In every sphere of life it is proved that woman is getting in hand in hand with man. Therefore if man works to earn money, women can manage three careers at a time i.e. earn money, delegate work at home, and at the office as well. How beautifully a working woman juggles these three roles and still is not complaining. [Working Mothers, How Much working -2009]
“One could define a working mother as a women with a ability to combine a career with the added responsibility of raising a child”[Jayita, Murali-2009,p.64] All the educated working mothers work because they tend to need a financial freedom while balancing a professional career. [Working mothers, How much Working- 2009]
The ascending numbers of working mothers are seen in the last few decades. Both the partners have to work just because to maintain the financial status of the house. According to the 2003 US census bureau states that fifty percent professionals are the women workers. It is nearly 90% of the women are out of the house for the work delegates. All the women are blessed with various professional skills, if not professional then with the business skills. Though after facing various dilemmas in work place i personally feel that women are quite capable of facing the various challenges which occur in there ways. According to the 2000 US census states that single parent is no longer left behind in this race.[www.working mothers .com]
I have chosen this case study because i am a professional woman where i tend to face various difficulties. How hard it is to manage both the delegates’ i.e. delegates at home and delegates at our work place. It is also to ponder on those aspects where women are going out of ways to manage these various delegates. Also to look at the different dilemmas women is facing while managing these dual career responsibilities.
In olden days all the women were aware of their boundaries and limitations. They rendered there whole span of their life for the care of their families, by dwelling in the four walls of the house. Later on a sudden thrust evolved into business sector and public affairs, which made them turn their backs towards thrive families. Those pioneering days are no more .The tie of Gordian has broken down and the feminine dilemma is over.
The last two decades has proven that the right time to integrate into their dual career management at home and at the work place has arisen. In the present century the social status of women is trapped under different profound differences. First is the entry into the different hitherto masculine placements. The second is the endeavor of an increasing number of women who jointly balance the family and employment. [Women’s two role-1956, reprint-2001]
RIGHTS OF CHILD, RIGHTS OF WOMEN/ LEGISLATION
RIGHTS OF CHILDREN
Their various rights which are bestowed upon children due to U N convention. Children are protected by four “P” according to the child protection act. Four “p” are listed below.
1. PROVISION 2.PREVENTION 3.PROTECTION 4.PARTICIPATION.
In the provision of rights, child is supposed to be provided with the basic necessity of food, shelter, and education .In the prevention of rights child should be protected from abuse given privacy and has the rights of legal representation. In the protection of rights child is supposed to be protected from sexual abuse, entitled to be protected during war times, conflicts and during the natural disaster causing bad effect on the child. Under the last participation child right act it says that child is entitled in decision making, has voice for his own opinion, and has his own freedom of conscience.
According to the UN convention for children’s right they say that,
Children should not be ignored, but heard for the better development and welfare of the child. All the courts must understand the grief and suffering the child must be undergoing and must have regards for their wishes. Children were heard and given relief form the courts. Advocacy groups were formed in order to provide help to the children in decision making. A very big “BRATS CHARTER” is formed where a child can divorce his parent if the child is not happy or don’t want to carry on with their parents. Children has right of quality of life where the child has right to choose his own parents either.[UNCRN ACT- 1
WOMENS MATERNITY LEAVE & EQUALITY PAY ACT 2010
All the women are given and supported with some of their women’s rights. What so ever may be the worked out tenure women is entitled for the one year maternity leave form her office with full paid leave. This is applied only to those who are about to go on the maternity leave from April 2007. They also have increased maternity and adoption pay period from 26 weeks to 39 weeks. Law has also benefited women by scrapping old rule of work experience of six months to be entitled for the 26 weeks maternity leave. [News-2007]
According to the equality act 2010 it states that when a woman is working with shoulder to shoulder with a man, then she is entitled for the same amount of benefits in terms of pay and other benefits. The act claims that gender equality has to be included into the contractual terms, considering women not less than a man. Woman should not be discriminated on the basis of her womanhood; on the contrary she should be looked upon with sense of figure of equality. [Equal pay& the equality act 2010]
The old 1970 equal pay act has replaced few good changes. The various changes which include men and women performing their duties towards their profession should be considered and rated at the same level, and should also be provided with equal standards of salaries for the work generated out of them. Every women is allowed to check across her equal share of pay and the bonus given to her.[ Equal pay act- 2010]
WHAT IS ETHICS
It is hard to define ethics, but somehow to understand ethics, ethics can be defined as what is correct and incorrect, moral and immoral. Generally ethical behavior is accepted in the society where the behavior is considered with the moral codes. According to the dictionary ethics means “The study of standards of conduct and moral judgment and moral philosophy”[Youngdictionary.com]
Man has always worked hard to understand between correct and incorrect and between ethics and legality. As per dictionary again ethics can be defined as “The study of the general nature of morals and of the specific moral choices to be made by the individuals in his relationship with others” [Insightempire.com, p.1]
Ethics deals with the study concerned with usually what is morally correct and incorrect. This study is also applied to any theory of moral deeds. Very often ethics refers to how one should live his life? Should he only aim at gathering knowledge or at happiness? If we happen to select happiness, should that happiness be meant only for ourselves or for the whole of the family? Should we live in opulence, should we break laws? What are our obligations when we are living with other human beings on this mother planet, and what examples we are setting for other generation? Ethics are surrounded with all the moral questions form all the corners of life. The main focus of the ethics covers the fundamental crisis of empirical decisions, which includes the practical costs and the levels by which human behavior can be justified. [Ethics by Peter Singh]
Few working mothers work just because they are qualified and don’t want to find themselves to be hanged around only with the domestic work. The main motive was to get employed was to give a good standard life to the family from different angles.[How working mothers manage-1970]
All women are responding towards the pressure of inflationary economy, to achieve high level of education for their children and for self-satisfaction. But working mothers can manage both i.e childcare and home delegates. [Pediatrics vol 56 no-1975]
ATTACHMENT THEORY- BOWLBY
According to the Bowlbys theory, he ponders over the fact that early childhood is always in straight contact with mothers, or sometimes it is hardly very few steps away from the mother. Mother always tries to keep her child close to her chest i.e. under her feathers. But as soon as the child tends to grow old the closeness and the bonds tends to become lighter, the child seems to get involved with more worldly activities, but when time comes to rest at the night they prefer nobody else and they tend to search for their mothers. This attachment clearly speaks that how mother and Child’s bonding is inbuilt bonding. Bowlby stresses on the facts that early age is the age where both child and the mother are very attached to each other and also very much strongly involved for each other’s feelings and togetherness.[Cyc-net.org]
In my case study i have involved various participants who face various dilemmas in connection with the working mothers while she is managing her dual careers.
My first participant whom i would consider is the child. Sufficient evidences has proved that home delegate has a clear impact for women own life and family organization, but both are seems to be important for children’s upbringing.[Journal-Maternal education and early child care-2009]
As an educated mother she can and supposed to be giving home achieving activities for her children, taking her child to brain storming events and cover their children in different learning ways , but the dilemma is that due to busy schedule she is unable to give enough time , where the child is neglected of his rights and face the dilemma.[journal maternal education and early child care-2009]
It is true that children of working mothers are quite quick in all aspects of life .It is also true that children are more capable and strong towards the ups and downs in their life. Children face dilemmas when they are sick during the holidays when mothers are at work, their right to protection is overlooked and the child is under the dilemma.[How working mothers manage-1970]
At early years of stages babies are considered to be going under stress of separation from their mothers when they are about to leave for their work. The dilemma faced by children to manage this rhythm of separation is very stressful.[Managing two careers-1989]
Children of lone parents face high rate of emotional dilemmas, because mother is working for the bread & butter and is unable to give sufficient and required time for her children.[How working mothers manage-1970]
It is also considered that due to working parents specially the mother lack of care and supervision children are found in high number of school dropouts, drug abuse and juvenile delinquency.[Working mothers, how much working-2009]
Also one of the important dilemma children face during their mothers are out for work are the invigilation of the various child-minders. If the child shifts from one minder to other, child has to get accustomed to all the various child-minders habits and discipline. Such circumstances confuse the child, to what exactly he or she has to adopt.
According to the Lawree Tilton-Weaver-normal behavior controls guides and protects children to master over self-discipline and curtails the problems like disobeying parents, consuming alcohols. Drug abuse and robbery. She states that psychological management over children with more personal feelings breaks out into severe depression and anxiety. For instance if we choose their friends and clothing which turns to be interference with their decision makings, which ultimately falls into damaging there personal feelings. Which means that we are not caring for their personal feelings? Just when working mothers tends to lay down few regulations which children do not accept, and thus the dilemma occurs saying that interference with the feelings of children and adds as a negative impact on the minds of the children towards there working mothers.[ Workingmothers .com]
Though various research bodies are working with the protection of the childcare and there progress- it is openly accepted that children’s education and there personal development can only develop child’s confidence and peer relationships. However it is very difficult for those children who are under neglected or poor childcare. [Provisions of childcare for working mothers in wales. co.uk]
My second participant is the mother herself. Generally mothers balance their identity around mothering and employment. Mothers foremost interest is always care giving to children and family, through there paid employment which upholds the financial status of her house.[I am so much more myself coming back to work-2008]
According to Vincent and Ball “the need to construct a morally adequate account of oneself, as mothers require of all classes to present their prioritization of their children need”[I am so much more myself coming back to work-2006, p.72]
Though full time working plays a vital role for upliftment of financial status of the house [managing two careers-1999, 2003]
All the working mothers accepted that limited financial freedom will be stressful when staying with children at home. While socializing with other children, children behavior happens to be more worried. Although children of age 6 and 11 years need most attention, but unfortunately mothers find it stressful to commit and dedicate sufficient time for children specially when their children are affected with serious disabilities.[Influence on mothers employment when children have disabilities-2007]
Every woman who is a mother can be called as working mother. But those who are with professional career deal with more challenges in balancing there career and family. It is a very difficult and pressurized task, where mother at the end finds that she is left with no time and no social togetherness in society. Few working mothers are quite and sound who are blessed with good encouraging and supportive male partner who gives her the strength to balance her dual career. The dilemma is observed in big ratio that very less percent co-operative male partners are matched. If the children are not co-operative again the working mothers are into big dilemma towards the childcare and upbringing of the child.[ Working mothers .com]
Moreover working mothers are worried when child care factors occur. When no home support is provided by in-laws or other relatives to shoulder the children burden. Childcare providers are the last option where the working mother seeks help from. According to Lynne Hill, a policy director for children in wales says that there may not be sufficient options for parents to keep their children with the childcare providers. She says that it is a high task for mothers to balance her work and safety of her child. It matters more with the children with disabilities, where mothers are more specific with the choosing of the childcare options. If she fails to get the opted option she tends to face the dilemma for her child. Though job centers are providing with more jobs to women, but due to various dilemmas working mother are unable to reach the oriented professional goals.[ Wales online.co.uk]
The working mothers activity plays a vital role both during the stages of prenatal and postnatal development of the child. At times working mothers has to place her child into the orphanage facility which strongly hampers the childs growth and the future destiny. [S.B.Khatskel- 2006]
The is dilemma is that though working women balances both work and home delegates, but still she is not counted as a bread winner or given equal status by the society. She is shouldering the entire burden of the house, but is left unrewarded forever.
My third participants would be the employer. As the growing economy tend to need the man power to control the workforce. Women with high pace of education are entering in to the market. Though all the working mothers are supported with the legislation they are finding it difficult to get the jobs. Most of the working mothers are out of job because the dilemmas most employers are facing. Most of the employers avoid child bearing women due to the implementation of the maternity leaves. Nearly 63% employers take these maternity laws as a serious threat to their industries. Many other employers face difficulties to hire mothers on work due to various variation occurring into the support of the working mothers.[Maternity laws hurting women job prospects, News-2007]
My fourth participant would be Single Parent. All the working mothers undergo various difficulties. But when we judge and observe a single parent she has double difficulties. She has double difficulties that of emotional and financial balance of the home, for being the bread winner of the house. Single parents’ families are always under indefinite security, because they cannot predict about the future of their employment. More attention is required as you go at higher level and managerial level; ultimately the dilemma is less hours are dedicated towards the children. The biggest dilemma of the single parent is that every working mothers get holiday but an unsupported working mother is hanged on with day today difficulties throughout her life.[How working mothers manage-1970]
Single parents find it difficult at times to choose an affordable childcare option at the proper time and at the right place, this is more effective to single parenting because of lack of support from there life partners, which is stated by- Kate research officer. Especially when mothers have to work for more hours to get more financial support for her family. It becomes more difficult when mothers get low wages to provide a good childcare for her child. [Walesonline.co.uk]
The financial conditions of single parent and their children depends upon the group of support structure. Various structures which support the single parents are friends, neighbour, and communities. This shows a crystal clear picture that lone parents can very rarely be financially free. Histarically mothers were not accepted to be working. Nurturing children and also to become the breadwinner for the family is observed to be a drastic burden for the single parents, and disadvantages to their children. [Randy Albelda ,Susan Himmelweit -2004]
My fifth participant would be the Husband. The important factor for the working mother would be the right and supporting husband. She may be linked with high position and status or a perfect employer, but if there is no positive signal from her husband towards her working, then she is sure of taking her marital relationship into risk. It is quite sure that it is the husband not the children who sacrifices most when mothers are working. Though culturally saying he understands that women place is inside the house. But still various dilemmas occur into the mind of husband stating that he was deprived of something which he actually expected out of marriage. His dilemma is marriage is not solemnized just for sake of having sex or reproduction of children, and their after looking after them alternatively. Both the partners should have sufficient and class time for each other especially the working mother who is unable to give time for her husband due to busy schedule time.[How working mothers manage-1970]
This international comparison is done just to support my case study. In Asian countries especially in India it is always observed that whether it is a joint family or a neutral family working mother are always supported by their in laws and all the other nonworking members of the family. Support such as childcare, mothers’ health care, sometimes even the home delegates are fully taken care of. When we compare Britain with India there is a huge difference that of support to the working mother. In India working mothers are given all round support to perform her dual career managements. Grandparents take the place of all the nannies as a privilege to look after their grandchildren.[Working mothers; How much working, and where is the woomanhood-2009]
The modern womanhood is epitomized by the professional mothers. The working mothers need to be supported by the modern work providers and the employers, transforming its look from male dominance to gender neutrality. The nuclear family and the joint family unit both need to understand the need and the support a working mother is expecting out. There should be good quality and affordable childcare, where mothers are at peace at their work place.
To sum up it is quite easy to be a woman, mother, and an achiever. Many have achieved it through the back up of society, but many have fought through out there life to prove it. In today’s competitive world it is the necessity for the mothers to be working, like their partners to support all angles of their house. As we are living in the advanced world, and still undergoing the male dominating society, should not acknowledge that working mothers are bad mothers. On the contrary should always support and consider working mothers as good mothers. While serving as a mother and also managing her flourishing professional career gives a credit to the working mothers as a sign of completeness of being a woman.
The various dilemmas a working mother undergoes are lack of time, and a feeling of guilt for getting deprived of her parenting duties. Many rewards are showered on her, rewards such as personal status, improved economy, and up liftment of family standards .Women work when their spouse is incompetent, or earns inadequate money for the family. A second income adds as an a source of extra income which uplifts the standards and releases the stressful life of the whole family. Working mother should always keep reminding to her family members that she is not working for her leisure, but only and only for the betterment of her family. However it is quite possible for a mother to fight for her right to get her professional right in many different ways. A general person will accept her hard work by saying oh! She earns extra money, but women is never recognized for her hard work which she renders for the whole family.
To achieve all the rewards, compromising balance is required at individual level and at work place, which helps the working mothers to satisfy the two careers of her life i.e. a professional career and the motherhood balance.