Keywords: tesol syllabus design, needs evaluation tesol, syllabus design tesol
Thank you for choosing our Language centre as one of your prospective providers. In such a envelop you will find what you have requested from us. An essay with the explanation of ‘Needs Research’ and ‘Syllabus design in TESOL’, and a description and rationale of the syllabus items for the two weeks course. We hope you will be satisfied with the work we’ve produced. We would be very happy if we’d the opportunity to collaborate together with you.
Needs analysis procedure in language coaching was first introduced and employed by Michael Western in 1920, but re-emerged during 1970 consequently of extensive studies conducted by the council of Europe team. Needs evaluation originated and was emphasized in ESP (English for Specific Purposes) and it is argued that it is not possible to designate the needs of general English learners. Hutchinson and Walters (1987) identify need analysis as the most quality feature of English for Specific Purposes course design. It is also notable a needs analysis is the starting place for a syllabus/course design. It is an integral part of a curriculum development, and is necessary before creating a syllabus. Thus, the info compiled from a need analysis can be used to define the program goals or sometimes to choose the most relevant material for the terminology syllabus.
Johnson K. (2008, pg. 200) highlights that: ”in order to plan a foreign language teaching we have to find a way of analysing learners’ needs. What will tell us the amount of, and for what purposes our learners will require which foreign dialects, it’s the procedure for needs evaluation. ”
Needs Examination in language teaching and language program design, can be defined as a systematic process which helps educators to acquire information and get a precise and complete picture of these students’ needs and personal preferences. Then they interpret the info collected and they make decisions about what relating to their programme, predicated on the interpretations in order to meet the students’ needs. This process can be used in response to the academics needs of all students, for bettering their achievements and assembly challenged academic standards. However, this technique sometimes will not involve taking a look at the learners’ individual needs, but may require looking at certain requirements and prospects of other members included, such as employees, parents, educators and financial supporters.
Some probable resources for gathering information are: questionnaires, research, assessments, observations and specific interviews. Generally a need research tries to get home elevators the situations when a language is likely to be used, the purposes for which that language is needed, the types of communication that are going to be utilized in the course and the amount of proficiency that is required to develop a syllabus.
If a need evaluation is used as an ongoing part of coaching, it helps learners to think about their learning, to identify their needs, but also control their learning. Also, as Amie M. Casper (2003) state governments: ” The info gleaned from a need examination can be used to help you determine program goals. These goals can be stated as specific educating objectives, that may function as the foundation which a teacher will establish the lesson strategies, materials, tests, projects and activities. ” Thus, a need research allows you to elucidate the purposes of your learning program.
All professional people, who are labelled as instructors or are somehow related to language teaching, sometimes in their job route will be in charge of fabricating a syllabus or at least they may have created one. Basically, syllabus design is an essential component of the course preparation. To start with, syllabus is defined as a assertion of content, denoting just what a particular programme is going to cover (Richards et al. 1985, qtd in Johnson K. 2008, pg. 215), meaning a syllabus design entails planning course content.
David Nunan (1988, pg. 8) responses on syllabus design by proclaiming that: “A traditional syllabus design has been regarded as a subsidiary component of the curriculum design. Curriculum can be involved with the planning implementation, evaluation management and supervision of education programs, whereas syllabus concentrates more narrowly on the choice and grading of context. “
Syllabus design techniques are necessary for deciding what will be educated in a terminology programme. A simple step prior to syllabus design is need research. Knowing exactly what to your students want, and just why they would like to learn British is a basic feature in a syllabus design. Generally, a right syllabus was created into workable chunks that may be used and interact into one another. It’s important that the effectiveness of the teacher’s school will be mainly depending about how the lessons develop over time.
Then, the educator has to determine this content of his syllabus. He needs to be sure what to include in the syllabus such that it is relevant to what the students need. When it comes to plan the syllabus, the tutor designs his syllabus based on his list of prioritized issues or areas of his review. He has to be sure that his preferred topics build-up on others, but also that he uses a broad variety of resources and activities. Furthermore, the educator has to ensure on which of the four skills (listening, speaking, writing, reading) to spotlight, and those are the main for his students.
As you have read above, there have been discovered three main levels along the way of a words syllabus. The first one is the needs research, then content specification and then syllabus organisation.
There are two approaches to syllabus design. Product procedure and process approach. Most syllabuses are based on product procedure. In the product approach the instructor, demonstrates to the students and then he testing them in order to evaluate them (assess their performance). A product syllabus targets what will be learnt at the end of the training process (the outcomes) rather than the process itself. Some product-oriented syllabuses will be the pursuing: the grammatical syllabus, the functional syllabus and the lexical syllabus. Alternatively, a process procedure on a syllabus specializes in the skills and the processes which get excited about the training process.
There are different types of syllabuses in TESOL and they’re the next: the situational, structural, topical ointment, practical, notional, skills-based, and job based and lexical syllabus.
Having considered your preferences, we have concluded to a relevant style of a syllabus designed especially for you. Definitely, what you are seeking for is the education of your receptionists for a much better communication with your friends. Thus we will instruct them those parts of English that are most relevant to them.
Our organising concept for the selection and grading of what will be trained in this two-week course are notional-functional categories. We have decided to take communicative categories as the primary principle of our syllabus. Thus this type of course is dependant on a notional/useful syllabus as it is the most relevant kind of syllabus for this function. This program must be practical and relevant to your receptionists’ careers. They need to learn how to make use of language under those several situations they face every day. The communicative functions were meticulously preferred and sequenced relating their effectiveness to the receptionist and the degree to that they will meet up with the receptionists’ communicative needs.
The syllabus is organised under the context hotel, which then is divided under a general going (at the reception workplace), with subheadings for specific activities. Within each situation, your receptionists will learn about areas of that situation, and what language to use to be able to talk to the guests. We’ve ordered functions matching to a chronological collection because we think is more highly relevant to base the syllabus on the collection of each action (what goes on first, second, etc. ), alternatively than grading them predicated on the associated vocabulary or sentence structure, as we are going to teach them how to use the relevant language under each situation.
At the reception table:
- Greeting the guests/Giving visitors a friendly welcome
- Booking a room
- Giving/asking information
- Giving suggest/ making suggestions
- Dealing with complaints
The situations listed in the syllabus will be practised through many of activities which will help your receptionists to build up and practise their abilities to communicate more effectively in a number of real-life situations required in their work.
The assumption that the receptionists already know the grammar has been a basic reason behind starting this notional/functional syllabus, because what they need the most is to enhance their communicative skills when working with language. Teaching based on this syllabus will put in a communicative dimension with their already existing knowledge. We will trigger this knowledge so that they will put it to use in order to do things with terms (communicate better and learn functions of words under the context ‘hotel’).
Generally, a concept is a specific context in which people connect. A function is a particular purpose for a speaker for the reason that given context. In this particular syllabus the notion of working in a hotel, requires a numerous of functions, such as greeting the guests, giving/ requesting information, making suggestions, dealing with claims etc. Thus, the syllabus items are centered about how the receptionists use British, where purposes they use it and what exactly they have to learn to be able to communicate better with the hotel guests. The syllabus items, predicated on the contextualised exercises gives your receptionists the opportunity to improve and enhance their communicative skills through those numerous functions of terms we are going to coach them.
The main reason for including those situations in the syllabus is basically because those are the most important situations when a typical receptionist will take part in, and therefore they need to work and practise their communicative skills, but also they need to know very well what function of terms to make use of under each situation. This is going to be achieved under several activities designed specifically for this program. We think that the receptionists need to work their listening and speaking skills, as they are the main skills they use in their work. Speaking skills are extremely important and they will be practised through role-plays between the students and the teacher. Being attentive skills will be practised through hearing real life discussions, and then by concluding activities related to the situations. It is important that effective speaking is determined by successful hearing.
We decided to work on the other skills too, but the main emphasis will get on hearing and speaking skills. Relevant vocabulary, sentence structure rules and set ups, but also pronunciation will be integrated in each situation. Your receptionists will be given the chance to practise their skills in true to life situations involving genuine dialect use.
Based on each situation, we’ve produced some exercises that present relevant instances of language. Vocabulary, grammar and functions derive from the situations picked. However, prior each situation we will teach them the correct sentence structure, vocabulary and structures of language they need to know. Under each situation, the receptionists will practise different functions of terms. For instance, when greeting visitors they will learn and practise relevant dialect on how to work with language in order to greet their guests. That is also going to be achieved through listening several of greetings, predicated on real situations taking place in a hotel and made by differing people. We gives them the chance to practise listening understanding through different being attentive activities. The receptionists must complete the comprehensions exercises in order to evaluate their understanding.
Also, after or before a predicament, students will be divided into groups and they will be given different cases in where they need to practise this issue they are given. Some scenarios cases predicated on greetings, are the following:
- Greet two friends as they address the reception ( friends are an elderly few)
- Greet two friends as they enter in the hotel (these guests are very exhausted)
- Greet two friends as they type in the hotel ( these friends are very famous people)
- Greet the guests as they go into the hotel (A family group with two young children)
In this way, such a combo of elements will be associated with a reasonably predictable vocabulary in conditions of lexis, framework and function/relationship.
Each situation they are going to pay attention to or practise it orally, will have some other composition, function and lexical items (educated prior each situation). Thus, all syllabus items are organised in a way which will be closely associated with a useful activity or activity that the receptionist may need to undertake during their work.
By the end of this course your receptionists can speak better under several situations, and they’ll also improve their communicative skills.