Will Neo-geography cause the finish of professional GIS

Almost everything that occurs, happens someplace (Longley et al. 2005) and therefore everything happens in geographic space. It could be of critical importance to learn not only what took place so when but where something took place as well.

A GIS is a computer-based system that delivers for the storage space and representation of geographic data. GIS data are mostly stored in a relational repository format, that they can be analysed, combined and viewed as maps or in other data forms.

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In modern times there has been a large upsurge in the use of neo-geography, that is the use of applications such as Google Earth, Google Maps, Bing Maps etc. to generate maps. These maps usually use a base map from one of these applications with spatial data collected and exhibited over it.

The large increase in people using neo-geography has resulted in discussions as to whether neo-geography may cause the end of professional GIS.


GIS is a tool which allows users to visualise data (generally over a map) to be able to see habits and interactions in confirmed area or subject matter. (Kemp (ed. ) 2008) identifies GIS as “fundamentally worried about building shared understandings of the world with techniques that are sturdy, transparent and, most importantly, usable in a range of real world settings. ” Regarding to ESRI a GIS “lets us visualise, question, analyse, interpret, and understand data in lots of ways that reveal associations, patterns, and styles in the form of maps, globes, records, and graphs. ” (GIS DEMYSTIFIED) however claims that is too basic a explanation for such a intricate and far reaching set of tools and says that:

“GIS is, essentially, a central repository of and analytical tool for geographic data gathered from various options. The designer can overlay the information from these various resources by means of themes and tiers, perform comprehensive examination of the data, and portray it graphically for the user. “

It is some type of computer application made to perform a wide range of businesses on geographic information. Geographic information is thought as information about locations on or close to the surface of the Earth, and could be organized in many ways (Goodchild 2009). A GIS includes functions to insight, store, visualise, export, and analyse geographic information.

With GIStechnology, people can compare the locations of various things in order to discover how they relate with each other. For example, using GIS, the same map could include sites that producepollution, such as gas stations, and sites that are delicate to pollution, such aswetlands. Such a map would help people determine which wetlands are most in danger. GIS can use any information that includeslocation. The positioning can be indicated in many different ways, such aslatitudeandlongitude, address, orZIP code. Many different types of information can be likened and contrasted using GIS. The machine range from data about people, such as population, income, or education level. It can include information about the land, such as the location of channels, different sorts ofvegetation, and various kinds ofsoil. It can include information about the sites of factories, farms, and colleges, orstorm drains, streets, and electricpower lines.


Neo-geography is a term that refers to techniques, tools and tactics of geography that contain been traditionally beyond the opportunity of professional geographers and geographic information systems (GIS) professionals (Turner 2006). (Castree, Kitchin & Rogers 2013) illustrate neo-geography as follows:

“The new forms of geographical knowledge enabled by Blogging platforms 2. 0 technologies where in geographical data are sourced through the collective activities of many individuals, and refined and shown through online resources. Neo-geography produces physical outputs that contain not been produced by professionals, but rather through crowdsourcing. These data range between place tags on exclusive globes, to uploaded Gps device traces of locations, to georeferenced communication that may be mapped and combined with other data to set-up large, dynamic, open data models. “

Szott (2006) describes neo-geography as “a diverse set of procedures that operate external, or along with, or in the way of, the routines of professional geographers. ” He continues on to make clear that alternatively than being medically based, methods used in neo-geography tend to be based on more personal and creative tendencies that are “idiosyncratic applications of ‘real’ geographic techniques” which may be of value to the cartographic and geographic sciences but don’t comply with professional practice.

As described in these offer from Castree et al. (2013) neo-geography has been allowed by Blogging platforms 2. 0 systems. Blogging platforms 2. 0 is a term that was created in 2004 and refers to the second era of theWorld Wide Web (TechTerms 2008). While it suggests new version of the World Wide Web the term actually refers to technological improvements in software and changes in how software coders and customers use the web (Fu & Sun 2011). These improvements and changes lead to the benefits of services such as Yahoo Maps, Google Globe, Bing Maps and MapQuest amongst others. These services are referred to as WebGIS. WebGIS is any GIS that uses Web technology (Fu & Sunshine 2011). As these services became popular builders such as Google began to release a credit card applicatoin programming program (API) for their programs. An application programming interface is a couple of programming instructions and standards for accessing a Web-based software application orWeb tool (Roos 2007). Releasing API’s to the general public allowed software builders to create products driven by WebGIS.

The term ‘neo-geography’ was coined by one of the founders of platial. com, Di-Ann Eisner (Maguire 2007). She used neo-geography to describe the ‘new’ geography of overlaying or ‘mashing up’ two or more resources of geographic information. The release of API’s allowed creators and users to efficiently show geographically established data on shareable maps creating what is becoming known as a ‘mashup’ (Turner 2006). This could, for instance, be a Google Maps base layer overlaid with mobile phone coverage. While using Google Maps API a software designer could take the original program (Google Maps) and overlay content (the cellular phone coverage over it) effectively ‘mashing’ the two together.

Web 2. 0 has led to a growth in user-generated content (UGC) of which volunteered geographic content (VGI) is UGC of the geographic character (WEBGIS pg250). VGI is digital spatial data that is created voluntarily by individuals alternatively than by formal data suppliers (webgis pg279 goodchild 2007a). “The availability of mapping APIs like Google’s has facilitated the idea of a ‘mashup’ as the perfect presentation vehicle for VGI by giving a physical backdrop” (Learning From the Public: The Role of Volunteered Geographic Information in Realising a Spatially Enabled Contemporary society). VGI has become a hugely important route by which geographic data is gathered. The desk below taken from WEBGIS (XXXX) shows the geographic information gathered from popular websites.

Example websites and essential geospatial questions asked

Use cases

Geographic information contributed


What places do you know?

Users bring a rectangle and express the area with a few sentences

Constructing a thorough global gazetteer database

Picasa, Panoramio, and Flickr online albums (geotagging)

What photos can you discuss about places you have been?

Users upload geotagged photographs or upload and geotag the photographs by zooming to a spot over a map

Recording and confirming the past and present conditions of places or occasions by using photos


What Gps device data have you got for the streets you bicycle, walk or drive?

Users publish the record logs of their personal Gps navigation receivers

Constructing neighborhood and highway data layers for many areas


Where and what problems would you see that require to be set?

Users report problems such as potholes and graffiti by pulling on and annotating maps

Identifying problems for local authorities

Twitter (GeoTweeting)

Whats occurring here?

Users survey personal activities, other occurrences, or happenings at their locations

Monitoring and confirming activities


Neo-geography has caused a large change in the manner people view and use maps. The


  • Focus on data quality
  • Focus on evaluation that gis’s can perform, neogeo can’t do this – only really displys at the mo – planning
  • Also focus on fact that most neogeo is built on the gis basis.
  • These reasons neogeo will not end prof GIS

GIS has a huge amount of uses including:

  • Managing business activities
  • Planning
  • Emergency services
  • Land management
  • Transport
  • Utility operations

Benefits of GIS include:

  • Fundamentals of GIS (intro to GIS first few pages)
  • GIScience – the professional arm?


  • Geography (use demystified, use GIS: an release, use gis and knowledge)( The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) running a business PDF)
  • They will describe gis from geography
  • How much gis used now in daily life, business etc (yahoo gis in daily life)( Principles AND THEORIES OF GIS RUNNING A BUSINESS)( The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) running a business PDF)
  • Mention neogeo; use intro to neogeo try to rehash what it is in a few lines with examples

The hardware and software functions of an GIS are the following:

  • Acquisition and verification
  • Compilation
  • Storage
  • Updating and changing
  • Management and exchange
  • Manipulation
  • Retrieval and presentation
  • Analysis and combination

These actions are applied to the data placed in the GIS. All this data is georeferenced i. e. associated with a location on the earth’s surface by using a coordinate system. Information can be mounted on locations

(Heywood, Cornelius & Carver 2011) tell us that in general, the meanings of GIS cover three main components:

  • It is your computer system comprising of both hardware and software,
  • It uses spatially referenced or physical data and,
  • Carries out various management and evaluation tasks.

Hardware can be used to collect and source data. Evaluation of the info can then be performed using the program. By providing spatial research of suitably coded data it is possible to provide striking, visible representations of data. These representations can often reveal patterns and trends that may otherwise have gone unnoticed without the use of GIS techniques.