohammad, 2018). Some of the other reasons that been recorded in this article is individual defence between employee’, intellectual difference between generations’, spreads of partisans among employees’ and limited financial resources for achieving objectives’ are also some of the other reasons of conflict happening in an organization. The difference cultural and environmental factors is a value conflict according to the Moore’s Circle of Conflict (Moore’s Pizza). The difference in ways of life, ideology, worldview and culture is the causes of this Value conflict. These conflict comes up when someone tries to impose set of values on someone else. This can be negotiated and managed by parties share information about their values and do not define the problem in a term value. Agreeing and disagreeing to parties on matters must be allowed. This type of conflict management is called collaborating as both parties own their views while also listening to other views and welcoming differences. This is a Win-Win situation and this can create rooms for more ideas and both parties are required to spend time and effort. Hospitality enterprise have focused more on adopting collaborating practises for managing employees as they were highly ranked in the survey and recorded higher mean ratings with an expectation of first practise CITATION Abu18 l 17417 (Abuelkassem A. Mohammad, 2018). CONCLUSION In conclusion, Conflict Management in the Hospitality Industry has a long term effects on the development and the growth on an organization/ hotel/ hospitality industry. The conflict that arises in the industry or organization is common in nature but need an appropriate negotiation and conflict management, methodology to overcome the issue. Conflict happens when there is a disagreement between two or more individual that can produce a positive and negative outcome. In any conflict situation it is wise to use the conflict resolution method to reduce the harm coursed due to conflict happening in the organization. It is important to the organization/ company/ business to implement the most appropriate way to reduce the impact of the conflict by using negotiation. By reading this assignment reader can have a idea of how conflicts play out the hospitality industry and the negotiations to use to overcome the conflict. REFERENCE References BIBLIOGRAPHY Abuelkassem A. Mohammad, M. A. (2018). Employees’ Conflict Management in Tourism and Hospitality Enterprises in Egypt: An Empirical Investigation of Management Perspective. Journal of Faculty of Tourism and Hotels .Anthony Afful-Broni, I. S. (2015). Employee Conflict and its Management in the Hotel Industry in Ghana: A Case Study at La Palm Royal Beach Hotel. Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Research.dement tuzunkan, d. e. (2013). conflict management in hotels-a case study on thomas model around hotel managers in ankara, turkey.jonathan a. lanman, h. w. (2018). intergroup conflict . the international encyclopedia of anthropology.Juliet Tan, L. D. (2014). Managing Distribution Channel Conflict in the Hotel Industry . International Journal of Marketing and Business Communication .khairil wahidin awang, y. a. (2010). tourism policy development: a malaysian expirience . journal of tourism, hospitality & culinary arts .Lewicki, R. J. (2007.). Essentials of negotiation /‹ Roy J. Lewicki, Bruce Barry, David M. Saunders. Boston, Mass. : McGraw-Hill/‹Irwin.M. Afzalur Rahim, N. R. (2000). DO JUSTICE PERCEPTIONS INFLUENCE STYLES OF HANDLING CONFLICT WITH SUPERVISORS?: WHAT JUSTICE PERCEPTIONS, PRECISELY. The International Journal of Conflict Management.Medlik, S. (1972). Profile of the hotel and catering industry . londan : William Heinemann .Mei-Fang Chen, C.-P. L.-Y. (2011). Modelling job stress as a mediating role in predicting turnover intention. Service Industries Journal.Mohamad Sepehri, O. B. (2014). A survey review in conflict management strategies: The case study for selected hotels in Turkey . Journal of Management and Marketing Research Volume 16, 2.sevket yirik, b. i. (2015). A STUDY ON CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN HOSPITALITY ORGANIZATIONS. International Journal of Arts & Sciences, 79.Sims, R. R. (2002). Managing Organizational Behavior. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.Tourish, D. R. (2003). Critical upward feedback in organizations: processes, problems and implications for communication management. Journal of Communication Management.Webb, K. L. (2002). Managing channels of distribution in the age of electronic commerce. Industrial Marketing Management , 95-102.