Development of safe systems of workA.P1 Explain the legislative duties of employers and employees in the current legislation.The most important legislation influencing the management of health and safety in all sorts of establishments across all areas is the Health and Safety at Work is Act 1974 (HSWA). This Act gives an outline to guarantee the health and safety of all employees in work activities. It also offers the health and safety of those that may be influenced by work actions.
Consistent with the legislation Health and Safety at Work, Act 1974 the responsibilities of the employer to employees are: Duties of the employer:Guarantee that persons not in their employment are not exposed to health and safety risksOffer safe systems of work including handling storage and transportProvide information, instructions and trainingEnsure the health and safety of all employeesNot charge for anything provided for safetyCo-operate and consult with employees on safety measuresEmployers should consult with health and safety union representatives during working hours.
Employers of more than five workers must also have a written health and safety plan and explain to their employees.It must be ensured that persons who are not employed who are likely to be affected by the work actions are not exposed to the risks to their health and safety.If vulnerable people, such as young people or the elderly, can be affected, the employer has more responsibilities.The employer must inform everyone of the responsibilities associated with the use of any equipment at the workplace and ensure that it does not give rise to any other risk.Control and avoid harmful, toxic or aggressive emissions to the air.Carefully follow the information of designers, manufacturers and suppliers to ensure that articles and building elements are safe.Informing each employee to take care of themselves and anyone who may be affected by their activities in the work environment.Employers should work with their employees on all health and safety issues.Employers must educate their workers to use equipment and articles correctly in accordance with health and safety rules.Duties of employees The employees’ responsibilities of this primary legislation including Strictly follow the instructions and trainingTaking part in to toolbox talks Co-operate with the employerWalk on the marking area Act with due care for themselves and othersDo not use damage equipment which can endanger their health and safety or othersBoth employers and employees have health and safety obligations under current legislation. Take care of the health and safety of all staff and any person may be at risk by acting or selling errors at the workplace.Compliance with any obligations or obligations imposed on its employer or any other person in accordance with any of the present legislative requirements.Communicate with your employer to ensure that all responsibilities or requirements are metRespect any duty or obligation imposed on his employer or any other individual by or under any of the present legislative requirements.Communicate with an employer to enable that any responsibilities or requirements to be achieved accordingly. Another one is CDM Regulations (Construction Design and Management Regulations 2015) .This regulation is used to ensure that design for the building makes it safety to construct, use and maintain.The phase to be followed in this regulation are:Pre ” construction information gives the client duties to provide all information and development to the other duty holders. Safety plan covers the arrangements, the site rules and specific measures that involves particular risks.The health and safety file are retained so that any future work such as maintenance, cleaning, refurbishment, adaptation or demolition can be examined with regard to any risks.CDM 2015 is for three principal partiesThe clientAll designersAll contractorsClient is an organization or individual having a construction project carried out in connection with a business (domestic and commercial). The CDM regulations apply to both domestic and commercial clients. Duties of clientEnsure that they make suitable arrangementsEnsure these arrangements are maintained throughout the projectProvide all pre-constructions informationEnsure the construction phases such as the health and safety plan are in placePrincipal designer and designers are the organization or individual that prepares or modifies a design for any part of a construction project Duties of principal designer:Assist the client in identifying, obtaining and collating the pre-construction informationProvide pre-construction information to other designers, the principal contractor and contractorsEnsure that any designers they appoint have the relevant skills, knowledge and experiencePrepare the health and safety filePrincipal contractor is the contractor in overall control of the construction phases on projects with more than one contractor. Duties of contractorsThe planning, management, monitoring and co-ordination of the projectOrganizing co-operation between contractorsProviding a suitable site inductionConsulting and engaging with workersPreventing any unauthorized access onto the construction siteA.P2 Explain how the application of health and safety related legislation controls health and safety in construction.The application of health and safety correlated legislation controls protects workers from workplace hazards help avoid injuries, illnesses and incidents help employers provide workers with safe and healthful working conditions. For a good control and prevent hazards, employers would:Include workers, who have the best understanding of the conditions that create hazards and perceptions into how they can be controlled.Evaluate and controlling hazardsElaborate and use a hazard control plan to guide and implement controls according to the plan.Develop plans with will ensure to protect workers throughout emergencies and nonroutine actions.Evaluate the effectiveness of controls to determine are they continue to provide protection, or different controls may be more effective. Identify control optionsBefore selecting any control options, it is important to solicit workers input on their viability and efficiency. Sets of information exists to help employers investigate options for controlling identified hazards.Collect, organize, and review information with workers to se what types of hazards may be present and which workers may be exposed. Information available in the workplace can include:Review sources such as OSHA standards and guidance, industry consensus standards, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) publications, manufacturers literature, and engineering reports to identify potential control measures. Keep current on relevant information from trade or professional associations.Investigate control measures used in other workplaces and determine whether they would be effective at your workplace.Get input from workers who may be able to suggest and evaluate solutions based on their knowledge of the facility, equipment, and work processes.Select controls Employers must select the controls that are the most important and effective.Eliminate or control all serious hazards instantly.Use interim controls while you develop and implement longer-term solutions.Select controls according to a hierarchy that emphasizes engineering solutions including elimination or substitution first, followed by safe work practices, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment.Avoid selecting controls that may directly or indirectly introduce new hazards. Examples include exhausting contaminated air into occupied work spaces or using hearing protection that makes it difficult to hear backup alarms.Review and discuss control options with workers to ensure that controls are feasible and effective.Use a combination of control options when no single method fully protects workers. Develop and update a hazard control planA hazard control plan describes how the selected controls will be implemented. An effective plan will report serious hazards first. Interim controls can be necessary to ensure effective long-term control of hazards. It is important to effecting the control plan and periodically verify that controls remain effective.List the hazards needing controls in order of priority.Allocate responsibility for installing or implementing the controls to a specific person or persons with the power or ability to implement the controls.Establish a target completion date. Verify the effectiveness of controls after they are installed or implemented.Select controls to protect workers during nonroutine operations and emergenciesThe hazard control plan should include provisions to protect workers during nonroutine operations and foreseeable emergencies. Depending on your workplace, these could include fires and explosions, chemical releases, hazardous material spills, unplanned equipment shutdowns, infrequent maintenance activities, natural and weather disasters; workplace violence; terrorist or criminal attacks; disease outbreaks or medical emergencies. Prior to initiating such work, review job hazard analyses and job safety analyses with any workers involved and notify others about the nature of the work, work schedule, and any necessary precautions.Develop procedures to control hazards that may occur during safety work during maintenance and repairs Elaboration and modification of hazard control plans that may occur in emergencies.Procure equipment needed to control emergency-related hazards. Granting responsibilities for the implementation of the Emergency Plan. Provide adequate protection during emergency situations.Implement selected controls in the workplaceOnce hazard prevention and control measures have been identified this must be implemented according to the hazard control plan.Implementing Hazard control measures in line with the priorities set out in the control plan. Where resources are limited, measures based on the hazard classification priorities established during hazard identification and assessment are applied. They have the duty to protect workers from serious hazards. Immediate implementation of mild and efficient measures, general maintenance, removal of hazards, regardless of the degree of danger they involve.Follow up to confirm that controls are effectiveTo ensure that control measures are and remain effective employers must inspect and evaluate controls once they are installed track progress and verify implementation by asking the following questions:Have all control measures been implemented according to the hazard control plan?Have engineering controls been properly installed and tested?Have workers been trained so that they understand the controls, including how to operate engineering controls, safe work practices, and PPE use requirements?Perform periodic inspections to confirm that the technical controls work as designed. Evaluate control measures to determine whether they are effective or need to be modified. Employee involvement in the assessment of controls. If the controls are not effective, then it is necessary to identify and implement additional control measures that will give you adequate protection.Confirmation of observance of working policies, administrative control and policies for the use of personal protective equipment.Performing preventive maintenance of equipment, installations, and orders to prevent incidents from equipment failure.