Industrial sector competitiveness and regulations In the Mena countries Outline:Content AbstractIntroductionLiterature review Methodology Conclusion References Content: Definition of industrial sectorsWhat’s Mena countries ” what has changed Major industry of Egypt and IraqCompetitiveness of the industrial sector in Mena countries Middle east and north Africa regulatory authorities Regulations of Water supply sector in west bank, Gaza ” Egypt & Jordan The impact of regulatory independence in Mena countries Abstract:This paper examine the industrial sector of each country and its competitiveness and regulations in the countries of Mena the aim to highlight the processes of trade and supranational integration through its requirements have astounding impact in enhancing the industrial competitiveness of Mena nations there is a brief overview on the structure and regulations in Mena countries giving careful consideration to the viewpoint connected to its industrial competitiveness , and the industrial policies expected to promotion the competitiveness of the industry are analyzed for each nation and see the regulations of each country in the end, we can see the numerous nations demonstrate an assorted variety of industrial development and the industrial strategies and express that the nations that have decided on supranational integration and international trade are showing a quicker and more competitive industrial development.
Introduction:The previous year has seen various positive advancements in the (MENA) locale.
Recuperation and remaking endeavors are in progress in Iraq following the freedom of its region, while nations, for example, the Arab Republic of Egypt and Saudi Arabia have made major financial and social changes. With help from the nations network, Syrian outcasts and host networks in Lebanon and Jordan kept on demonstrating noteworthy strength, development has grabbed over the area, and all middle east and north Africa nations have moved to decrease energy subsidies, identify new sources of non-oil incomes, and extend social security nets to shield the poor from adverse impacts of change.Violence and the results of war keep on inflicting significant damage in Libya, the Syrian Arab Republic, and the Republic of Yemen. The Middle East Peace Process stays testing, and parts of the district chance losing an entire age of out-of-school kids to fragility, conflict and violenceEconomic growth in Middle East and North Africa is expected upon to bounce back to a normal 2.0 percent in 2018 from a normal 1.4 percent in 2017. The gentle bounce back in local development faces the positive effect of shifting and adjustment strategies attempted in numerous nations couple with the ongoing get in oil costs and outside oil request. Monetary development in the Middle East and North Africa locale is rating to increase unobtrusively, achieving a normal of 2.6 percent in 2019-2020. Oil exporters will altogether profit by higher oil costs and outer oil request that will probably stay high and in addition household changes. Oil merchants are relied upon to profit by changes, rising exchange with the Europe and China, and monetary inflows from Middle East and North Africa oil that they exportedWhile by and large development look alike strong, the pace of the monetary recuperation in the district is as yet week. Difficulties”including the moderate pace of changes, a forces to come back to star repetitive financial approaches in the wake of higher oil costs, rising obligation levels, and increase joblessness rates among youth ladies”still exist and, if not tended to, could deflect monetary recuperation and hamper long term development prospects in the region. Classifications of industryRaw material Agriculture industry: This work use plants and creature based items as their crude materials nourishment preparing, vegetable oil, cotton material Metal industry: Metals industries are based with respect to mining and use metal’ as crude material. These industries also give to different projects. They are used for massive hardware and building materials. Marine projects: Marine use plan to crude materials from ocean or sea. Models, angle oil. Woodland industries: These undertaken to use crude materials from the backwoods like wood. This industry linked with back wood is paper, pharmaceutical, and furniture.Size Small industries: Small industries have less capital and invention put resources into them. There is a lot physical work seen here. Model, Basket, earthenware, and crafted works. Large industries: Large industries are the correct opposite of little scale project. Here the capital contributed is huge and trend setting innovation is being used here. advanced, Automobiles and Heavy MachineryOwnershipPrivate sector: Private projects are organizations that are taken and worked by an individual or group of people. Public sector: Public projects are supposed and overseen by the legislature. Model, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) Joint sector industries: These projects are mutually worked by the state and people.Cooperative sector industries: Cooperative industries that are worked by the providers, makers or specialists of crude material.Here’s a list of the best five industries that are expected upon to perform well in the Middle East and North Africa area Oil, Gas and petrochemicals Banking and finance IT, electronics and communicationsGovernment, civil services Education, academia Literature review:The industrial sector means the goods-producing bit of an economy including agriculture, constructions, fisheries, forestry and manufacturingWhat is the ‘Middle East and North Africa – MENA’The Middle East and North Africa is a region cover about 22 countries in the Middle East and North Africa. The MENA region accounts for about 6% of the world’s population, 60% of the world’s oil reserves and 45% of the world’s natural gas reserves. Because of the region’s substantial petroleum and natural gas reserves, Middle East and North Africa is an important source of global economic stabilityThe most commonly used countries:AlgeriaBahrainDjiboutiEgyptIranIraqIsraelJordanKuwaitLebanonLibyaMaltaMoroccoOmanQatarUAESaudi ArabiaSyriaTunisiaYemenWest bank and GazaEthiopia & Sudan What’s the most important industries in Egypt and Iraq?1-Egypt: Textile:Consider the textiles from carpets and carpets of all kinds from the era of the pharaohs through ownership until the era of previous president Jamal Abdel Nasser who fixed and opened new factories of textile depend on the flourishing cotton civilization Leather:Leather industry is popular in Egypt and exported to many countries, the most important leather manufacturing centralized in ancient area of Egypt Cement:Egypt produces app. 35 million tons of cement every year for building purposes and exported about 6 million tons; Egypt was the first country to make this industry, the first factory in 1911 in Helwan Egyptian cement exported to Arab countries, European, south America and united stateIron and steel:Egyptian become to collect remains of world war 2 from iron scrap to reproduce iron in 1940 this was the beginning of idea of establish iron and steel factors so the first factory on era of president Jamal Abdel Nasser in 1955 and the iron factory become most important industries that exported abroad 2 ” IraqPivotal industries :Iron and textile Engineering industriesPetrochemical industryAluminum Food industry:Cigarettes Vegetables and oilSoapNon-fused products in industries:GlassCementCharacteristics of industrial in Iraq:Lack of relationship between public and private sectors Limited numbers of workers Problems facing industry in Iraq:Weak interdependence in industry sector and sectors of economy and services Depend on access to technological on external marketWeak coordination between Iraq and Arab countries The Mena Region:With one of the little populations in the world, the Middle East and North Africa countries can release a powerful growth potential by increasing economic chance for its youth and reducing youth unemployment, currently the highest in the world at 29%. Informality is rated to be over 33% of the countries’ GDP. Helping informal firms to shape their business could safely increase public revenues in the country, between 8% and 10% of the world’s marine trade passes through the Suez Canal. Located in the center of the main trade routes of the world, the region can use this potential to boost its development and integration in Global Value Chains.The region has the ability to increase its participation in international trade from itsCurrent level (0.35% of the world’s trade) to a level in line with its economic weight(3.7% of the world’s GDP).Mena region. What has changed?The Arab springMassive political change and leadership ” Libya, Egypt, KSA, Iran, Iraq, Qatar, Yemen. 30 years of democracy craving reached the MENA Population growth41% under considered poor (UNDP 2009)30% of the population between. 2e0-35 years25.6% of young population between. 15-24 are unemployed (ILO 2013) GCC and Turkey driving the GDP within MENA. Danish export to GCC increased with 65% from 2007 -2014UAE: A hub to the rest of the regionLack of possibilities and resources” rising living costsOil prices has gone down from USD 114,12 den 23/6-2014 to USD 65,5Increased access to information Social media ISILMassive refugee movementThe Most Populated Countries In The Mena countries:.Egypt population about 97.55 millionIran population bout 81.16 millionIraq population about 28.27 million Yemen population 28.25 million What is the most agreements in the Mena regions ?Trade exchange between Egypt, Morocco:Trade Exchange between Egypt and Morocco listed $550 million during 2017Egypt’s exports to Morocco products and goods of engineering, electronics, food and building materials, as well as iron and steel, chemical and plastic products, Morocco exports to Egypt cars worth $87 million, and food commodities worth $17.6 million. On Oct. 30, the Egyptian-Moroccan Businessmen Association, and the establishment of the Sons of Morocco for Development in Egypt started the Egyptian-Moroccan Business Forum, its point to make a true partnership between the private sectors of both countries. Generally, Egypt’s non-oil exports rose 10 percent in 2017 to $22.42 billion, up from $20.41 billion in 2016. Egyptian goods became charming to foreign markets after the flotation of the state’s currency in November 2016, losing 50 percent of its value, which is reflected on the increased exports. In 2004, Egypt signed Agadir Agreement which is a free trade agreement between four Arab countries: Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia. The agreement which came into power in 2007 helped to increase the trade exchange between the four countries. Trade volume between both countries during the past years recorded a progress which was reflected on the numbers, reaching a trade of $680 million in 2016 compared to $475 million in 2013. Top 10 economics in the middle east and north Africa region Saudi Arabia ( 745,273,000,000$) The Saudi Arabia one of the biggest economies is likewise the world’s nineteenth greatest, on account of its abundance of common assets which includes around 20 percent of the worldwide supply. Its oil area represents in excess of 75 percent of government incomes and in excess of 95 percent of all create is sold in the interest of the Saudi Government by the monster Saudi Aramco. Be that as it may, different parts do work well in the nation – concrete, manure, plastics, metals, business dispatch fix, business air ship fix and development are among those which help keep the economy movingUnited Arab emirates ($383,799,000,000)The UAE has been actively differentiating its economy as of late as in excess of 70 percent of incomes get from non-oil ventures. Positioned all inclusive at 30, its economy has developed by in excess of multiple times since freedom in 1971. Critical pieces from oil incorporate angling, aluminum and development materials4 ” Israel ($291,357,000,000) In contrast to larger nations on the rundown, Israel is middling asset poor. Major parts incorporate high-innovation items, metal items, electronic and horticultural items, handled nourishments, synthetic compounds, and transport hardware, and the Israeli precious stone industry is one of the world’s habitats for jewel cutting and cleaning. 5 ” Egypt ($271,973,000,000) Egypt’s economy positions about 41 all around, thanks in no small part to its huge agribusiness and materials exchange , Ongoing agitation has left the nation in limbo, and the Gulf States have sworn a lot of excellent monetary help for Egypt’s transitional period. In mid-2013, Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Kuwait promised a guide bundle totaling around $17 billion to help Egypt6 ” Iraq ($222,879,000,000) Regardless of the times of massive political strife found in Iraq, its economy is as yet the 46th biggest on the planet. Oil represents a gigantic extent of remote fare, albeit different parts including materials, nourishment handling and synthetic concoctions are likewise vital to the nation. Some portion of the nation’s basic issues originate from the way that imperative financing for regions, for example, development, wellbeing and transport are reliant on government spending, and in this way oil incomes.7 ” Algeria ($210,183,000,000) Only one place behind Qatar at 49 on the planet, Algeria’s GDP is produced from a more extensive scope of sources. Despite the fact that oil and gas represents a huge offer, horticulture is the nation’s biggest business, with steel and electrical enterprises additionally solid. Algeria’s economy is figure to develop by around four percent this year.8 ” Qatar ($202,450,000,000) Oil is the foundation of Qatar’s economy and records for in excess of 70 percent of aggregate government income, in excess of 60 percent of total national output, and about 85 percent of fare profit. Its development part is likewise getting emphatically9 ” Kuwait ($183,219,000,000) Holding around 10 percent of the world’s oil saves, the vitality division overwhelms the Kuwaiti economy. It additionally flaunts a solid manure market and its money, the Kuwaiti dinar (KD), is among the most astounding esteemed on the planet. The nation comes in at number 54 in the worldwide GDP rankings, with its National Bank of Kuwait one of the greatest administrators in the locale.10 ” Morocco ($104,374,000,000) Morocco’s economy has been make generally well with a normal development rate of five percent in the course of recent years, regardless of progressive outer stuns due remarkably to the Eurozone emergency and a profoundly unstable worldwide market. It is positioned at 61 all inclusive regarding GDP with its principle divisions including farming, the travel industry, materials and shake mining.Middle East and north Africa regulatory authoritiesThe implementation of regulatory policy is operator for change to encourage transparency, accountability and participation in Mena countries Middle East regulatory authorities:Egyptian drug authority The Imported Pharmaceuticals Inspectorate is a specialized department belonging to the General Pharmaceutical Inspectorate, CAPA, MOHP, Egypt.Our regulations are applied to:Imported human drugsImported veterinary drugs Egypt – Jordan – Jordan Food and Drug AdministrationJordan Food and Drug Administration (JFDA) have been created in 2003 as the sole national competent authority for drug safety & efficacy and food safety and quality.Israel – Ministry of HealthThe Ministry of Health bears national responsibility for ensuring the health of the population of Israel. The ministry determines the policy on matters of health and medical services, and is in charge of planning, supervision and control, licensing and coordination of the health system’s services.The ministry deals with the organization, operation and provision of preventive, diagnostic, treatment, rehabilitation and research services – directly or via medical institutions. The ministry provides health services in the fields of hospitalization and preventive medicine, and insures the population on matters of mental health, geriatrics, public health and rehabilitation devices..Major regulations:National Provisions and Requirements for Medical Devicesen SA-00109/2014The Interim Regulatory SchemeUnited Arab Emirates – Ministry of HealthThe UAE has a zero-tolerance policy for recreational use of drugs. Federal Law No. 14 of 1995 criminalises production, import, export, transport, buying, selling, possessing, storing of narcotic and psychotropic substances unless done so as part of supervised and regulated medical or scientific activities in accordance with the applicable laws. The UAE police has dedicated departments to deal with drugs’ issues.Yemen – Supreme Commission for Drugs and Medical Appliances:In Yemen, there are legal provisions establishing the powers and responsibilitiesof the Medicines Regulatory Authority (MRA). Is categorized in 8 sections, namely: (1) Health andDemographic data, (2) Health Services, (3) Policy Issues, (4) Medicines Tradeand Production (5) Medicines Regulation, (6) Medicines Financing, (7)Pharmaceutical procurement and distribution, and (8) Selection and rational useHealth expenditure on yemen:The total annual expenditure on health (THE) in 2007 was 257,414 million yemeni Rial (YR) (US$ 1,139.87 million). The total annual health expenditure was 5.23% of the GDP of 2007. The total annual expenditure on health per capita was 11,951 YER (US$ 60)Methodology: this research is a comparative analysis!Conclusion: MENA district in 2010 is more specialized /concentrated on item with high Comparative advantage position than 2000. For a similar period, the MENA area keeps an eye on specialization.The mean of comparative advantage increases significantly for MENA Countries except Lebanon Bahrain, Oman, and United Arab Emirates.The stronger competition between countries into a group in the export market (more similar patterns of comparative advantage) happens both in resource- poor and labor abundant, resource-rich and labor abundant, and resource-rich and labor importing countries. References: