Study on E-Waste (PCB Boards)-Bacterial Concrete and Strengthening of RCC Beams by Wrapping TechniqueKiran S1, a), Likith D2, b), Nikhil Varma2, c)a)Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Sambhram Institute of Technology, Bangalore-560097.b)UG Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Sambhram Institute of Technology, Bangalore-560097.c)UG Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Sambhram Institute of Technology, Bangalore-560097.a)Kiran S: [email protected])Likith D: [email protected])Nikhil Varma: [email protected] ” In present days, the technology has taken new high-level standards in the Construction.
Different types of materials, methods and methodology has been used for Concrete in constructions. The use of Bacterial E-waste concrete is a new technology which can provide ways for low cost high strength durable structures. The management and recycling of E-waste is rapidly growing as it is a valuable resource of IT industries and it is very hazardous substances and with low recycling rate. The utilization of E-waste in construction technology is partial solution of environmental and ecological problems.
Addition of bacteria in concrete acts as self-healing agent and increases the durability when compared with conventional concrete. The combination of E-waste [PCB] as Partial replacement of coarse aggregate with Bacterial concrete can achieve Self-Healing, High durable with High strength concrete.Keywords” Bacterial Concrete, Bacillus Subtilis, CFRP Wrapping Technique, E-waste, Compressive Strength, Flexural Strength, Retrofitting of Beam.INTRODUCTIONIn the present scenario no construction can be assumed without concrete. Concrete is a Composite-material mainly made off fine aggregate and coarse aggregate bonded together with fluid cement. Strength, durability, permeability, shrinkage and other properties of concrete structures will mainly depend on the combination of composite materials used in concrete mix. In present world different materials are used for replacement of composite materials in concrete in different optimized ratios for example fly ash for cement, m sand and CRF for fine aggregate, construction materials for coarse aggregate, admixtures for water and many other materials with affects properties of concrete in positive or negative manner.E-waste is the very hazardous material, which is rapidly growing day by day which as very low recycling rate. The management and using of E-waste in the constructions will be partial solution to environmental and ecological. Printed Circuited Boards [PCB] as E-waste, which are commonly present in all electronic devices such as mobiles, personal computers, laptops, televisions etc. PCB contains minor of metal and major of non-metal substances. The partial replacement of coarse aggregate can be done by Non-Metallic PCB.A Bacterium is used in the concrete for the self-healing action and gives a strength and durability to the structure. Bacterial concrete or self-healing concrete fills up the cracks by the help of induced Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) (Micro-Biological precipitation). CaCO3 is a good bonding material induced in bacterial concrete.OBJECTIVESTo study the behaviour of the Bacterial-E-waste concrete and compared with the conventional concrete.To replace coarse aggregate by e-waste to make the concrete eco-friendly by the waste obtained from PCB boards.To study the properties of Bacteria in concrete and to achieve the self-healing properties as a technique and to find out the optimum dosage of bacterial solution to incorporate with E-waste.To study the behaviour of modified beam and compared with the conventional beam by wrapping technique.LITERATURE REVIEWThe usage of microorganisms; bacteria of Bacillus family have a greater advantage in concrete, which helps in self-healing of cracks.Bacterial concrete decrease permeability which results in increase in durability of concrete structure.Since E-waste is very hazardous material, as usage of E-waste as partial replacement of coarse aggregate have greater advantage over the environmental and ecological problems.Use of E-waste in concrete as partial replacement results in increase of compressive strength in concrete.CFRP wrapping technique have greater advantage for retrofitting of concrete structures.So, we concluded to make Modified Bacterial E-waste concrete with optimized mix to check mechanical properties of concrete.METHODLOGYStage 1 ’ Bacterial E-waste Concrete”Collection of Raw Materials”Cement, Fine Aggregate, Coarse Aggregate, E-waste, Bacterial Solution, Carbon Fibre”Study of characteristics of Raw Materials”Mix Design”Batching, mixing, placing, testing (Compression and Split Tensile)”Stage 2’Beam Design Using Staad. Pro”Casting of Conventional and Modified Beam”Flexural Test”Retrofitting”Again-Flexural test”Scanning Electronic Microscope and X-Ray Diffraction AnalysisMATERIALSCementOrdinary-Portland-Cement (OPC) of 53 grade ACC cement conforming to INDIAN-STANDARD 12269:1987 has been used. The physical properties of cement obtained on conducting appropriate test as per INDIAN-STANDARD 267/4831 and the requirements as per INDIAN-STANDARD 4031-1968.Coarse AggregateCrushed stone of 20mm maximum size and retained on INDIAN-STANDARD a sieve has been used. 80% of coarse aggregate passing through 20mm sieve size and 20% of coarse aggregate passingthrough 12.5 mm size was used. The sieve analysis of coarse aggregate conforms to the specifications of INDIAN-STANDARD 383:1970.Fine Aggregate (M-sand)Manufactured sand (M-sand) is used as fine aggregate. The size of manufactured sand (M-Sand) was less than 4.75 mm as per INDIAN-STANDARD 383:1970.E-wasteE-waste is collected from the locally available E-waste discard centre and e-waste recycling Centre; the collected e-waste is non-metallic Printed Circuited Boards (PCB). It is crushed into below 20mm in irregular shape and made them to through INDIAN-STANDARD sieve 20mm, retained on 4.75mm INDIAN-STANDARD sieve were used for replacement of coarse aggregate.AdmixtureIn this investigation we used, Superplasticizer of Master Glenium ACE 30 which is High Range Water Reducer (HRWR) which is produced by the BASF. Master Glenium ACE 30 is second-generation polycarboxylic polymer with early strength gains. It reduces water-content extremely (> 35%) and helps achieve very high early strength.Bacterial SolutionBacterial solution of Bacillus Subtills of 72 hours’ culture is used in this investigation. This consists of Nutrient broth (culture media) with urea supplementation with CaCl2. Solution was prepared at 121 degrees Celsius and which was incubated in an orbital shaker at 130-140 rpm for 72 hours.TABLE 1 Properties of Bacterial SolutionSL PROPERTIES VALUENO 1 Name of Bacteria Bacillus Subtills2 Culture Media Nutrient Broth3 Supplementation Urea & CaCl24 Period of Culture 72 Hours5 Temp. of Culture 121 degreesReinforcing SteelIn this investigation Fe500 HYSD bars of Tata Steel Pvt. Ltd are used for reinforcement. As per design developed by Stadd.Pro using INDIAN-STANDARD 456:2000, Bars of 20mm diameter is used for tension side throughout the length, Bars of 12mm diameter is used for compression side throughout the length, Bars of 8mm diameter is used for stirrups.Fibre Reinforced Polymer SheetsIn this investigation retrofitting for beams is been done by using CFRP sheets. Carbon fiber (alternatively called carbon fiber, graphite fiber or carbon graphite) is a material consisting of extremely thin fibers about 0.005-0.010 mm in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms.MIX PROPORTIONSTABLE 2 Percentage of Constituents in MixesMix Cement Fly F.A C.A E- Water Admixture Total B.SName (%) Ash (%) (%) waste (%) (%) (%) (ml)(%) (%) M60 18.54 7.79 22.18 43.74 – 7.87 0.03 100 -A1 18.54 7.79 22.18 29.74 14 7.87 0.03 100 45A2 18.54 7.79 22.18 28.74 15 7.87 0.03 100 45A3 18.54 7.79 22.18 27.74 16 7.87 0.03 100 45B1 18.54 7.79 22.18 29.74 14 7.87 0.03 100 60B2 18.54 7.79 22.18 28.74 15 7.87 0.03 100 60B3 18.54 7.79 22.18 27.74 16 7.87 0.03 100 60RESULTSCompressive StrengthThe test is performed as per INDIAN-STANDARD cube size of (150mm x 150mm x 150mm). The specimens were tested for 3-days, 7-days and 28-days. The load applied gently at the rate of 140 kilogram/centimetre square per minute till the specimens get failed. Load at the failure divided by area of specimens gives the compressive strength of concrete cube.304800153035FIGURE 1 Graphical Representation of Summarized Compressive StrengthSplit Tensile StrengthThe test is performed as per INDIAN-STANDARD cylinder size of 150mm diameter and 300mm height. These specimens are tested by compression testing machine by providing eccentricity point since in direct tensile strength it is impossible to apply true axial load. The load applied gently at the rate of 140 kilogram/centimetre square per minute till the specimens get failed. Load at which fails divided area of cylinders gives the split tensile strength.23812538735FIGURE 2 Graphical Representation of Summarized Split Tensile StrengthFlexure TestAll the beams are simply supported over the span 2200 mm and tested by using 500 kN loading frame. All the beams were tested by two-point method, dial gauge of least count 0.001 mm is placed on the tension side of the beam to measure the deflection along the length.Load Deflection Behavior1619255715FIGURE 3 Graphical Representation of Load Vs Deflection of all BeamsService load, First crack load, Yield & Ultimate load4572001905FIGURE 4 Graphical Representation of Service load, First crack load, Yield & Ultimate loadDeflection5854701270FIGURE 5 Graphical Representation of Deflection at Service Load, Yield Load and Ultimate LoadSCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE, X- RAY DIFFRACTOMETER AND ULTRA-SONIC PULSE VELOCITY2286001905(a)(b)(c)FIGURE 6 (a) SEM of Conventional Concrete-Surface I & Bacterial Concrete-Surface-II, (b) XRD of Conventional Concrete and (c) XRD of Bacterial ConcreteULTRA-SONIC PULSE VELOCITY0372745(a)(b)FIGURE 7 (a) Graph of UPV Test for M60 Mix and (b) Graph of UPV Test for A1 MixCONCLUSIONBy using Bacterial Solution in concrete and E-waste as partial replacement for Coarse aggregate, increases in Compressive Strength, Split Tensile strength and Flexural strength is observed.E-waste as Coarse aggregate increase, the workability increases.The Non-Metallic E-waste can be used in High Strength Concrete, If the Metallic E-waste is used in concrete there will be a chance of chemical attacks.By the usage of E-waste as a coarse aggregate, the usage of Natural aggregate can be reduced.It is observed that the modified concrete has increased in compressive strength by 8% than the conventional concrete.Use of Bacterial Solution and E-waste as partial replacement for Coarse aggregate in beams mechanical behaviour were higher than conventional beam.CFRP wrapping technique have greater advantages over the deflected beam, it increased loading capacity of beam by 26.67 %.REFERENCESAdisu Damena et-al Critical literature review on improvement of concrete properties by bacterial solution e-ISSN: 2395-0056, p-ISSN: 2395-0072, Volume 04, Issue 12, Dec 2017.B. 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