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Nov 19th, 2019

mode of transmission Essay

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C arrie rs :-

A p ath ogen in fe cte d p ers o n p osse ssin g s p eci? c in fe ctio us a gent

s h ow in g n o o r m ild s ym pto m s o f c lin ic a l d is e ase .

P ossib le s o urc e o f in fe ctio n t o o th ers .

T yp es o f c a rrie rs :-

a)A ctiv e c arrie r:-

In fe cte d in div id ual c a n t ra nsm it

d is e ase t o o th ers w it h out e xh ib it in g s ig ns a nd s ym pto m s .

In fe ctio n is

o bse rv e d t h ro ughout h is /h er c o urs e . e g:- p olio v ir u s, h epatit is A v ir u s

b)P assiv e c arrie r:-

In div id ual c o nta m in ate d w it h

p ath ogen c a n m ech anic a lly t ra nsm it it t o o th ers .T his c a rrie r s ta te m ay

o ccu r d urin g in cu batio n p erio d, c o nva le sce nt o f in div id ual w it h c lin ic a lly

r e co gniz a ble d is e ase .

– e xa m ple s o f in cu bato ry c a rrie rs :- M easle s ,C hic ke n p ox.

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– e xa m ple s o f c o nva le sce nt c a rrie rs :-

Salm onella t y p hi, D ip hth eria .

c )H ealt h y ( c h ro nic ) c arrie rs :-

th ey c o ntin ue t o

h arb our a n in fe ctio us a gent f o r e xte nded t im e p erio d ( m onth o r y e ar)

b ut is n ot ill.

e xa m ple s:- H epatit is B v ir u s.

C arrie rs a re d an gero us b ecau se:-

T hey g enera lly d on’t s h ould c lin ic a l s ym pto m s.

D i? cu lt t o d ia gnose t h em in c a se o f h ealt h y c a rrie r.

C arrie rs a re le ss in fe ctio us t h an t h e c a se s b ut

e pid id em io lo gic a klly m ore d angero us .

e xa m ple :- T yp hoid M ary

D is ea se t ra nsm is sio n:-

T ra nsfe r o f p ath ogen f ro m a n in fe cte d h ost t o h ealt h y in div id ual b y

d ir e ct o r in dir e ct c o nta ct.

M odes o f t ra n sm is sio n o f d is ease:-

D ir e ct

t ra nsm is sio n

I n dir e ct

t ra nsm is sio n

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D ir e ct c o nta ct

D ro ple t in fe ctio ns

C onta ct w it h s o il

I n ocu la tio n in to s kin o r

m uco sa .

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V ehic le -b orn e

V ecto r – born e

a )M ech anic a l

b )B io lo gic a l

A ir -b orn e

F om it e -b orn e

1 ) D ir e ct t ra nsm is sio n

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H ere t h ere is in sta nt t ra nsfe r o f

p ath ogen f ro m r e se rv o ir t o s u sce ptib le

h ost b y

d ir e ct c o nta ct o r d ro ple t s p re ad.

I t o ccu rs t h ro ugh S kin -t o -s kin c o nta ct,

s e xu al in te rc o urs e .

It a ls o r e fe rs t o c o nta ct w it h s o il o r

v e geta tio n h arb ourin g in fe ctio us

o rg anis m s.

E xa m ple s:- A ID s ,L epro sy, S TD s ,

S kin a nd E ye in fe ctio ns.

/

-B Y D R. P . V EN KATA K RIS H NAN ,

P ara s H osp it a l

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2 )D ro ple t in fe ctio n:-

D ir e ct p ro je ctio n o f s p ra y o f d ro ple ts

o f s a liv a a nd n aso -p hary n geal

s e cre tio n.

C ause d b y s n eezin g, c o ughin g o r

e ve n t a lk in g. It s a f o rm o f d ir e ct a ir –

b orn e t ra nsm is sio n.

P artic le s le ss t h an 5 m m c a n

p enetra te d eeply a nd r e ach a lv e oli

c a usin g in fe ctio n.

E xa m ple s:- C om mon c o ld , T B ,

W ho opin g c o ugh.

/

h ttp s:/ / h em antm ore .o rg .in /s cie n ce/b io lo gy/

d is ea ses/1 1238/

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3 )C onta ct w it h s o il:-

D ir e ct e xp osu re o f s u sce ptib le t is su e t o d is e ase a gent in s o il.

E xa m ple :- H ookw orm

h ttp s:/ / e n .w ik ip ed ia .o rg /w ik i/ F eca l% E2% 80% 93ora l_ ro ute # /m ed ia /F ile :F -d ia gra m -0 1.jp g

4 )In o cu la tio n in to s kin o r M uco sa :

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P ath ogen is d ir e ctly in ocu la te d in to s kin o r m uco sa .

E xa m ple s:- R abie s, H epatit is B

h ttp s:/ / w ww.m 3in dia .in /c o nte n ts /n ew s/8 0757/w hy-d elh i-

n eed s-t o -f o llo w -a ndhra -p olic y-o n-a uto

h ttp s:/ / w ww.m ed ic a ln ew sto day.c o m /a rtic le s/3 21806.p hp

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