Today, English is the worlds most widely studied foreign language. Five hundred years ago, Latin was the most prominent terminology to be examined since it was the words of business, commerce and education in the western world. In the sixteenth hundred years, however, French, Italian and British gain in importance consequently of politics change in European countries and Latin slowly but surely became displaced as a dialect of spoken and written communication (Richards and Rodgers, 2001).
Latin became a lifeless language. It was being started to read in the books as basic language. Children began to type in the ‘grammar university’ in sixteenth and eighteenth decades to learn grammar rules of Latin. To understand Latin language became a “mental gymnastic”. In the eighteenth century, when modern dialects began to type in the curriculum of the European countries, these dialects were taught by the same methods as Latin vocabulary was taught. Grammatical guidelines were memorized. Written practices were done. The passages were translated from the next language to the first dialect and vice versa (ibid).
By the nineteenth hundred years, this method was regarded as a standard method of teaching dialect. The textbooks were divided into chapters. Each chapter included a certain grammatical guideline and guideline was practices with a lot of written exercises (ibid).
According to Asher and Wayne (1982), Methods are the blend of techniques that are used and plasticized by the teachers in the classrooms in order to teach their students and techniques are the philosophies of teachers about language teaching that can be applied in the classrooms by using different techniques of language teaching. For instance, if a teacher has an strategy that dialect is the communication and learning a language is actually learning the meanings, functions and uses of terminology. Therefore the techniques depends on the communicative words teaching and job based methods.
According to Freeman (2000), Methods that happen to be educated to the teachers make a base and give them taking into consideration the applicable techniques and concepts according to the situation where they stand. They are clear about their interest towards certain methods and also feel that why have they repelled certain method. The data of method is very necessary because their knowledge is bottom part of teaching.
Grammar translation method was typically the most popular and trusted method for terms teaching between the age groups of 1840 to 1940. But this method was first used for teaching and learning Latin words which was not the terminology of common use in those days. Latin was considered as a classic terms. The learners were made in a position to study the books of Latin words through learning the grammatical guidelines of language and learning the vocabulary so that learners may convert the language in their first vocabulary and in the next language. Sentence structure translation method was criticized intensively in the nineteenth century since it was considered that method cannot match the demands of vocabulary learning in nineteenth hundred years.
The immediate method was the results of the response against the grammar translation method. It was predicated on the assumption that the learners of foreign and second vocabulary should straight think in British. This method is contrary to the translation of written and dental text and targets informing the meanings of the words through action, demo or real objects. This method targets directly pondering, doing conversation and talk in second terms (Richards and Rodgers, 2001).
Purwarno (2006) explained the seeks of the direct method. He referred to that direct method is an attempt and effort to form a link between thought and manifestation and between experience and terminology.
Direct method was criticized because of the following reasons:
Direct method is successful in private terminology schools because this technique can be employed only in small classes where all the learners can get specific attention.
In Direct method, the instructors extravagantly excel in keeping the mother tongue of the learners from them.
Direct method demands the learners to do dental communication in the next language looked after calls for the pronunciation and accent to be similar to the native speakers so there may be dependence on the language college to employ the native audio speakers which actually can be quite expensive.
The success of the direct method depends on the teacher’s skills and personality more than on the technique (Richards and Rodgers, 1986).
The structural methodology mainly utilizes the techniques of the immediate method but the reading and writing skills aren’t wholly neglected. The structural methodology is based on the sound guidelines of words learning. The structural way says that the layout of what so as to form the right pattern which pattern may make the meanings of the words clear to us. Any language has its own structure and skeleton which gives this language a decent appearance. A composition is a pattern and a specific agreement of words which to indicate grammatical meanings. It may be a expression, a phrase or a phrase (Gauridushi, 2011).
Structural way was criticized because it was only well suited for lower grades. Ongoing teaching of constructions and their repetition make the atmosphere dull and boring. In addition, it neglected the reading and writing capabilities and there is also too little skilled instructors (Sharma, 2011).
The oral strategy is a method in which children to work with whatever ability to hear they get from their surroundings. In addition they take help from the framework to understand and use terminology. The target is to develop the skills in the average person so that he can talk and function separately. This approach assists with the introduction of reading and writing skills (Richards and Rodgers, 2001).
The oral methodology originated from 1930s to the 1960s by Uk applied linguistics such as Harold Palmer and A. S. Hornsby. The primary difference between dental approach and the direct method was that the methods that have been developed under this process had theoretical key points about the choice, grading and demonstration of this content and materials. This sequencing of the content would lead to better learning with a good understanding of vocabulary and grammatical patterns. In this approach all the items of terminology were to be presented in “situations” which resulted in the next name of the way i. e. situational vocabulary teaching. Although, the educators are not aware of this approach today but it got long lasting effect on vocabulary learning. However, its focus on oral practice, sentence structure and sentence habits is still backed by the educators (ibid).
Audiolingual method is also called ‘Army Method’ because after the outbreak of World Warfare II, the army soldiers made a decision to be experienced in the languages with their enemies. So a new learning method of foreign dialects was discovered which is known as audiolingual method. This technique is based on a linguistic theory and behavioral psychology. The audiolingual method was widely used in the 1950s and 1960s and the emphasis had not been on the knowledge of the words alternatively on acquisition of buildings and patterns in common everyday dialogues (Richards and Rodgers, 2001).
The teaching of the oral skills with exact pronunciation, sentence structure and the capability to act in response quickly and effectively is the key target of audiolingual method. Reading and writing skills may be educated nevertheless they are dependent on the oral skills (Richard and Rodgers, 1986).
In Total Physical Response (TPR), the instructor gives the students instructions and the students follow the instructions by using body responses. Adam J. Asher, a professor, of mindset at San Jose Status University developed the technique Total Physical Response in past due 1960s to help in learning second languages (Richards and Rodgers, 2001).
According to Asher (1977), “TPR is based on the premise that the human brain has a natural program for acquiring any natural dialect on earth like the sign language of the deaf”. We are able to see this technique if we take notice of the language learning process of an infant. The communication between parents and the child contains both verbal and physical aspects. When the kid struggles to speak, at the time he/she is internalizing the dialect. This is the time when code breaking occurs. After this process the kid becomes in a position to speak and reproduce language. In TPR, the instructor repeats the procedure in the category. Students respond to the instructions of the tutor which require physical motion. TPR is most useful for newcomers. TPR is also used for teaching students with dyslexia or related learning disabilities.
Silent way is the technique of language coaching which was proposed by Caleb Gattegno. This technique is dependant on the view that the educators should be silent in the school room as much as possible but the educator must encourage the students to speak and use the terms. The main aspect of this technique is its elements that are being used for language coaching i. e. colored charts and colored rods (Richards and Rodgers, 2001).
This method targets the learners to discover on their own rather than they remember or memorize something. The learners are facilitated in learning by giving them some problem to resolve that involves the materials that are needed to be learnt (ibid).
Communicative language teaching was developed in the era of revolutions in English language teaching practices from overdue 1960s. Before communicative dialect teaching, situational words teaching was in practice in Britain for terms teaching. Communicative vocabulary coaching was actually developed in the opposition of audiolingual method which focuses on drilling and memorization. Communicative dialect teaching targets developing the power of communication in learners in real life situations. It focuses on meaning rather than correctness (Richards and Rodgers, 2001).
In 1977, Tracey Terrell proposed the natural strategy of language teaching. This process was inspired by Stephen Krashen’s theory of dialect acquisition. The natural methodology targets communication as the major function of dialect. In this process, language is considered as the automobile or method of conveying a note and information. The natural strategy was actually based on the observation and understanding of the acquisition of the first and the second language in informal adjustments (Richards and Rodgers, 2001).
Task- based language teaching can be an approach that is dependant on the assumption that tasks will be the major device of language learning. This approach is based on the problem solving view that the learners should get some jobs to be fixed. These jobs are related to the language structures that must be learnt. The learners interact and communicate with the other person during dealing with these problems. In these way, they learn the language (Richards and Rodgers, 2001).
Grammar translation method was first known in america as Prussian Method. Grammar translation method dominated European and foreign language teaching from 1840 to 1940.
According to the Richards and Rodgers (2001), the theory characteristics of Grammar Translation Method are:
In Sentence structure Translation Method, the purpose of learning a second or spanish is mainly to be enabling to read the literature of this language and it is to get reap the benefits of intellectual development that results from international and second terminology study. Grammar Translation Method enables to learn thorough grammatical rules of target words and enables to translate into and from the target vocabulary.
In Grammar Translation Method, reading and writing skills are concentrated while being attentive and speaking skills are totally overlooked.
In Grammar Translation Method, the memorization of grammatical guidelines of spanish and of the vocabulary items is targeted. Vocabulary items are limited by the text they are trained. Vocabulary items are memorized with the aid of their meanings in the local language.
In Grammar Translation Method, sentenced is the essential unit of teaching and words practice. The learners are enabled to do detailed analysis of the sentence through this method. The learners are enabled to translate a word into and out of the target vocabulary.
In Grammar Translation Method, reliability is emphasized rather than fluency. The basic purpose of this method used to have the ability to move the written examinations.
In Grammar Translation Method, grammar is trained deductively i. e. by delivering and training the specific grammatical rules of target vocabulary. A syllabus of grammatical guidelines if followed where guidelines are systematically devote to a series starting from the easy guidelines to the complex rules.
In Grammar Translation Method, students are directed and instructions are given in the student’s indigenous language in order that they may easily understand the instructions. The students’ indigenous language is used to describe new items also to enable these to compare two dialects i. e. local vocabulary of the learners and spanish.
There are some major techniques that are followed in the teaching of second or foreign language through Sentence structure Translation Method.
Translation of the literary passage. Students convert a reading passing into and out of the target terms. In checking of the translation, the focus of the tutor is on vocabulary and grammatical buildings. The translation may be written or spoken or both. Students should not translate idioms but must understand their meanings.
Reading Understanding Questions. A passing for reading and understanding is given to the students plus they have to answer the questions given at the end of the passing in the mark vocabulary. The questions are put into a collection. The first band of questions is related to the information attracted from the passing, second group of questions require students to make inferences predicated on their knowledge of the passage. The 3rd band of questions requires students to connect the passage with the own experiences.
Antonym and synonyms. Students receive a list of words and a passage. The students have to learn the antonyms of those words in the passage. In the same way, the students can even be given a list of words and can be asked to find out the synonyms of the given words from the passing.
Deductive request of rules. Sentence structure rules are offered prior to the students with the all possible information that may be given to the students relating to the grammatical rules. The rules are also explained with instances. Once students understand a guideline, they may be asked to apply it for some different cases.
Fill in the blanks. The students are given some phrases with some missing words. The students have to fill in the blanks with some suited sentence structure items such a preposition and verbs with different tenses
Memorization. The students receive a set of vocabulary to memorize them with their so this means in the indigenous terms. Students are also required to memorize the grammatical rules.
Use words in sentences. In order to check the understanding of this is and sue of vocabulary, the students are asked to use the list of typical words in their own sentences.
Composition. The professor gives a subject matter to the students to write about that theme in the target language. The topic is dependant on some facet of the reading passing of the lesson (Freeman, 1986).
Nazir (2002) narrated as “The framework of a foreign language is best learnt when compare and contrasted get back of the mom tongue. “
According to Ishtiaq (2005), the Sentence structure Translation Method is dependant on a system and is also in a collection because in this method all the grammatical guidelines are arranged into a sequence for the convenience of the students. This collection starts from the simple rules and eventually contributes to the complex rules. When a e book is compiled by an author on grammatical rules keeping because the series, he creates one lesson that is completely based on one guideline of grammar. Each lessons is split into certain rules and these rules dominate the lesson.
Larson (1986) narrated importance of Sentence structure Translation Method as “in Grammar Translation Method, students are created to learn new words. Therefore, this method helps in enhancing vocabulary. Reading and writing are the two most important skills that are developed most in order to permit the students to learn the books in target language. Grammar is taught deductively and it makes use of students’ mother language.
Neilson (2003) stated that in Sentence structure Translation Method, dental skills i. e. speaking and listening skills are totally neglected while the whole attention is given to just reading and writing skills. Through this technique, the students become in a position to read the books of the prospective vocabulary by translating it to their native dialect but cannot connect into the aim for words and even cannot understand the mark words spoken by any local speaker.
In Sentence structure Translation Method, the specialist of the classroom is totally in the hands of the instructor and teacher reaches the centre of the classroom. The communication is just from educators to students not from student to teacher rather than even from students to students. The students are considered empty minded that have needed to be filled up with all the possible vocabulary and grammatical set ups that can be packed in their imagination (ibid).
The main downside of the Grammar Translation Method is that it is extremely difficult to convert all the phrases and sentences into the target language because the key emphasis is the translation of this method so such students who’ve been taught through this technique become fail to connect well in the mark dialect (ibid).
In the Grammar Translation Method, exactness is emphasized somewhat than fluency and students continue pondering to accurate the grammatical rules which actually prevent their fluency. In Grammar Translation Method, the instructor abruptly interferes and stops the students wherever they make the faults so they become conscious while speaking and connecting in the target language and become unable to be fluent (ibid).
There have been various criticisms on the utilization of Sentence structure Translation Method for the teaching of modern dialect particularly English. There are a few objections that have been placed on the Grammar Translation Method.
Grammar Translation Method stresses on the reading and writing skills on the expense of tuning in and speaking skills. But learning the tuning in and speaking skills of the terms is more important than leaning reading and writing skills because it is a natural way of learning a terminology. In Sentence structure Translation Method, writing gives learners a reflective chance to check out their writing that if they have written accurate spellings, vocabulary and grammatical rules. The main aim and goal of almost all of the learners in learning modern dialects is not only to develop reading and writing skills whereas they want to speak well and understand the indigenous speakers’ terms.
Grammar Translation Method requires the layout of the grammatical rules in a composition starting from the easy rules and leading to the complex guidelines. While the majority of the learners especially adult learners want to start using the terminology direct way because they have got not got period to learn all the grammatical rules one by one and start using them after then. Sentence structure Translation Method stresses to help make the students learn each rule and practice it one at a time and after commanding a guideline move to the next one. So there remains the necessity to revise all the guidelines again and again so that they may well not get washed out of the learners’ brain.
In Grammar Translation Method, sentence is the essential device of the language. The learners are made able to memorize certain rules of sentence structure and certain vocabulary that they have to match all over the place they find a chance to utilize them. But if learners find some uncommon situation they become unable to fit their memorized rules to squeeze in that situation.
In Sentence structure Translation Method, grammatical rules and vocabulary is memorized in modern means of teaching a terms memorization is not deemed while exposure of an language, experience and use of vocabulary is recommended and recommended. People have different learning styles. Some individuals like to learn vocabulary, sentence structure rules, word and phrases through memorization. However when they have to sue them, they need to have time to fully stop and recall the memorized items.
In Sentence structure Translation Method, the emphasis of the learners is the manipulation of the grammatical rules and words to write correct sentences with approved content. But in learning the modern languages, it is recommended that the major target should be more and more on the dental practice and manifestation of the non-public meanings. The appearance of the personal meanings may ruin the structure of the grammar rules and phrases.
In Grammar Translation Method, the teachers and the learners mainly speak in their first terms or native terminology. While it is highly recommended that use of second and goal terms should be maximized in learning the terminology but here maximization does not mean teachers and learners should all the time speak in the target language. The speaking of the second vocabulary is also advantageous because in terms classrooms we may also have multilingual learners which could participate in different languages so an individual terminology i. e. second or target terms will be convenient to use without pointing an individual native words.
In Sentence structure Translation Method, teacher should explain, summarize the grammatical guidelines, tell the meanings of what, convert the passages, conduct grammar practices, correct mistakes and instructor should authorized the school room and learners. But now it is strongly suggested that instructors role in the class should be as helpful information and facilitator. Teacher’s role in the dialect school room should be less. Instructor should action behind the field. Teacher should supply the problems to the learners to resolve, interact among one another and generally it leads the learners to be independent learners.
In Grammar Translation Method, translation is the essential technique. Translation is a means of understanding the meanings of the written and oral texts by switching the texts in to the first or indigenous terminology of the learners. Translation is a way of looking at and contrasting two dialects i. e. first terminology and second terminology. But now it is strongly suggested that translation should be avoided because it leads to such a mental process which hinders or halts learning. The learners should be urged to speak and even think in second terminology as much as possible.
In Sentence structure Translation Method, accuracy and reliability is emphasized somewhat than fluency but it is currently highly recommended that reliability should come at the previous and fluency should preferred first. In case the learners are corrected on their mistakes from the beginning, they will become hesitant to speak in the prospective language. When they will begin to speak, their imagination will abruptly become read to look after the grammatical guidelines they are using so I this way they’ll become unable to be fluent in vocabulary (Jonathan, 2012).
Faiq (2003) explained that in most of the Pakistani colleges, Sentence structure Translation Method can be used to teach English. In Pakistan, Grammar Translation Method is employed to learn and memorize the grammatical rules so that rules are deductively provided and applied through the exercises of translation, complete the blanks and by using such other techniques. Typically students are educated certain letters, applications and tales like “thirsty crow”, “greedy dog” etc. In Pakistan, it is known as that learning a terms means merely to have the ability to read literature and write certain types of things without supplying importance to the listening and speaking skills.
Grammar is taught through deductive method i. e. guidelines are presented to the learners, deep analysis of the guidelines is done and rules are being used for translating passages of British into Urdu ad of Urdu into British. It is one common practice in our public sector universities that a pupil reads aloud the lines of an paragraph and instructor translate it into Urdu expression by word. Teachers write the meanings of the difficult words on the blackboard. Linguists say a dialect can be better learnt without translation and meanings of the difficult words can be told through presentations and actions (ibid).
Language can be better learnt and taught by it actively in the classrooms. Sentence structure can better learnt through inductive or implicit method i. e. publicity of a rule is provided to the learners and learners understanding that guideline unconsciously. The need for listening and speaking skill can’t be denied in the general public sector institutions of Pakistan. Writing is also an important skill but just duplicating the materials from the blackboard is not a good practice. It restricts the thinking process of the learners. Learners should get some topics to write with them in their own words (ibid).
In our academic institutions, teachers and books take the central role in the class room as the students take a seat passively with respect to the teachers and textbooks. The learners’ purpose of relaxing in the class room is to consider lectures from the teachers. The connections from the students to teachers is not ever into the consideration of public sector schools. They just know how to feed the thoughts of the learners with information. Learners should be considered as living beings using their own heads, ideas and pondering. The learners have their background knowledge. The usage of the leaner’s’ history knowledge are a good idea for the teachers to instruct a terms (ibid).
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is a widely used approach in the field of English language coaching. Since the benefits of communicative vocabulary teaching in the later 1970s, there have been different meanings and interpretations of the communicative methodology which are the following:
Communicative Language Teaching is a teaching method for educating a second words emphasizes on the value of students’ interactive capacity to express their own ideas in the prospective words (Hattum, 2006).
Communication ability is the essential goal in terms learning. The communicative way claims that learning a spanish shouldn’t be focused on terminology structures (sentence structure and vocabulary), but also on the communicative functions that the language performs. Terms learners should also learn the relationships between the buildings and the communicative functions in real situations and real time (Littlewood, 1981).
Communicative language coaching began in Britain in the 1960s. It had been used to replace the earlier structural method, called Situational Words Teaching (Orwig, 1999).
The goal of communicative terms teaching is to instruct real-life communication skills. Students learn with a situation that they may face in their true to life. CLT is nothing like the audiolingual method, which is dependant on repetition and drills. On the other hand, it uses the way to leave students in suspense as to the outcome of any class exercise, that will change according to the students’ reactions and reactions. The real-life situation change every day; therefore, the students’ learning determination originates from their wish to speak in the ways and topics which they are considering (Galloway, 2010). Therefore, many research workers have indicated that it is better to use CLT in ESL classrooms, rather than EFL classrooms in Asia (Liao, 2006).
The goal of this approach is to enable the students to connect in the target language just like a native speaker of this language. CLT does not focus on precision but stresses on the semantic use of terminology. A student should know the different varieties in and therefore can be used to perform a function and also that a single form can perform many functions. The aim of CLT is to allow the students to utilize the target vocabulary as a mean of appearance that can meet their communicative needs. Communicative terms coaching includes activities based on social connection, such as discussion, discussion classes, dialogues and role performs etc. CLT focuses on the skills of the dialect somewhat than on the mastery of buildings. It can be said that CLT does indeed allows learners to communicate but it is very difficult for a teacher to bring in such activities that allows genuine connection (Brown, 1994).
The basic target of the communicative dialect teaching is the communication in to the target terms in authentic situation. To achieve this, the students need to know the linguistic forms, meanings and functions of language. The learning and teaching activities that are used in the communicative terms teaching require the utilization of communication operations like:
The classroom activities tend to be designed to give attention to the conclusion of tasks. In the completion of these jobs, the teacher’s role is really as a facilitator who motivates and facilitates the students to speak during the completion of these tasks. Teacher can be an advisor who answers the questions of the students and displays their performance. Professors is the co-communicator who engage in the actions of the students however the learners are accountable and administrator of their own learning (Richards and Rodgers, 2001)
The goal of Communicative Vocabulary Teaching is the development and improvement of knowledge and skills that will assist a loudspeaker to make his/her communication successful. The primary focus of CLT is performance. Whenever we consider how local speakers of English take into account the use of terms, then it becomes obvious to us that our main goal is effective communication and the copy of our ides not just formal grammatical correctness and reliability (Neil, 2000).
In CLT, terms is the educated in the way as it is employed in everyday activities. Students are not likely to memorize dialect. Grammatical correctness is important but our main focus should succeed communication. The frame of mind of students towards learning another language can be made positive by using CLT. If we target so much on reliability, the students would not dare to utilize the words in the course because they cost hesitant and worried that they could make grammatical errors. In this way CLT motivates the students to utilize the both of their linguistic and communicative competences. The thought of appropriateness means that the scholar will not only learn the terminology, however they also find out about the culture and its use in communal context (ibid).
According to Melrose (1995) the legacy of CLT is the realization that instructing a language involves far more than dealing with its syntactic, lexical and phonological components because words in use results from the ways people choose to control these components in discourse. CLT gives the measurements of different language functions such as requesting, apologizing, persuading, thanking and conveying information that are essential for communication with others. CLT makes students alert to the appropriate use of terms according to the levels of formality, tone, framework, topic and non verbal habit.
Despite all the great things about this approach which it can enable a learner to converse in the prospective language in everyday activity, its implementation in certain conditions is not without problems. Apart from other factors, such as political reasons, language coverage, administrative, economic concerns, probably a fundamental problem in the execution of CLT is its conflict with local culture of learning (Tudor 1996). Culture of learning can be defined as a “framework of expectations, attitudes, values, and values about what constitute good learning, about how to instruct or learn, whether and the way to ask questions, what books are for, and how language teaching pertains to broader issues of the type and purpose of education” (Cortazzi and Jin, 1996).
Azim (2007) has defined that we have to face a whole lot of problems in the application of communicative language teaching in Pakistan. A few of these problems are the following:
Grammar. Grammar is one of the most important factors of words learning and coaching which is very banished in the practice of communicative dialect teaching. It really is one of the major downside or hurdle in the form of application of communicative language teaching by Pakistani teachers. A lot of the Pakistani teachers believe fluency of the dialect is important but precision is more important. They believe fluency can be developed in vocabulary after getting accuracy and reliability so accuracy and reliability must be developed in the early levels of life that can be difficult to realize in the later levels of life. So these assumptions about sentence structure make them encouraged to teach grammar to their students.
Spoken terms. There has ended emphasis on the spoken words in communicative vocabulary teaching. It really is based on the assumption that a lot more you speak the terms in the real life situation, a lot more you learn. But in the Pakistani framework, students gets maximum 40 to 45 mints to get visibility of the next dialect which is in the classrooms and the life span of classrooms can’t be said as true to life situation. So a Pakistani university student feels difficulty to learn words out of this method.
Cultural difference. The Pakistani people are residing in the country having different dialects and different civilizations. The Pakistani students are not bilingual but trilingual. They have their mother tongue, first tongue and the second tongue. To comprehend a language, they have to convert the second language in their mother tongue and then in the first tongue. Therefore the application of communicative language teaching seems difficult here where the students cannot speak in the second terms fluently.
Curriculum. There is not any syllabus available for the real program of the communicative terms coaching in Pakistan. It really is impossible to teach language through this method when they don’t have relevant curriculum and activities. The curriculum that people have to follow is totally predicated on the grammar translation method and all our exams are based on this method. Therefore the teachers wait in applying CLT in their classrooms because they think that they will squander the time and energies of their students and the students will not be in a position to get good marks in the examinations.
Economic problems. Pakistan is an unhealthy country and we cannot spend the money for luxury of communicative language teaching because it is too expensive. The private sector universities are able them because they are serving only a small fraction of society. The public sector cannot think this method to be used.
Conti (2011) has referred to a comprehensive contrast between the grammar translation method and communicative dialect teaching. The next points will make clear this contrast.
In GTM, the technique of instruction is completely explicit i. e. the grammatical rules are opened prior to the students to make sure they are understand every root of each guideline. While in CLT, the instructions are given through implicit method for teaching grammatical guidelines i. e. publicity for dialect is directed at the students. In this manner the grammatical guideline sis internalize in the learners’ mind.
In GTM, the professor is the director and dictator of the class. Just teacher is the dynamic fellow and learners will be the passive fellow. In CLT, learners are considered as indie living beings with their own intellects and ideas. Professor is just the helper to illicit the language and ideas about words from learners’ thoughts.
In GTM, true to life communication is completely absent. The primary goal of the educators is to impart knowledge of language as much as possible without its utilization in the real life. While in CLT, the coaching is structured in this manner that it may help the students in real life situation also. In CLT, communication is given inclination so the learners receive such responsibilities that are related to their real life situation and they’re educated that how they need to socialize at that situation.
In GTM, the learners are assessed based on mistakes that they make in their productivity. GTM wants the efficiency of language set ups while in CLT, the errors are considered as a step towards learning a terminology. In CLT, accuracy and reliability is not centered while fluency is given preference. If the leaner is fluent and confidently speaking but makes some problems, his/her errors will not be considered for the diagnosis of marks.
Siddiqui (2002) mentioned that the significant position of English in subcontinent it because of its colonial past. Throughout that period, this words promoted due to its privileged status and it was the state language. Learning English language was a key to obtain a job and revel in the privileges from the government. But some fundamentalists Muslims refused to acquire this vocabulary because they wished to hold firmly their own vocabulary i. e. Urdu. They presumed that acquiring English language will be the sign of these salvation. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan needed initiative considering the importance of learning English language. He began some educational motions throughout the subcontinent which brought a trend in the economic status of Muslims.
After the independence of Pakistan, Urdu was declared as the national words of Pakistan. Urdu terms was able to be treated as lingua-franca- a language of communication. Urdu was such words that may be spoken by the people of different provinces in Pakistan. Using the duration of time, regional languages continued dropping their importance and Urdu vocabulary overcame them but British remained the state language of Pakistan even then. Many procedures were offered at government level to displace Urdu with English as official terminology but it maintained its position (ibid).
In mainstream colleges, English terminology was to be taught from course five however now it is taught as compulsory subject matter from category one. The demand of English is high in Pakistan. People prefer to send their children in English medium schools. The amount of students in British medium classes is very large. The government had offered an insurance plan of teaching British to everyone but this policy is not offering us a desired outcomes (ibid).
We do not have qualified teachers to get the job done properly. There are numerous factors which can show the status of English words teaching in Pakistan. These include,
Everyone up to the Bachelor level has to study British as a compulsory subject matter. Many students do nothing like this compulsion because the students who come from the rural background are not motivated towards learning English. Their parents cannot help them because they’re typically uneducated. They are not clear in learning the goal of learning English words. They feel that only good scholar scan learn English language. Some individuals have realized the basic purpose of learning English vocabulary in modern day. They have noticed that the British is the key to any success also to get a good job.
In most our schools, British is taught with a favorite and typical method i. e. Sentence structure Translation Method (GTM). Instructors who teach British aren’t well trained. In administration sector schools, English is trained by B. Ed level hold teachers who have studied English at B. Ed level as optional subject matter. They teach British with their students as they have been educated by their own professors. At university level, English language is educated by the instructors who have done Masters in English literature. In Pakistan, teaching English language is considered as teaching books. These instructors become inability when the matter of written and dental discourse comes.
The syllabus is emphasized on just two skills i. e. reading and writing skills while very little importance is directed at the tuning in and speaking skill. Our content material books are full of stories, poems, has, essays etc. because the curriculum designers have typically the literature based mostly backdrop. So their choice is also books based. The content of our literature is also very large. The professors are always at pressure by the concepts and the parents of the students. So the desire of the educators is the conclusion of the course by some easy way without presenting emphasize on concept making. Teachers aren’t guided well that how to instruct a text reserve.
The evaluation system of British vocabulary in Pakistan is very weakened. The examinations are generally rote-memorization based. In examinations, same questions are repeated over and over. The guide literature can be purchased in market to give the students the summaries and answers of the questions.
The supervisory personnel is unaware of the latest methods of teaching English terms. They aim merely to get high markings to their students for the level of popularity of their institution and school.
Economic problems and lack of facilities is also a problem in the process of teaching and learning of British terminology in Pakistan. Because of the lack of cash, there are not audio visual products, dialect laboratories etc in Pakistan. Instructors are also not trained for using them.
In the government sector classes, Classes are overcrowded. The surroundings in the school is not learners’ friendly (ibid).
This study provides complete information about the far better method of English language coaching in the view of possible teachers. This research can make clear the potential of prospective educators of English terminology about the coaching of terms. This study will make clear the constraints and hurdles that rest on the way of learning and instructing language successfully in the context of Pakistan. The study will reveal the present condition of English language coaching in Pakistan in the point of view of educators, students as well as curriculum designers
Humaira and Fasiha (2008), researched to determine an effective method of language coaching at secondary level. They gathered the viewpoints about GTM and CLT from authorities teachers at supplementary level. This research shows that government professors do not follow CLT. This research shows that those teachers preferred GTM. Rashida (2006), explored for learning the opinion of secondary university educators about GTM and CLT. This research concluded that GTM and CLT, both these methods can be applied for language coaching relating to the problem and context where they are really being applied.
But in this research, the use of language teaching is being mentioned in the view of prospective teachers. The prior researches targeted mainly on extra level professors’ opinions who hadn’t studied these procedures in their pre-teaching programs. Their view did not basic on their understanding of methods but just on the experience of dialect coaching. This research was predicated on the views of prospective teachers which might enable us to forecast the future of language coaching in Pakistan. This research isn’t just confined to extra level like the above mentioned researches also for other levels.