18.104.22.168 Nature is able to maintain integrity through self-renewal A strategy that allows it to persist by constantly adding energy and matter to improve the system. This means building in an adaptive management loop and constantly using feedback. (Baumeister et al., 2013). For example, rhinos depend upon their horns for survival and cannot grow new horns if a loss occurs. They do this through a protein in the horn, that when exposed to air or damage, fills in any cracks. Humans have invented a self-healing concrete that mimics this strategy.
It contains microcapsules filled with resins that break open to exposure to a micro fracture and repair the structure. (Zanowick, 2011).22.214.171.124 Life embodies resilience through variation, redundancy and decentralizationThis way can maintain function following a disturbance by incorporating a variety of dupli-cate forms, processes, or systems that are not located together.(Biomimicry 3.8,2013).The ca-pacity for resiliency depends on the interconnectedness and functional diversity of multiple systems. Variation is the capability of carrying out the same function in many different ways.
Redundancy means that there are many units that perform the same function so that if one unit is disturbed, other will take its place. (Zanowick, 2011). For example, a resilient city means putting in place policies and physical structures that respond to drought or flooding. An example would be to put in permeable pavements, green roofs, and all kinds of eco-structure to absorb enough rainfall during the heavy times and be able to use that waters to get through dry times. By this way city become more able to absorb shocks without disrupting the func-tion. (Biomimicry 3.8,2013). In decentralized design, functions are spread out in ways that if a disturbance occurs somewhere it does not have a critical impact on other functions or parts of the design.For example, centralized facilities are brittle. If there is only one sewage treatment plant and it breaks down, that is will make a big trouble. (Zanowick, 2011).3.8.3 Be locally attuned and responsive Definition: Fit into and integrate with the surrounding environment.Nature increases its chance to survive as it becomes more adapt at recognizing local conditions and responding to them. Sustainably designed homes respond to local conditions such as heat and cold by being designed to these localized conditions.(Biomimicry 3.8,2013).Nature does this by 4 principles as the following: 126.96.36.199 Nature is able to respond locally by using readily available materials and energyTo build with abundant, accessible materials while harnessing freely available energy. With limited resources, nature has found ways to fulfill its own needs with what are available. (Za-nowick,2011). For example, Eastgate Centre Office Building, Zimbabwe mimic termite mound to make passive cool chimneys and floor slabs self regulating ventilation design uses 90% less energy to heat , cool and saved 10% on initial costs by not purchasing air condition-ing system.(Baumeister et al., 2013). An architectural product example: SMIT Solar Ivy, a Brooklyn-based firm, SMIT (Sustainably Minded Interactive Technology), has created a product called Solar Ivy. Mimicking the look and function of ivy, this mimic has wind and so-lar power generating photovoltaic leaves that can be attached to building facades. Solar Ivy is adaptable to different building types and climates. SMIT aims to use recycled materials and to create products whose component parts can be recycled in the future. ( As shown in figures 3.22 , 3.23.To set up a Solar Ivy system, first the building interface is attached and a steel wire mesh is installed. The steel mesh on the front, works to capture sunlight and generate electricity. On the back side, piezoelectric generators produce power when the wind causes the leaves to move. As shown in figure 3.24. ( greenstreetinc.com/biomimicry-solar-ivy).The steel mesh can bend, curve or stretch to match any contour. Individual leaves can be replaced if one becomes damaged. Each 4 foot by 7 foot strips of the Solar Ivy system generates 85 Watts of solar power, also helping provide shade of buildings that can reduce HVAC costs for the consumer.( nature.org/idea/ smit-solar-ivy). Figure 3.22 Solar Ivy. Figure 3.23 Solar Ivy fixed Figure 3.24 Installation of on building interface. Solar Ivy on building interface.( nature.org/idea/ smit-solar-ivy).188.8.131.52 Nature uses feedback loops As the process of engaging in cyclic information flows to modify a reaction appropriately . (Biomimicry 3.8,2013).184.108.40.206 Nature leverages cyclic process To take advantage of phenomena that repeats themselves. Cyclic processes are one of Earth’s operating conditions. Life takes advantage of these cycles in order to have a better chance of survival and to reduce their need for energy and materials. (Zanowick, 2011).220.127.116.11 Life cultivate cooperative relationshipsNature finds value by creating conditions that encourage different components in the system to make use of each other in ways that are mutually advantageous. Nature is more cooperative than competitive. (Zanowick, 2011).3.8.4 Integrated development with growth Definition: Invest optimally in strategies that promote both development and growth. (Bio-mimicry 3.8,2013). Growth is necessary for organisms to survive, but sustaining life over the long haul requires a balance between growth and development. Development is the investment in the infrastructure as a platform for growth to occur. (Zanowick, 2011).Nature integrates development with growth through 3 principles as the following:18.104.22.168 Self-organize It creates conditions to allow components to interact in concert to move towards an enriched system.(Biomimicry 3.8,2013).22.214.171.124 Nature builds from the bottom upAssemble components one unit at a time. Designing from the bottom up means designing networks. The nodes of a system should create the structure of the whole by themselves, through their interrelations. Nature shows this method to be more robust, flexible, and scala-ble.(Biomimicry 3.8,2013). As shown in figure 3.25.Figure 3.25 A hierarchical system (at left) could have one broken link disconnect most of the components; a network structure (at right) could have one broken link not disconnect any components. ( library/whole-systems-sustainability/doing- biomimicry-natural-principles).126.96.36.199 Nature combine modular and nested componentsLife fits multiple units within each other progressively from simple to complex. By repeating common elements to build on successful designs, Nature saves energy, material and time. (Zanowick, 2011). An architectural example: Stick structural system, the femur is the strongest human bone and its hollow cylinder design provides maximum strength with minimum weight. Those essential features represent ideal parameters for the reduction of earthquake in-tensity on a building structure. Stick.S used hollow-shaft columns and beams in order to max-imize the material performance. Each structural component is designed emulating the bone Wolff’s Law, which implies that material resource is adapted to the structure diagram of force and is applied just where it is needed. This form helps the proposed frame to respond better than conventional frame to the lateral loads normally produced during an earthquake. Also, the hollow-shaft parameter serves to reduce about 30 % of reinforced concrete by structural component. The hollow-shaft parameter reduces about 0.32 m3 of reinforced concrete, besides it reduces 761 kg of CO2 by structural component (column or beam).The form of the proposed frame almost 3 times stiffer than a conventional one. As shown in figures 3.26 , 3. 27 . ( Figures 3.26, 3.27 STICK.S TECTONICA structural system.( Be resource efficient (material and energy) Definition: Skillfully and conservatively take advantage of resources and opportunities. (Biomimicry 3.8,2013). An example from nature is the hollow bones of birds. Put bone cells only in areas of stress, thus producing a lightweight structure that allows for flight but is strong to support the wings. (Zanowick, 2011).188.8.131.52 Nature uses low energy processesTo minimize energy consumption by reducing requisite temperatures, pressures and time for reactions. An architectural example: Las Palmas water theatre, the main approach to design this project was mimicking the Namibian fog-basking beetle, due to its evolved way to create its own fresh water in the desert. This beetle radiates heat at night and as a result becomes cooler than the surrounding environment creating a perfect surface for condensation. In addi-tion, this creature raises its wings to take advantage of the wind and increase its chances of capturing the fog and turning it into water. (Rankouhi,2012).The Las Palmas water theatre in the Canary Islands, Spain benefits from the surrounding at-mosphere such as wind and sun properties. Wind flaps are designed to mimic the open wing of a beetle that guide the sprayed seawater into condensation panels this process works ac-cording to the wind direction.The scheme uses coupled evaporators and condensers to pro-duce large quantities of distilled water. The Canary Islands is a volcanic island have very steep sides, which make it easy to reach water at approximately eight degrees centigrade from a depth of 1,000m below sea level (the cold water could be used as a condenser) . Also, the Canary Islands have a very steady and warm northeasterly wind. So, the combination of the warm wind aiding evaporation and the deep seawater creating a very cold condensing surface – creates a highly productive water purification system.The building structure is orientated perpendicular to the prevailing wind to obtain a maximum supply of ambient air. The flow rate is controlled by louvers on the leeward side, which also incorporates solar panels to provide heat for the evaporators.(Pawlyn,2011).As shown in figures 3.28,3.29.