Keywords: five functions of vocabulary, geoffrey leech
Language plays an essential role in human being lives. It really is a social sensation. One of the key goals of language is to communicate with people and understand them. When someone talks, he intends a particular purpose. He would like to convey some text through that dialect. A person uses his words to numerous different purposes for example, to express his thoughts, to require help and to apologize.
In truth, we use terminology in many various ways, many of these are, the informational, the expressive, the directive, the phatic, the cosmetic. We use language and that vocabulary is a part of society. Actually, any vocabulary varies regarding to, the nature of the population, what kind of individuals, and their behaviour. People use terminology according to their situation. The interpersonal background of anybody can play an important role in the kind of vocabulary he has.
I am going to discuss these functions and take a few examples of every one. I am going to explain the partnership between dialect and social company.
Language is very important factor of communication among population. Using terms has some functions. We need to use language to satisfy our needs. It is an essential part inside our life. If a person uses his vocabulary, he selects words that matches his needs.
People use some functions to state a sentence, to ask, to reply, to greet and etc. In fact, forms are essential part of our discussion because they are related to functions. A person who says, What’s your name? he’s showing a form of a question. Let us take another example, I wish to play soccer, functions as a assertion.
Actually, Geoffery Leech( 1974 ). Mentioned that language has five functions. They are simply:
I am going to discuss every function. “Informational function which every one tends to assume is most important” Geoffery Leech( 1974 ). Actually, this function concentrates on the subject matter. It is employed to provide new information. It is determined by fact and value. Let us look at this example, the car is big, the bus is congested.
” terminology can offer an expressive function: that is, it can be used to express its originator’s feelings and attitudes – swear words and exclamations will be the most obvious instance of this”. Geoffery Leech( 1974 ). The loudspeaker or writer of this function tries to express his feelings. He or she reflexes his or her impression. This function could give a clear image for the personality of the presenter or writer. The very best example of this type is Poetry and literature. Actually, this function evoke certain feelings and express feelings. Examples of this kind are, I am very happy or I put in a wonderful getaway. We can see from the prior samples that they reflex the emotions of the presenter or the article writer.
“The third function of terms is the directive function whereby we aim to influence the behavior or attitudes of others. The most straightforward cases of the directive function are commands and demands. This function of interpersonal control places emphasis on the receiver’s end, rather than the originator’s end of the note: but it resembles the expressive function in supplying less importance, on the whole, to conceptual interpretation than to other styles of meaning, especially affective and connotative meaning” Geoffery Leech( 1974 ).
Examples of this kind are, I want a cup of tea or close the entranceway. It is clear hear that, we use the dialect in a direct way. We ask you to definitely take action. Some times we can use a sentence expressing two functions. For instance, I am thirsty. The previous example could be used to show the condition of the speaker or writer or to express the feeling. In a manner that a person asks someone to give him drinking water.
The fourth function is the aesthetic function, which is ” the use of language for the sake of the linguistic artifact itself, and then for no goal. This visual function can have at least just as much regarding conceptual much like affective interpretation” Geoffery Leech( 1974 ). ” The function from the message-the vehicle-is the poetic or visual function: the sign taken as an end in itself. All art known as skill is taken up to embody this function, and any thing valued because of its beauty somewhat than for its ideological value or usefulness-whether a gorgeous car, an elegant teapot, or some acreage of untouched real estate-takes upon this function. Although Jakobson, perhaps more specifically than anyone who preceded him, showed how the visual function could hinge on composition, he argues that ethnic norms ultimately determine the dominance of this function. Like a striking demo, he notes that the visual status that one generation accorded and then the poems of Karel Mcha, a subsequent generation accords only to his diaries. Jakobson, R. (1933)”.
According to Leech, the fifth function is the phatic function. ” the function of keeping communication lines start, and keeping cultural human relationships in good repair ( in Britain culture, discussing the weather is a well-known example of this)”. Geoffery Leech( 1974 ). We can say relating to this function it is used for normal talks. A good example of this, when two different people meet one another accidently in a location. They start discussing something unimportant with regard to communication like, how are you? How is your children? And so on. We can say that it’s a kind of daily talking. It is not signifying but is good.
Actually has another classification from what we’ve talked about. H. Douglas Brown has categorised function of words into seven types. “This classification is very little not the same as that of Leech. The functional approach to talking about language is the one which has its origins in the traditions of English linguists J, R Firth, who examined words as interactive and social, away of behaving and making others act” Berns, ( 1984).