7.1 Identify factors of learning and development in relation to current frameworks- The factors of learning and development in relation to current frameworks are communication and language, physical development, personal, social and emotional development, literacy, maths, understanding the world and through expressing art and design. These areas combine together to make up the skills, knowledge and experiences that children and young people need in order to develop and grow throughout their lives. The main areas of this are ‘personal, social and emotional development, physical development and communication and language.
’ All of these are fundamental because they work together and interlink in order to support development in all the other areas stated above. The EYFS framework states that it is important for practitioners to observe and respond to each individual child who is in their care on an on-going, day-to-day basis. The EYFS also sends a message to practitioners that there should be a main focus on the more important areas for younger children and a gradual building of support for older children as they develop within the specific areas.
In all cases the support given should be appropriate to the child’s individual level of development depending on age, sex and ability. Practitioners should take a more of a flexible approach to the child they are working with, responding to each child as an individual leaner rather than treating it as textbook black and white. There is nothing stated within the EYFS framework that prevents a practitioner from introducing any of these aspects in the way of learning and development earlier than they might do for other child, just as long as they judge it to be appropriate and they don’t think the child will struggle too much. Personal, social and emotional development involves helping children to develop a positive sense of themselves and as well as others; to form a positive relationship and develop respect for others; to develop social skills and learn how to manage their feelings; to understand appropriate behaviour in groups and to have confidence in their own abilities.’This means you need to develop a child’s sense of themselves in a positive way and it also teaches them about having respect for oneself and others. Developing social skills and a good attitude towards learning is also key. In order to give children the best opportunities in life through positive relationships and a healthy environment, chances for play and learning need to be created to help children notice the differences between them and others. Communication and language involves giving children opportunities to experience a mulit-langauge environment in order to boost their confidence and skills while expressing themselves by allowing them to play with children from different ethnic backgrounds or being around adults who may be bi-lingual. This provides children with opportunities for speaking and listening and gives children the best opportunities for developing communication and language through a range of different, fun ways. Physical development also gives children lots of chances to be active, social and interactive which all help to develop their co-ordination, control and movement in the long term. A child will find it harder to develop in this area if you allow them to spend too much time on their devices or watching television instead of playing outside. Children need to be influenced and guided so we can help them understand the importance of physical activity and also why it is so necessary to make heathy choices in relation to food and snacks. Activities both indoors and outside can encourage play time, learning and development, especially if they have things to climb, swing off or room to run. Snack time should be used to encourage the importance of making heathy food choices and should be provided with a variety of different snacks. 7.2 Explain factors which influence children’s development- There are a few different factors which influence a child’s development and these are, nature which contribute to the growth and development of a child. Heredity, this is the transmission of physical characteristics from parents to children through their genes which as a result influences all aspects of physical appearance such as height, weight, body structure, eye colour, hair and even intelligence. Unfortunately, diseases are also passed through the genes and these genetic factors can have an effect on the growth of a child and cause them to have problems later on in life. However, there are ways to bring out the best of a quality within a gene and this is through environmental factors and nurturing. The environment plays a very important role in the development of children and young people while they are growing up, some of the environmental factors influencing early childhood development for example a child living in a polluted town or city is far more likely to get asthma and need an inhaler than a child who is living out in the unpolluted countryside. It is also noticeable that a well-nurtured, looked after child does better than a deprived one and the environment they grow up in contributes a great deal to this. A good caring school and kind family builds their social skills, while someone who is raised in stressful environment such as poverty or someone how may be abused will consequently struggle quite a bit more.The sex of a child is another major factor affecting physical growth and development as boys and girls bodies grow in very different ways, especially close to puberty. Boys tend to be quite a bit taller and are overall physically stronger than girls, however girls do grow faster during adolescence and overtake boys who take a longer period of time to mature. The physical structure of their bodies has many differences too which make boys overall more athletic and suited for more physical sports such as rugby or boxing. This doesn’t mean girls can’t do this sport it just means men’s bodies tend to be the right shape and strength to do this while girls will need to work a lot harder to achieve the same physical outcome. Exercise and heath in children and young people is play-time and sports activities which help the body to increase muscular strength and put on bone mass. Good exercise can help to keep children on track with their body development and help them to achieve better academically. Exercise also keeps them healthy and fights off illnesses by strengthening the immune system. Allowing children to play outside will also help them to build a resistance and prevent some allergies from occurring such as hay fever or pollen allergies. Nutrition is a very critical factor too in a child’s growth as the body and muscles need to repair themselves from the balanced healthy food we eat. If a young person has malnutrition it can affect growth and development within children which is why a balanced diet is necessary. On the other hand, over eating can lead to obesity and other health problems such as diabetes and heart problems later on in life. A balanced diet that is high in vitamins, minerals, proteins, fats and carbohydrates is vital for the development of the brain and body within a child or young person. Hormones belong to the endocrine system and influence the various functions of our bodies, they are produced by different glands within the body that stash hormones to control our bodily functions. Their functioning is very critical for a normal physical growth and development in children and young people as an imbalance can result in growth defects, obesity and other diseases. Families have the power to determine the ways in which a child develops socially and psychologically. Whether they are raised by their parents, in foster care, or another relative, every child requires basic love, care and nurturing to strive as individuals. When families invest time, energy and love in the development of the child e.g. reading to them, playing games with them or listening to what they did that day, you can see what the difference makes not only on their attitude but also outlook on life. Families that may abuse or neglect a child would prevent them from having a positive development and would result in the children having poor social skills and may end up having difficulty in bonding with adults. The socio-economic status of a family determines the quality of the opportunity a child gets- for example studying in better schools or private education will have its benefits in the long run and means families can afford special support if a child requires it. While children from poorer families may not have access to educational resources and good nutrition so their children are unable to reach their full potential. Geographical influence- where you live also has a great influence on how your children turn out to be. The schools they attend, neighbours and opportunities offered by the community all have an effect on a child’s development. Living in a nice community that has parks, libraries, spaces to play and run, village halls for activities, all play a role in how much the child gets involved with the community. Poorer communities may actually push some children to not want to go outside but instead to play too much video games or watch too much television. Whatever part of the world you live in has cultural factors that shape the child’s thoughts, attitudes and behaviours.7.3 Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development- A sequence of development is the order in which the development of the child would happen e.g. a child would sit before crawling and would then progress onto walking. The rate of development is the speed in which it would happen e.g.; by four to six months the child will have control of their head and arm movements and by seven to nine months they should be able to sit without support and may have begun crawling. It is important to remember that all children develop at difference rates and that the information we read is only guidelines not specific. It is good that we are able to monitor what children can or cannot do at the specific stages of their lives and although it isn’t one hundred percent accurate for each child they are still effective to ensure a child gets the right attention they may need especially within areas they are finding challenging. The sequence of development is the normal expected sequence in which children learn different skills, and the rate of development refers to the speed in which the child will develop. However the difference between the sequence of development and the rate of development is that the sequence stays the same. Also children move from stage to stage faster than others, this is because each child is unique and develop within their own personal way and time, therefore the child’s development should be looked at in an overall way. In addition when you are observing the stages of child’s development all areas have to be viewed as physical, social and through language, that’s why every child goes to see their GP while they’re growing up to ensure they aren’t falling behind with their development. Although, the difference between the sequence of development and the rate of development is important as it helps to see where children may need some extra help or are at risk of having special education needs such as learning difficulties, it also does help their school to ensure that the child has enough support.7.5 Explain how children’s learning is influenced by: Positive relationships- A child’s learning is influenced by a positive relationship because a safe and trusting relationship will only help to promote all of the aspects towards a child’s development. If a child is born within a safe and caring environment they will develop a heathy emotional well-being which will rub off on other children around them that is their age. Children build relationships with their parents, child carers, family members, brothers, sisters and other children, most people who they come into contact with, they will build some sort of relationship. All of these relationships allow children to learn social, emotional and academic skills and they will benefit from these not only now but in the future too. Children’s experiences of healthy relationships when they are young will impact upon how they build their relationships later on in life. Warm, trusting and secure relationships take time to develop and the bond will only grow bigger over time. Children are dependent upon their carers and need to feel safe all the time while sensing positive outcomes in order to build trust and receive something from the relationship they have with you. These caring relationships they make can be the foundation for a child developing their own sense of identity and self-esteem later on in life. A good relationship will allow children to be stress free, happy and motivated resulting in a good outcome within their learning and social life. Environment- The effect of the environment has on a child’s development and learning is very important. If you’re living in a cramped, noisy and unproductive environment it can affect your child’s personality and development with learning. For example if there are too many people living at a home, it could cause a child to look for different forms of attention, which could later lead to an emotional distance between you and them. Compared to a child who is living in a quiet, social, polite and happy atmosphere it will have an opposite effect on them. Engaging environments encourage babies and young children to play because they feel relaxed, comfortable and at home in them. When children feel completely emotionally safe and secure about the place they are in they will then explore the different things they can see, touch, climb or move. In the EYFS the environment is described in terms of these three aspects; the emotional environment, the outdoor environment and the indoor environment.’ Consequently these three aspects above make up the environment for which children play and learning within the EYFS foundation