Once the researcher has determined his research purpose, research question, and the corresponding hypothesis for his research project, what he needs to do now is to collect the required data. Data is information from test that the researcher would analyse in order to meet his research target, assist in his research question, and confirm his research hypothesis. For example, the data or information about customers are gender, get older, qualification, marital status, volume of kids, regular monthly income, make of car, type of house, faith, hobby, activities, leisure activities, credit cards, golf membership etc.

Figure 5. 1: Methods of data collection (most important data)

Method for Collecting Principal Data

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Survey Method

Observation Method

Face-to-Face Interview

Telephone Interview

Computerised Questionnaires

Direct Observation

Mechanical Observation

Content Analysis

Personal Interview

Mail Survey

Self-Administered Questionnaires

Actually, what variable relating to the study is determined by your research goals, research questions, and the related research hypotheses. The researcher should refer to the three elements above when identifying what data to collect in order to avoid collecting the unneeded data, or worse, not collecting the required data.

Based on Amount 6. 1, the method of data collection can be classified into survey methods and observation methods.

A) Study method

According to Zikmund, Babin, Carr and Griffin (2010), study is a research technique when a test is interviewed in some form or the behavior of respondents is seen and described for some reason.

In study method, questionnaires are given to respondents to elicit information for the study. Respondents are asked the questions based on the information needed by the study. The questions may be asked in the verbal varieties (interview), writing (mail questionnaire), or through computer (internet or e-mail).

Several advantages are




Accurate means of assessing information about a population

B) Types of study methods

i) Personal interview: in person communication where an interviewer asks respondents to answer questions (Zikmund, Babin, Carr and Griffin (2010).

Face to handle interview

In the face-to-face interview (sometimes called personal interview), the researcher will put together the questions to be asked through the interview with respondents. Each question signifies the varying that the researcher would like to acquire its data. The questionnaires cover all variables required from a respondent. Before the interview begins, the researcher would describe the aim of research, ask for cooperation, and give assurance that the response given is only for research purpose and the info is cured with confidential.

This is important since personal data is private, and no-one will show his personal information if the confidentiality is not assured. The interviewer should posses good personality so the interview period proceeds properly and in an agreeable atmosphere. Through the interview, the interviewer will browse the question and record the response. Personal interviews may be conducted at the respondents’ home, office buildings, or anywhere. Below are the common examples of places which can be in essence used to execute the interview.

Door-to-door Interview

Door-to-door interview refers to the interview where the respondents are interviewed face-to-face in their homes. The major good thing about this interview is high contribution rate, however the downside is high cost.

Mall Intercept Interview

Mall intercept interview identifies the personal interviews conducted in shopping malls. Interviewers typically intercept consumers at a central point normally at the access to the mall. The good thing about this technique is low priced since no travel required to the respondent’s home.

Mall intercept interview is suitable when the respondents need to see, touch, or flavour the merchandise before they provides meaningful information.

Computer-Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI)

This interview runs on the computer to get the info from the respondents using several user-friendly digital packages to create questions easier for the respondent to comprehend. However, this method is grouped as personal interview strategy because an interviewer is usually present to serve as a host and to guide the respondents. CAPI is generally used to collect data at shopping malls, product clinics, conferences, and industry events.

Advantages of face-to-face interview

Higher response rate. With proper plan and approach, the respondents won’t ignore the obtain an interview. The interviewer must be friendly and creative in getting cooperation from respondents. The interview method normally achieves a reply rate of more than 70%.

Data more appropriate. The face-to-face conference allows the interviewer to clarify terms or anything which might confuse the respondents. Once the respondent knows the question, he’ll provide an correct response.

The interviewer can take note specific reactions by respondents during interview. The physical effect and facial expression by respondent can inform whether he’s providing accurate replies or not. The interviewer can also be aware the physical environment surrounding the interview such as the respondents’ office, the house, the dress etc which should tally along with his response.

People will usually act in response with good gesture and provide accurate replies when approached in person. The Malay culture of not declaring “no” still is true when someone involves the entranceway with polite and peaceful manner.

An experienced interviewer can sense out if the respondent is wanting to hide some information. In cases like this, he’ll use his creativity to clarify the motive or terminate the interview.

Disadvantages of face-to-face interview

High cost. Interviewers must get specific training on methods including the art of earning personal way, the fine art of requesting questions, the artwork of requesting assistance etc, which is expensive and frustrating. The interviewer must be comfortable enough to work on his own. At exactly the same time, the daily allowance for traveling, food, lodging etc is very high.

Incomplete response. Any small blunder by interviewer can cause error in the response. The miscalculation such as using a wrong methodology, bad facial appearance, coming at the incorrect time, not very sensitive to certain concern in the chat sometimes could impede respondents from giving truthful response.

Error in saving. This happens particularly when the interview program is in a rush scheduled to time constrain on part of respondents. The interviewer who needs to browse the question and record the response quickly and together is susceptible to making blunders.

Require close guidance. The interviewers’ work should be supervised carefully to avoid interviewer cheating. Sometimes, scheduled to many reasons such as time constraint, respondent is difficult to contact or the respondent is not available during appointment time, the interviewer will fill up the response on his own.

Telephone interview

Sometime you’ll be able to collect data through phone conversation. This method is possible if the researcher has complete directory website of telephone amounts of population under research. In case the respondents are government officials, employees of private organization, professional people such as doctors, solicitors, accountants etc, then your researcher have the option of like this.

Traditional Cell phone Interview

In traditional telephone interview, respondents are called through the telephone and the interviewer will ask a series of questions and record the replies. Respondents are usually more eager to provide precise and reliable information on a number of personal matters over calling than with personal interviews.

Computer Assisted Cell phone Interview (CATI)

CATI uses a computerized questionnaire administered to respondents over calling. The interviewer would contact respondents over calling, read questions posed on the computer screen, and record the respondent’s answers straight into the computer ram loan company. The computer systematically guides the interviewer and bank checks the responses for appropriateness and consistency.

Advantages of cell phone interview

Less expensive set alongside the face-to-face interview. The financial cost for traveling, lodging, and outstation allowance is not engaged.

Less time consuming. The number of respondents interviewed through mobile phone in a single day is much higher than the quantity interviewed through in person.

Easy monitoring. The researcher can screen the interviewers’ work more easily since they can check the telephone numbers of respondents and the time called.

Disadvantages of phone interview

Lower response rate. The pace of response is leaner because the respondents can just “hang-up” the decision when he realised it is time consuming, or uncertain of the confidentiality of the chat.

Fewer questions could be asked. Usually the conversation through the telephone cannot take long specially when the topic of discourse is not interesting, especially for the respondent since he does not have any particular interest in it.

Difficult to get good assistance. Conversation through the telephone is not convincing enough specially when looking to get assistance from the respondent. It really is difficult to convince someone when they cannot see you in person, your facial manifestation, you body gesture etc.

2) Self-administered questionnaire

In this technique, the researcher distributes questionnaires to respondents in my opinion, through email service, by placing in the magazines, or by sending to the e-mail address. The difference between self-administered questionnaires compared to personal interview is in the self-administered questionnaire, the respondents try to read and react to the questions. However, the potency of self-administered questionnaire will rely upon the efficiency of the written words rather than the delicate skill of interviewers.

Mail Survey

A mail survey is a self-administered questionnaire sent to pre-selected respondents through the email. Basically, a mail interview package includes the outgoing envelope, cover letter, questionnaire, come back envelope, and possibly an incentive.

Mail Panel

A mail -panel consists of a big, nationally representative sample of households which have agreed to participate in periodic email questionnaires and product tests. The data on the panel members is kept up to date every year and homeowners are paid out with various incentives. Mail panel is appropriate for longitudinal design studies which allow obtaining information from the same respondents regularly.

Advantages of email survey

Low cost.

No interviewer bias

Disadvantages of email survey

Low response rate

Slow data collection speed

Structured questionnaires

One of the most popular ways of collecting research data is through the organized questionnaire. These questionnaires are self-explained and self-administered. In using this method, the researcher designs carefully a series of questions that cover the variables appealing in the study such as the respondents’ demographic backdrop, their opinions pertaining to certain issues, their conception regarding certain service performance, and their motives to do in the foreseeable future etc. Structured identifies the amount of standardization imposed in the process of data collection (questionnaires). Quite simply, the researcher arranges the questions properly on the paper together with the cover letter to explain the goal of data collection, the teaching to the respondents on how to react to the questions, and the confidence of confidentiality of information provided.

Advantages of a questionnaire

Lowest cost incurred. The price is low anticipated to no interview, no training of interviewers, no travelling, no lodging allowance included.

No monitoring cost incurred. Usually the mailing of questionnaires and receipt of responses from respondents are done by the researcher himself.

More respondents and wider area can be protected. The experts can send his questionnaires to as much respondents as he likes because the cost for each respondent is really small.

Response more correct. Since there is absolutely no influence, no gesture, no facial expression, no interruption from the interviewer, the respondents can answer the questions at his own convenience. This manner will assure the reliability of responses.

Disadvantages of an questionnaire

The poor rate of response from respondents. Since the researcher does not have gestures or face-to-face contact with respondents, the respondents can just throw away the questionnaires. In this method, the researcher should make a regular follow up contact with respondents using letter or mobile call. Usually the researcher would call the respondents before to inform them that he’s sending a questionnaire to acquire data for his specific target. The call is made as a gesture to be able to obtain good co-operation from respondents.

Once the respondent has difficulty regarding certain terms or questions in the questionnaire, he will not bother doing the remaining questions since no person is open to explain. Sometimes the respondents simply send back the imperfect response.

There is not any assurance that the person who responds to the questionnaire is the intended respondent or the respectable respondent. This matter will result in sample not being agent of the population.

Private brokers who conduct surveys found that people are more likely to respond to email questionnaire that has professional appearance and get together with attractive prizes such as blessed pulls for the respondents who send the completed questionnaire in time. Some questionnaires obtain good reactions from respondents especially the questionnaire that all fits in place with the warrantee credit cards when customers purchase certain products. Customers must answer series of questions on the warrantee cards before sending back to the manufacturer for product guarantee.

Computerised questionnaire

Internet survey

Lately, the internet poll is becoming about the most solutions to obtain information from the public especially their opinion concerning certain issue of public interest. In internet study, the researcher brings a concern to attention and requests the view from the general public. The general public can act in response by voting the statement that strongly resembles their opinion. At exactly the same time they can view the current position in term of the very most popular opinion and the related vote obtained.

Internet survey shows up whenever a computer consumer is asked to go to a particular Site location and answer the group of questions displayed in the website. In this system, the respondents are not determined using specific strategy but those who visit the Web site where in fact the survey is submitted are asked to participate in the survey.

2. E-mail survey

In the e-mail review, questionnaires are sent out to the respondents straight through their e-mail address. The respondents would reply the e-mail by giving their reaction to each item on the questionnaire. The professional market research groups are employing the internet to send their questionnaires to the respondents’ email. The respondents would complete their particular questionnaires and also gain through the internet to the researcher’s e-mail address. Normally, these research companies would provide certain rewards in terms of discounts etc to be able to encourage the respondents to take part in the analysis.

Advantages of computerised questionnaire

Low cost.

Very high data collection speed.

Non interviewer bias

Disadvantages of computerised questionnaire

Very low response rate

Low control of data collection method

B) The observation methods

According to Zikmund, Babin, Carr and Griffin (2010), observation is the organized process of documenting the behavioural patterns of people, objects and occurrences because they are witnessed. Various kinds observation methods are:

Direct observation

In this technique, the researcher will identify his respondents and information the mandatory data based on what he observes. This technique is suitable for a research to study the behavior of respondents. For instance, the study is completed to identify how car individuals behave on the highway during traffic jam. In his observation, the researcher will track record the kind of individuals who follow the traffic rules properly, and the type of individuals who choose to disregard rules such as queue jumping or overtaking using emergency lanes. The researcher may also be interested to know the types of vehicles (motorcycles, vehicles, buses, and lorries) which always ignore traffic guidelines during traffic jams. Another area where this technique would work is to observe customers’ behaviour in the supermarket. On the market study for example, the researcher is interested to learn how customers make decisions in choosing which shampoo to buy. The researcher will stand in the area where a huge selection of shampoos of different brands are positioned on the rack. He’ll record how the customers choose the shampoo. Almost certainly some customers are determined previously which brand to buy; some customers will compare prices, presentation, and even the smells before buying the shampoo. The researcher will record specific characteristics of customers who choose certain brands of shampoo etc.

Advantages of immediate observation

The data obtained reflect the actual behaviour of respondents. The respondents will have a tendency to hide their genuine behaviour when approached personally or when responding to the questionnaires.

The researcher gets a clearer picture and an improved feeling of the situations for his research. Hence, he’ll be in a much better position to make a proper recommendation about the fundamental phenomena in the study.

Disadvantages of direct observation

The respondent won’t work his normal behavior if he has learned that he’s being seen.

The data collection process is cumbersome and tedious.

Mechanical observation

Sometimes certain mechanical devices such as camcorders, rather than individual observers to observe are used and record customer behaviours. The devices do not require the respondents’ direct participation in the analysis nonetheless they will take the respondents’ behavior for analysis. The first application of this approach is in a study to look for the comfortableness among train travellers by taping or documenting how they sat and changed in their chairs.

Advantages of mechanical observation

It offers high disguise utilizing the concealed camera. However, other mechanical device such as the use of psycho galvanometers is very difficult to disguise.

Low observation bias since mechanical observation includes the non-human observer.

Disadvantages of mechanical observation

Low ability to observe in an all natural setting up. However, it will depend on the mechanised tools used in the observation. The degree is low when working with psycho galvanometer but high if using turnstiles.

Less versatile.

Content analysis

Content examination is usually used to study communication rather than behavior, or physical items. It is understood to be the objective, systematic, and quantitative information of the express content of a communication. Content evaluation obtains data by watching and studying the articles or text messages of advertisements, papers articles, tv programs, etc.

It involves examination as well as observation which systematically assess people’s communication to identify the specific information articles and other characteristics such as words, heroes (individuals or objects), designs (propositions), space and time options (length or period of the message), or subject areas (subject matter of the message).

Advantages of content analysis

High degree of disguise because the data is accumulated over the problem to be viewed.

High amount of observation specification and measurement.

Disadvantages of content analysis

Low ability to see in natural setting because observation occurs after the behavior has occurred.

Potential of observation bias because individual observer is involved in data collection process.

5. 3 Factors identifying choice of study methods.

Selecting the type of survey you are going to use is one of the most critical decisions in many communal research contexts. You will see that there are incredibly few simple rules that will make the decision for you — you have to use your view to balance advantages and disadvantages of different survey types. There are many factors must be looked at:

Population issues

The first group of considerations has to do with the population and its accessibility.

Can the population be given?

For some populations, you have a total report on the units that will be sampled. For others, such a list is difficult or impossible to compile. For example, there are complete entries of listed voters or person with productive motorists’ licenses. But nobody keeps a complete set of homeless people. If you’re doing a research that requires input from homeless persons, you are incredibly likely have to to go and discover the respondents individually. In such contexts, you can pretty much rule out the idea of mail surveys or cell phone interviews.

Is the population literate?

Questionnaires require that your respondents can read. While this may seem initially like a reasonable assumption for most adult populations, we realize from recent research that the occasion of adult illiteracy is alarmingly high. And, even if your respondents can read to some degree, your questionnaire may contain difficult or complex vocabulary. Clearly, there are some populations that you’ll expect to be illiterate. Small children wouldn’t normally be good focuses on for questionnaires

Are there dialect issues?

We live in a multilingual world. Virtually every society has people who speak other than the predominant dialect. Is it possible to produce multiple variants of your questionnaire? For mail instruments, can you know in advance the vocabulary your respondent talks, or do you send multiple translations of your device? Is it possible to be confident that important connotations in your device aren’t culturally specific? Could a few of the important nuances get lost along the way of translating your questions?

Will the populace cooperate?

People who do research on immigration issues have a hard methodological problem. They often need to speak with undocumented immigrants or people who might be able to identify others who are. Why would we expect those respondents to cooperate? Although researcher may imply no harm, the respondents are in considerable risk officially if information they divulge should get into the palm of the authorities. The same can be said for any aim for group that is participating in against the law or unpopular activities.

What will be the geographic restrictions?

Is your inhabitants of interest dispersed over too wide a geographic range that you can study feasibly with an individual interview? It might be possible that you should send a email tool to a countrywide sample. You might be able to carry out phone interviews with them. But it will almost certainly be less feasible to do research that requires interviewers to visit immediately with respondents if they’re widely dispersed

Sampling issues

The sample is the real group you will have to contact for some reason. There are many important sampling issues you will need to consider when doing survey research.

What data is available?

What information do you have about your sample? Do you know their current addresses? Do you have their current telephone numbers? Have you got an up to date contact lists?

Can these respondents be found?

Can your respondents be located? Some individuals are very busy. Some travel a lot. Some work the night shift. Even if you have an accurate telephone or address, you might not exactly be able to locate or speak to your test.

Who is the respondent?

Who is the respondent in your analysis? Let’s say you draw a sample of households in a tiny city. A household is not really a respondent. Do you want to interview a specific individual? Do you want to talk only to the “head of home” (and how is see your face defined)? Are you willing to talk to any member of the household? Do you really state that you will speak to the first adult person in the household who opens the door? What if that person is unwilling to be interviewed but someone else inside your home is happy?

Can all members of people be sampled?

If you have an incomplete list of the populace (i. e. , sampling body) you may not be able to sample every member of the populace. Lists of varied groups are extremely hard to keep up up to now. People move or change their brands. Even though they are simply on your sampling body listing, you might not be able to get to them. And, it’s possible they are not even on the list.

Are response rates apt to be an issue?

Even if it is possible to solve every one of the other populace and sampling problems, you’ll still have to deal with the problem of response rates. Some participants of your sample will simply won’t respond. Others hold the best of intentions, but can’t seem to be to find the time to send in your questionnaire by the due date. Still others misplace the instrument or overlook the visit for an interview. Low response rates are among the most difficult of problems in review research. They are able to ruin an normally well-designed study effort

Question issues

Sometimes the nature of what you want to ask respondents will determine the sort of survey you select.

What types of questions can be asked?

Are you going to be asking personal questions? Will you need to get lots of details in the responses? Can you anticipate the most frequent or important types of responses and develop fair closed-ended questions?

How organic will the questions be?

Sometimes you are coping with a complex subject or issue. The questions you want to ask will have multiple parts. You may need to branch to sub-questions.

Will the testing of questions be needed?

A testing question may be needed to determine if the respondent is certified to answer your question of interest. For instance, you wouldn’t want to ask someone their opinions about a specific computer program without first “screening” them to discover whether they have any experience using this program. Sometimes you have to display on several variables (e. g. , get older, gender, experience). The more complicated the testing, the not as likely it is that you can count on paper-and-pencil equipment without perplexing the respondent.

Can question series be handled?

Is your survey one where you can create in advance a reasonable series of questions? Or, are you doing an initial exploratory study where you may want to ask a lot of follow-up questions that you can’t easily assume?

Will long questions be asked?

If your subject matter is complicated, you may want to supply the respondent some precise backdrop for a question. Can you moderately expect your respondent to sit down still long enough in a phone interview to ask your question?

Will long response scales be used?

If you are requesting people about the several computer equipment they use, you might have to truly have a extended response list (CD-ROM drive, floppy drive, mouse, touch pad, modem, network interconnection, external audio system, etc. ). Plainly, it could be difficult to ask about each one of these in a short cellphone interview.

Content issues

The content of your analysis can also cause challenges for the different survey types you may utilize.

Can the respondents be likely to learn about the problem?

If the respondent will not keep up with the news (e. g. , by reading the papers, watching television news, or chatting with others), they may well not even know about the news concern you want to ask them about. Or, if you want to execute a study of family finances and you are speaking with the spouse who doesn’t settle the bills on a regular basis, they may not have the info to answer your questions.

Will respondent need to seek advice from records?

Even if the respondent recognizes what you’re requesting about, you may need to allow them to check with their records to be able to get an accurate answer. For example, if you inquire further how much money they allocated to food before month, they could need to look up their personal check and visa or mastercard records. In cases like this, you don’t want to be involved in an interview where they would have to go look things up while they keep you longing (they wouldn’t be comfortable with that).

Bias issues

People come to the study endeavor using their own pieces of biases and prejudices. Sometimes, these biases will be less of your problem with certain types of review approaches.

Can public desirability be averted?

Respondents generally want to “look good” in the eyes of others. Nothing of us likes to look like we have no idea an answer. We don’t want to say anything that would be humiliating. If you ask people about information which could put them in this kind of position, they might not tell you the reality, or they may “spin” the response such that it makes them look better. This can be more of a problem within an interview situation where they are really face-to face or on the phone with a live interviewer.

Can interviewer distortion and subversion be handled?

Interviewers may distort an interview as well. They may well not ask questions that make them uncomfortable. They might not exactly pay attention carefully to respondents on matters for which they have strong opinions. They could make the wisdom that they already know very well what the respondent would say to a question predicated on their prior replies, even though that may well not be true.

Can wrong respondents be prevented?

With mail surveys it might be difficult to learn who actually responded. Performed the head of home complete the study or someone else? Did the CEO actually give the responses or instead cross the duty off to a subordinate? May be the person you’re speaking with on the phone actually who they say they are simply? At least with personal interviews, you have a reasonable chance of knowing who you are speaking with. In mail studies or mobile phone interviews, this may not be the situation.

vi) Administrative issues

Last, but definitely not least, you have to consider the feasibility of the study way for your study.


Cost is often the major determining element in selecting study type. You may prefer to do personal interviews, but can’t justify the high cost of training and spending money on the interviewers. You might prefer to distribute an extensive mailing but can’t afford the postage to take action.


Do you contain the facilities (or usage of them) to process and take care of your research? In mobile phone interviews, do you have well-equipped phone surveying facilities? For emphasis groups, do you have an appropriate and accessible room to host the group? Have you got the equipment had a need to track record and transcribe responses?


Some types of surveys take longer than others. Do you will need responses immediately (as in an overnight public opinion poll)? Have you budgeted plenty of time for your analysis to distribute mail studies and follow-up reminders, and to get the reactions back by email? Have you allowed for enough time to get enough personal interviews to justify that procedure?


Different types of research make different demands of staff. Interviews require interviewers who are motivated and well-trained. Group implemented surveys require folks who are been trained in group facilitation. Some studies may be in a technical area that requires some extent of know-how in the interviewer.

Clearly, there are lots of issues to consider when you are selecting which type of survey you wish to use within your study. And there is absolutely no clear and easy way to make this decision in many contexts. There may not be one strategy which is evidently the best. You might have to make tradeoffs of advantages and disadvantages. There is view included. Two expert analysts may, for the same problem or issue, select completely different review methods. But, if you select a method that’s not appropriate or doesn’t fit the framework, you can doom a report before you even start designing the instruments or questions themselves.

(http://www. socialresearchmethods. net/kb/survsel. php)

5. 4 Mistakes in review research.

According to Zikmund (2003), there are two major resources of error in study are arbitrary sampling error and systematic mistake.

Random sampling problem.

The difference between the true society value and the sample value could cause a random sampling error. A small error usually may occur if the populace is homogeneous and mistake might be bigger, if the population is heterogeneous and respondents included into the test are those different elements.

Non sampling error or organized error

is the problem resulting from some imperfect aspects of the study design that causes response problem which is known as Respondent Problem or from a mistake in the execution of the research task which is recognized as the Administrative Error.

There’s two kind of respondent error that is:

Non-Response Problem and

Response Bias.

Non- response error

Non-response mistake occurs when there’s a blunder for including those who failed to respond. That’s, no responses from the respondents or a perfect study that would also include those who didn’t respond. Then folks who are not approached or who refuse to cooperate are called non- respondents. A potential respondents who’s not at home is often inaccessible on the first and second make an effort at contact known as no contact. Then, respondent refusal take place the respondent is unwilling to answer the questions

b) Response bias

Zikmund (2003), a reply bias occurs when respondents tends to answer in a certain path, that is, when they consciously or unconscious misrepresent the reality such as deliberate falsification (give bogus answer) and unconscious misrepresentation (bias occur from questions format, content etc).

There are various kinds response bias:

Acquiescence bias:

Bias that occurs when people have the propensity to agree with the questions forwarded to them. They tend to indicate a positive connotation. They seem to be to consent to almost every assertion they may be asked about.

ii) Extremity bias:

The extremity bias occurs when some respondents have a tendency to answer the questions relating with their extremes. The survey results could be bias pursuing the different styles of response from each respondent.

Auspices bias:

Bias that is induced by the effect factors that come may be from the interviewer or the organization that conduct the study.

Social desirability bias:

Bias response is induced by the respondents’ behaviour and desire. Some respondents tend to answer questions for a few other goal, either consciously or unconsciously. For instance, they would like to gain cultural prestige or even to show-off their sociable criteria, etc.

2) Administrative problem:

The results of improper administration or execution of the study task are types of administrative error. Such problems are inadvertently brought on by confusion, overlook, omission, or various other blunder. You can find four types of administrative problem:

a) Data digesting mistake: The accuracy of the data refined by computer depends upon correct data entry and programming. Blunders can be avoided if verification types of procedures are used at each processing stage.

b) Test selection problem: This sort of problem is a systematic error that results in an unrepresentative test because of one in either the test design or execution of the sampling process.

c) Interviewer mistake: Interviewers may record an answer improperly or selective understanding may influence these to record data supportive of their own behaviour.

d) Interviewer cheating: In order to avoid possible cheating, it pays to inform the interviewers that a little sample of respondents will be back again to concur that the interview actually took place.

5. 6 Fieldwork

a) What’s fieldwork?

A personal interviewer administering a questionnaire door-to-door, a mobile phone interviewer dialling from a central location, an observer keeping track of pedestrians in a retail center, are all types of researchers executing fieldwork (Zikmund, 2003).

Who conducts fieldwork?

The actual data collection process is rarely done by the person who designs the research. Folks who collect the info, or who supervise the info collection, are called fieldworkers. Individuals who gather the data routinely have little research training or experience. Realizing that research is no better than the data collected in the field, research administrators must concentrate on undertaking a good job in the selection of fieldworkers.

Field interviewing services and full-service business research firms typically utilize field supervisors who supervise and educate interviewers, edit completed questionnaires in the field, and concur that interviews have been conducted by telephoning or re-contacting respondents.

Whether the study administrator hires in-house interviewers or selects a field interviewing service, it is desirable that fieldworkers meet certain job requirements.

Fieldwork may be arduous and healthy individuals, generally between 18 and 55 years of age, seem to have the most strength. Having interviewers that are outgoing helps ensure respondents’ full assistance. Interviewer bias may type in if the fieldworker’s clothing or physical appearance is unattractive or unusual.

In House Training For inexperience Interviewers

After staff are recruited and decided on, they must be trained. Almost always you will see a briefing procedure on this project.

The goal of training is to make sure that the data collection instrument will be administered in a uniform fashion by all fieldworkers. In most extensive training programs, the next topics will tend to be covered:

Making first contact and protecting the interview:

Interviewers will learn to make appropriate opening remarks that will convince the respondent that his or her cooperation is important. For example, by indicating that the telephone call is long distance, interviewers try to make an impression respondents because most people feel a long-distance call is something special, unconventional, or important. Offering one’s name personalizes the decision and using the name of the research agency means that the caller is trustworthy.

B. Asking the questions:

Considerable trained in the artwork of stating questions can be extremely beneficial because this form of interviewer bias can be a source of significant error in survey research. The major rules for asking questions are:

1. Ask the questions exactly as they are simply worded in the questionnaire.

2. Read each question very gradually.

3. Ask the questions in the order where they are presented in the questionnaire.

4. Ask every question specified in the questionnaire.

5. Duplicate questions that are misunderstood or misinterpreted.

Inexperienced interviewers may not understand the value of severe adherence to the instructions. Even professional interviewers take shortcuts when the task becomes boring. Even the tiniest amount change in wording can distort the meaning of the question and cause some bias to enter into the analysis.

C. Probing:

General training of interviewers will include instructions about how to probe. Probing may be needed in two types of situations. First, it’s important in situations in which the respondent must be determined to enlarge on, clarify, or describe his / her answers. The capability to probe with neutral stimuli is the tag of a skilled interviewer. Second, probing may be necessary in situations where the respondent commences to ramble or lose tabs on the question. In such cases, the respondent must be led to focus on the specific content of the interview. The interviewer will have several possible probing techniques to choose from, with regards to the situation.

i) Repeating the question: when the respondent remains completely silent, he or she may well not have recognized the question or chosen how to answer it. Mere repetition may encourage the respondent to answer.

ii) A silent probe: if the interviewer believes that the respondent has more to say, a silent probe-that is, an expectant pause or look-may motivate the respondent to assemble his / her thoughts and give an entire response.

iii) Repeating the respondent’s reply: This might induce the respondent to develop on the solution.

iv) Natural questions or commentary: Requesting a natural question may specifically show the sort of information that the respondent is seeking. For example, if the interviewer believes that the respondent’s motives should be clarified, she or he might ask, “Why do you feel doing this?” Display 18. 1 shows some standard interview probes and the standard abbreviations that are documented on the questionnaire with the respondent’s answer.

Probes should be natural rather than leading. Probes may be basic, or they may be questions specifically created by the interviewer to clarify a specific statement by the respondent.

D. Recording the reactions:

Although the concept of recording an answer seems extremely simple, faults can be produced in this period of the research. Each fieldworker should use the same technicians of recording. For instance, the use of a pencil is extremely important. The Interviewer’s Manual of the Survey Research Centre recommendations for registered open-ended answers are as follows.

E. Record response through the interview.

i) Utilize the respondent’s own words.

Do not summarize or paraphrase the respondent’s answer.

iii) Include anything that pertains to the question goals.

iv) Include all your probes.

Interviewers should always resist the temptation to conserve time and space by filtering remarks.

F. Terminating the interview:

The final aspect of training handles instructing interviewers how to close the interview and leave the household. The interviewer whose departure is hasty may not have the ability to record those spontaneous comments respondents sometimes offer in the end formal questions have been asked. The fieldworker should also answer any respondent’s questions regarding the nature and the goal of the analysis.

iv) Fieldwork management

Managers of the field procedure select, train, supervise, and control fieldworkers.

A. Briefing program for experienced interviewers: There is always a need to inform fieldworkers about the average person task. Both experienced and inexperienced fieldworkers must be briefed on the backdrop of the sponsoring firm, sampling techniques, asking of questions, call-back techniques, and other concerns specific to the particular project to the trainees.

B. Training to avoid procedural problems in sample selection: The briefing period will also cover the sampling technique. Several research projects permit the interviewer to be at least partly accountable for selecting the test. When this is actually the case, the prospect of selection bias is out there. Avoiding this might not be as simple as it appears to be. Considerable effort in training and supervisory control should be completed to reduce these errors.

V. Guidance of fieldworker.

Although briefing and training will minimize the probability of interviewing the incorrect households or asking biased questions, there continues to be considerable potential for problems in the field. Immediate guidance of fieldworkers is essential to ensure that the techniques communicated in working out sessions are put in place in the field.

Field supervision of interviewers requires examining to observe that field techniques are being properly followed. If there are any problems, supervisors discuss these matters with the fieldworkers, providing additional training when necessary. Furthermore to quality control, continual training may be provided.

A. Sampling confirmation: Another important job of the supervisor is to validate that the interviews are being conducted according to the sampling plan as opposed to the selection of households most accessible to the interviewer. Interviewers may be unwilling to interview sampling models who they feel may be difficult or unwanted to interview.

Interviewing the right respondent: Supervisors must ensure that the right respondent within the household has been interviewed. For instance, it may be easier for the interviewer to interview a secretary when compared to a corporate manager. Field workers are given instructions to ensure that the correct person is being interviewed.

B. Interviewer cheating: Interviewer cheating in its most blatant form occurs when an interviewer falsifies interviews, only filling in fraudulent answers somewhat than calling respondents. This example is not common if the work of selection has been properly completed. However, there are less clear varieties of interviewer cheating that occur with greater frequency. Quota samples tend to be seen as frustrating, and the interviewer may expand the requirements somewhat to obtain seemingly trained respondents.

An interviewer may fake part of your questionnaire to make it acceptable to the field supervisor. Interviewers fake answers when they find questions embarrassing or troublesome to ask because of sensitive subjects.

Verification by re-interviewing: Supervisors verify about 15 percent of the interviews by re-interviewing, normally the interview is not repeated, however the supervisors re-contact respondents and ask about the length of the interview and their a reaction to the interviewer. Such confirmation can signify when the interviewer has falsified interviews without calling the potential respondent. However, it does not detect a lot more simple from of cheating.

Nevertheless, mobile phone or postcard validation bank checks often remind interviewers to be conscientious in their work. A validation check may simply explain an interviewer contacted the correct household but interviewed the wrong individual in that home. This, of course, can be considered a serious mistake.

5. 7 Classifying Study Research Method

Survey can be labeled based on the technique of communication, the degrees of constructions and disguise in the questionnaire, and enough time frame where the data are obtained (temporal classification).

Structured/unstructured questionnaires and Undisguised/ Disguised questions

In making questionnaire, the researcher must decide how much structure or standardization is necessary.

A structure question limits the number of allowable reactions eg: choose one substitute response such as i) below 25 ii) 26 – 45 iii) over 45

An unstructured question does not limit the respondent’s answer eg: an wide open- ended question, Why do you attend the programs?. It allows the respondents answering in their way.

Undisguised / disguised questions

Undisguised is a straightforward question that assumes the respondent is eager to answer. eg: Does one financial problem?. It will suppose that the respondents want to reveal information.

Disguised is indirect questions that assume the purpose of the study must be concealed form the respondents.

Cross sectional / Longitudinal studies

Cross sectional research is a study in which various sections of populations are sampled and a data are gathered at single moment in time.

Longitudinal study is a review of respondents at differing times, thus allowing examination of response continuity and changes as time passes.