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INTRODUCTIONPCDF Pradeshik cooperative federation is more than Essay
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Nov 19th, 2019

INTRODUCTIONPCDF Pradeshik cooperative federation is more than Essay

INTRODUCTION

PCDF( Pradeshik co-operative federation) is more than four decades old in the Indian diary industry. A quasigovernment organization in the cooperative sector is the leading organization in the diary sector of northern india .

The rural milk cooperative draw the inherit strength from the farmers committee participation more than 5.91 lakh rural milk producers families of 12500 villages level diary cooperative from their faith by selling of surplus milk to PCDF. Encouraging the rural poor in dairying is a priority within the PCDF.

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Through its consistent efforts PCDF has ensured that the rural masses remain an indispensable part of dairying instead.

To forge a direct link between ultimate consumers and producers a three-tier sector has been involved comprising of primary societies as the village level dairy cooperative. Milk unions in the districts and federations and the stable level.

DAIRY INDUSTRIES

The dairy industry setup consists of the following units-

RMRD(platform milk unit)

Pasteurization unit

Cream and butter section

Boiler unit

Refrigeration unit

Packing unit

Effluent Treatment Plant

The organization is equipped with sophisticated plants and machinery to produce ghee,buuter and other dairy products.

PCDF has also the distinction of having the most fully computerised the first vertical dairy in Noida.

A well equipped central quality control laboratory is based at Lucknow which assures the quality of dairy products, oragno laptic, chemical and microbiological qualities.

Due to reputation, quality man power, PCDF is currently implementing many developmental and promotional programs such as- IMP(Integrated Mini Dairy Project), Women Dairy Project(WDP), RFWP(Rural Family Welfare Project and DASP(Diversified Agricultural Support Project).

MILK AND MIL PRODUCTS BY PARAG DAIRY

Milk-Milk can be defined as unique biological secretion from mammary glands endowed by nature with all essential nutrients to fulfiil the demands of offsprings.

According to PFA rule “Milk may be defined as the whole fresh, clean lacteal secretion obtained by complete milking of one or more healthy milch animal.

Milk

Parag gold full milk pasteurized milk

Parag taaza pasteurized toned milk

Parag flavoured milk

Butter

White butter

Table butter

Peda

Besan ladoo

Gulab jamun

Rasgulla

Kheer

Cheena kher

Chawal kher

Dahi

100g sada and meetha dahi

200g sada and meetha dahi

paneer

mattha

chhach

MILK PROCESSING

Milk though Is natural but unlike other natural food products it is not provided by any protective cover it is sucked directly by offspring from their mother. Even under fresh conditions they might contain 400-600 bacteria/ml. processing of milk is done by:

Grading of milk

Chilling

Pasteurization

Standardization

Homogenization

Sterilization

Adulteration in milk

Soda testing:

2ml of milk is taken in test tube followed by 2ml of soda solution

Urea testing:

3ml of milk is taken in test tube followed by 3ml of urea solution

Alcohol testing:

2ml of milk is taken followed by 2ml of alcohol. The contents are mixed well

Maltose testing:

20 ml of milk in beaker is taken followed by 1ml of enzyme solution. To the contents 1ml of lactic acid is added. The test tube is kept in water bath at 62-650C for 5min. Curdling occurs. The solution is cooled and maltose strip is dipped inside it.

Detergent test:

25ml of milk is added in the measuring cylinder followed by 10ml of MBR (methylene blue reduction). To it 10ml of chloroform is added. The contents are shaked well.

Salt test:

1ml of milk is taken in the test tube followed by 2ml of potassium chromate. To it 1ml of silver nitrate is added.

4. QUALITATIVE TEST FOR THE MILK PRODUCTS (Flavoured milk and Peda.

Flavoured milk

Flavored milk is a sweetened dairy drink made with milk, sugar, food colorings and artificial or natural flavorings. Flavored milk is often pasteurized using ultra-high-temperature (UHT) treatment, which gives it a longer shelf-life than plain milk. Pre-mixed flavored milk is sold in the refrigerated dairy case alongside other milk products. Flavored sweetened powders or syrups which are added to plain milk are also available.

Peda

Peda (pronounced is a sweet from the Indian subcontinent, originating from Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India, usually prepared in thick, semi-soft pieces. The main ingredients are khoa, sugar and traditional flavorings, including cardamom seeds, pistachio nuts and saffron. The colour varies from a creamy white to a caramel colour. The word peda is also generically used to mean a sphere of any doughy substance, such as flour or khoa. Variant spellings and names for the dessert include pedha, penda (in Gujarati) and pera.

5. MICROBIOLOGICAL TEST

A common procedure to judge the sanitary quality of milk is to determine its bacterial content. A drop of sour milk may contain more than 50 million bacteria. Undesirable microorganisms in milk may cause it to sour or develop a bad taste, so it becomes important to keep a check on the number &type of bacteria present in milk. Milk from unhygienic place can spread various pathogenic microbes. Also yeast &moulds may also be present. Most of the microbes present in milk are Mesophilic i.e. optimum temperature range is 200C to 400C, but some time. Thermophilic may also be present (optimum temperature is 400C and above).

Standard plate count test-

This test is used for the routine examination of milk by the dairy quality control laboratory .The method is empirical, but if carefully done, it gives results on the milk that they contain either very few bacteria or millilitre.

Preparation of media-

25g g of Standard plate agar media was added to the glass bottle.

600ml of distilled water was added in the bottle

The contents of the above are mixed such that there is no lump found

The media prepared is kept for sterilisation in autoclave at 15psi ,1210C for 20-25 minutes

Serial dilution-

5 sterlised test tubes were taken in the laminar airflow cabinet.

9ml of Nacl was pippeted in the test tubes

1ml of sample was added in the 1st test tube and was mixed properly.

From the 1st test tube 1ml is pippeted in the 2 test tube.

The same procedure follows for all remaining test tubes.

For pasteurised milk and products 3rd dilution is taken and for raw milk 5th dilution is taken.

Preparation of plates-

Few ml of the Dilution sample was added in the petridish and 2-3 drops of tartaric acid was added.

The sterilised media was poured on the glass plates inside cabinet.

The media was left for solidifying.

The plates were closed and were incubated at 370C for microbial growth.

The plates were observed at 48hrs.

The colonies were counted with the help of colony counter.

Colliform count

The coliform count in a sample is the number of colony that grows and form distinctive countable colonies on Violet Red Bile Agar after being incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Coliforms are normally present in foods that have been fecally or environmentally contaminated.

Preparation of media-

25 g of Violet red agar was added to the glass bottle.

600ml of distilled water was added in the bottle

The contents of the above are mixed such that there is no lump found

The media prepared is kept for sterilisation in autoclave at 15psi ,1210C for 20-25 minutes

Serial dilution-

5 sterilised test tubes were taken in the laminar airflow cabinet.

9ml of Nacl was pippeted in the test tubes

1ml of sample was added in the 1st test tube and was mixed properly.

From the 1st test tube 1ml is pippeted in the 2 test tube.

The same procedure follows for all remaining test tubes.

For pasteurised milk and products 1st dilution is taken and for raw milk 3rdth dilution is taken.

Prepartion of plates-

Few ml of the Dilution sample was added into the petridish and 2-3 drops of tartaric acid.

The sterilised media was poured on the petridish inside cabinet.

The media was left for solidifying.

The plates were closed and were incubated at 370C for microbial growth.

The plates were observed at 24hrs.

The colonies were counted with the help of colony counter

Yeast and mold count-

This procedure is used to find out yeast and mold growth in the samples

Preparation of media-

25 g of Potato dextrose agar was added to the glass bottle.

600ml of distilled water was added in the bottle

The contents of the above are mixed such that there is no lump found

The media prepared is kept for sterilisation in autoclave at 15psi ,1210C for 20-25 minutes

Serial dilution-

5 sterilised test tubes were taken in the laminar airflow cabinet.

9ml of Nacl was pippeted in the test tubes

1ml of sample was added in the 1st test tube and was mixed properly.

From the 1st test tube 1ml is pippeted in the 2 test tube.

The same procedure follows for all remaining test tubes.

For pasteurised milk and products 1st dilution is taken and for raw milk 3rdth dilution is taken.

Preparation of plates-

Few ml of the Dilution sample was added into the petridish and 2-3 drops of tartaric acid was added.

The sterilised media was poured on the glass plates inside cabinet.

The media was left for solidifying.

The plates were closed and were incubated at 220C for microbial growth.

The plates were observed at 72hrs.

The colonies were counted with the help of colony counter.

MATERIALS

Physical examination:

The sample of flavoured milk and peda are required for physical test.

Chemical examination:

Flavoured milk:

Acidity: this test is based on titration that depends on the change of colour and amount of volume that neutrals the sample.

Materials required

50ml beaker

10.75ml of flavoured milk

N/10 NaOH

Pipette of 10ml

Phenaphthalein

Distill water

Fat percentage(Gerber method)

Gerber method is performed to check the fat in the milk and its products.total fat separation is performed with the help of centrifugal force. Due to which the fat and other substances gets separated.by addind amyl alcohol it helps is separating the fat.

Materials required

Buytrometer

Centrifugal machine

Amyl alcohol(1ml)

H2SO4 (10ML)

Stopper

Cork

Distilled water

Peda:

Acidity:

Materials required

50ml beaker

2gm od peda sample

N/10 NaOH

Pipette of 10ml

Phenaphthalein

Distill water

Fat percentage:

Materials required

Buytrometer

10.75ml of peda solution

Centrifugal machine

Amyl alcohol(1ml)

H2SO4 (10ML)

Stopper

Cork

Distilled water

Beaker

Methodology

Physical examination:

Sample of flavouredmilk and peda are physically checked by odour,colour and taste.

Chemical examination:

ACIDITY: To perform this test following steps are followed

Take 9ml ml of flavored milk sample in a beaker.

Add phenolphthalein (2-3) drops into the sample.

With the help of pipette add 1/10N of NaOH in it.

Mix well and observe the change in color.

Acidity = 9NV/W

Where, N=Normality of NaOH used

V= Volume of NaOH used

W= weight of paneer sample

FAT percentage:-

Take 10ml of H2SO4 in butyrometer carefully.

Then add 10.75ml of flavored milk sample with the help of pipette and add in butyrometer carefully through the walls.

Add 1ml of amyl alcohol in the butyrometer.

Mix it well keeping it in a safe position.

Then place the butyrometer in Centrifuge for 4 minutes. At 1000 rpm

Peda:

ACIDITY: To perform this test following steps are followed

Take 9ml ml of flavored milk sample in a beaker.

Add phenolphthalein (2-3) drops into the sample.

With the help of pipette add 1/10N of NaOH in it.

Mix well and observe the change in color.

Acidity = 9NV/W

Where, N=Normality of NaOH used

V= Volume of NaOH used

W= weight of paneer sample

FAT percentage:-

Take 10ml of H2SO4 in butyrometer carefully.

Then add 10.75ml of flavored milk sample with the help of pipette and add in butyrometer carefully through the walls.

Add 1ml of amyl alcohol in the butyrometer.

Mix it well keeping it in a safe position.

Then place the butyrometer in Centrifuge for 4 minutes. At 1000 rpm

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