AMITY INSTITUTE OF FORENSIC SCIENCES AMITY UNIVERSITY UTTAR PRADESH,NOIDA SUBSTANCES ABUSE AND THEIR PREVENTIVE MEASURES Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of science (Honours) in Forensic sciences19691358572500 BY AYUSHI GARG Enrollment number – A5905918227 Batch ” 2018-2021 Supervisor Dr Amrita Das ( assistant professor) Amity institute of forensic science DRUGSDrugs are classified in two ways that is chemically and legally . Chemical classification of drugs is according to when the drugs affect the brain and the body of the individual.
This includes stimulants, halucinogens, depressants and opioids. DEA legally classifies the drugs into schedules i.e schedule ( 1, 2,3,4,5,) which is based on the medical usage and their dependence and potential for the abuse . Chemical Classifications of Drugs Drugs which act on the central nervous system or which can alter the feelings and the perceptions of the individual are classified according to their psychological and physical effects on the body. Drugs are listed below:-Depressant ” These are the drugs which suppress or slow down the activity or function of the brain and which directly affect the central nervous system of the brain which causes the calming effect in the body .
This category of drugs includes barbiturates which further includes phenobarbital ,thiopental and butalbital. This also includes benzodiazepines which further includes alprazolam, clonazepam, lorazepam, diazepam midazolam and gamma . These depressants are also taken so that to relieve anxiety attacks and to promote healthy sleep and also for managing seizure activities. Stimulants – Drugs which speed up the activity of the central nervous system of the brain are called as stimulants. Stimulants has the property of making you feel energetic , focus on your work and be alert. that accelerate the activity of the central nervous system. Stimulants can make you feel energetic, focused, and alert. these drugs can make you feel nervous , anxious or annoyed . These drugs include amphetamine, cocaine ,crack cocaine, methamphetamine. After marijuana stimulants like ecstasy and methamphetamine which are derived stimulants of amphetamine are mostly used over the world according to the World Drug Report which is given by United Nations office on drugs and crime. Hallucinogens ” The drugs which alter the opinion , real life and space by acting on the central nervous system are called as hallucinogens . These drugs are also called psychedelics . They act in a way like letting you imagine the things which do not exist in the real life . Psilocybin ,lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) ,peyote, and dimethyl tryptamine ( DMT) are some of the hallucinogenic drugs. Opioids – Drugs which affect the body through the receptors known as opioids receptors. These are the drugs that act through the opioid receptors. Opioids are prescribed as medicines World wide which is used to cure pain and the cough . Drugs in these categories include heroine , morphine , hydrocodone , codeine , fentanyl , methadone , buprenorphine and oxycodone. Inhalants – Drugs which have the characteristic feature of consuming them through the property of inhalation. At the room temperature many of the substances of this category occurs in the vapour form . Many of these drugs are found in the house itself therefore they are abused mostly by the children and the adoloscents . Paint, thinners, markers,, gasoline, glue, pen ink, and some of the like wise inhalants are easily available to teenage and children which can be abused by them . These drugs directly enter the blood stream by inhalation. Cannabis – Drug which is derived from the plant and is used world-wide is the drug called as cannabis . Cannabinoid receptors help these drug to work in the brain . It occurs in various forms such as ganja, bhang , Charas and hashish oil and is abused by the individuals . New psychoactive substances – This category of drugs are designed to elude the current stated drug laws. This includes drugs such as synthetic cannabinoid, ketamine, synthetic cathinones and also some plant- derived drugs like as khat , kratom fall in this category. Legal Classification Of Drugs According to the Controlled substances act there were five classification of drugs which were established . There were 5 schedule which were established . According to the schedule 1 the drugs which has high potential for its abusage and which is not even acceptable in the medical treatment in United States are included in this schedule. These drugs includes ecstasy , GHB, mescaline,, cannabis , LSD and methaquolone . According to the schedule 2 the drugs which can cause severe psychological or any kind of physical dependence and which is acceptable in the medical treatment which some restrictions in the United States fall in this schedule . According to this schedule 3 the drugs which have potential less than the drugs covered in above two schedule for abusage and which are being included in the medical treatment in United states but can also cause some less physical dependency and higher psychological problems are included in this schedule . Drugs which fall in this schedule are anabolic steroids, ketamine and buprenorphine. According to the schedule 4 the drugs which have lower capability of abusage comparative to the drugs and any other substances are included in this schedule . These drugs are acceptable in the use of medical treatment in the United States and by their use they can cause some physical dependence. The drugs in this schedule includes benzodiazepines, tramadol etc. According to the schedule 5 the drugs which lower potential of abuse compared to the drugs and any other substances and which are accepted in the medical treatment in United states. Drugs which are included in this schedule are diphenoxylate, lacosamide and pregabalin . Effects of drugs Drug abuse is always been a matter of concern for both of the individuals health and for the better society . It can affect in three ways such as the direct influence on the body of the individual consuming the drug, drug tendency for inducing dependence on the body and the effect of drug usage on families, society and the communities . Direct effect on the human body Acute toxicity Through multiple exposures or through single exposure under 24 hours has a significant effect on the body . Ratio of lethal dose to therapeutic dose is measured . Drug such as cocaine when taken in low quantity produces euphoria , and reduced fatigue , and also the increased perception of mental acuity . Side effects such as irritability, panic, paranoia, repetitive stereotyped behaviour and seizure are undesirable effects occur when taken in higher doses . Long term health problems The long term effect of drug on a body can due to the direct drug effect on body or through the process of administration of drug . For example a drug such as marijuana when smoked causes disease such as severe cough, bronchitis, and lung cancer and its long term effect is it reduces the life expectancy by 10 times . Drugs which are taken intravenously damage the body through the path they travel in the body . Drug such as heroine when ingested in the body causes the harm such as damaging the blood vessels of body . Drug such as marijuana can cause depression , anxiety in the individual . 379095000TENDENCY OF DRUG TO INDUCE DEPENDENCE Drug tolerance Drug tolerance is a term which describe that increasing the doses of the drug rather than before so that to get a desired amount of effect in the body that an individual demands . While these increasing doses leaves a chronic effect on the body . The first point which is of concern is that the drugs when taken in small amount affects the body but leaves a less harm to the body of individual but when these drugs are taken in large quantities that is when the tolerance increases there is more damage to the body . HiGj