Outline the health and safety policies and procedures of the work setting.
Policies and procedures are in place to help protect children and adults within the setting. In the UK early year’s settings must comply with the statutory framework for the Early Years Foundation stage (EYFS). This covers all aspects of the welfare of children in early year’s settings. These include:
Safeguarding – Having up to date policies which are available to parents and carers Suitable people – Making sure everyone is suitable to work with children (skills, training, knowledge and qualifications) Suitable premises and equipment – making sure there is indoor and outdoor space and all equipment is fit for purpose.
Documentation – Maintaining records about the children, staff / provider, premises, risk assessments and OFSTED registration. Record of policies and procedures.
Settings must also comply with legislations which set out the legal requirements which also help keep everyone in the setting safe in all different situations they may face.
Here are some examples of the main legislations relevant to childcare settings:
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974
Kitemarking CE product safety marking (product safety markings) Motor Vehicles (wearing of seatbelts)(Amendment ) Regulation 2006 COSHH Regulation 2002 (Labeling of hazardous substances)
Reporting of injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrence Regulations 1995 Childcare Act 2006 , Regulation of care (Scotland) and National Care Standards Smoking ban
Food hygiene 2006
Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992
Identify the lines of responsibility and reporting for health and safety in the work setting
Within settings, designated people will be responsible for different areas. The ultimate responsibility lies with the manager. Other people within the setting will be in charge other things such as the day to day running , implementation of its policy and practices and specific areas or rooms. A poster showing staff names and their responsibilities will be displayed in the setting on. Everyone has a responsibility to promote safe working practices and maintain a healthy, safe and secure workplace. Policies and procedures along with regulations will ensure people within the setting do this. Within the setting staff will be aware of the person they should report any concerns they have to regarding any health and safety issues. Staff will record any significant information such as medication, incidents or accidents.
1.3 Explain what risk assessment is and how this is managed in the work setting
A risk assessment identifies potential risks which could cause harm. Within a setting it would be impossible to prevent every single minor incident however care must be taken to ensure the children within a setting are protected. It is possible to prevent or control most risks.
A risk assessment must be taken into consideration for each particular activity or situation and will look at the possible harm or hazard to people or an organization.
Settings will implement risk assessments procedures as part of day to day routine. They must ensure proper checks are made. These include checking indoor and outdoor space, materials and equipment. Any trips or outings would also be assessed. They will take note of any hazards. Significant hazards must be dealt with taking into consideration the number of people who could be involved.
Risk assessments take into consideration things which may seem harmless or go unnoticed. Risk assessments look at all different areas of the setting from the equipment within the rooms to the security of the building.
For some activities risk assessment may not be necessary each time as they carry low level risk which is unlikely to change however they would still be assessed on a regular basis, such as weekly. If a trip is made outside the setting this must be risk assessed in advance.
Within the setting the manager and staff must know who is responsible for carrying out the risk assessments and who is responsible for different areas. They must also understand how the risks assessments will be displayed and how they will be implemented.
Outcome 2 be able to recognise risk and hazards in the work setting and during off site visits
2.1. Explain why a safe but challenging environment is important for children and young people
It is important for children and young people develop through exploring and trying new experiences. They learn their own limits and must be allowed to push their own level of skill. However they must be supported to ensure this is done in a safe positive environment. Children, unlike adults, have not yet developed the skills and judgment to always make the safe decisions. It is the staff’s responsibility to judge what is safe based on the child’s age and ability. For example a one year old child would not be safe to attempt going down a flight of stairs even though they may try to do so. There will always be a risk however at some point the child must be challenged and learn to walk down the stairs when it is appropriate to the child’s age and ability. If they are not challenged they will grow into an adult who lacked everyday skills and activities.
2.2. Identify the differences between risk and hazard
A hazard is described as something which has potential to cause harm and a risk is the likely impact of the hazard associated with the activity.
For example a bottle of Milton cleaner is kept in a cupboard within a room at nursery could be a risk; the hazard is that a child could take the cleaner and drink it, however the risk is unlikely to cause harm because the sink cupboard has child safety locks on them. The risk is controlled and a child would not be able to access the cupboard
2.3. Identify potential hazards to the health, safety and security of children or young people in the work setting
Every activity and setting carries risk due to hazards. To ensure the children enjoy the full value of the setting or activity hazards and risks should be identified and reduced or eliminated if necessary.
The health, security and security of the children or young people are dependent on the actions carried out to minimize the risk of the hazard within setting or off site.
In many settings they will have a person who is appointed to deal with health and safety legislation and policies and procedures.
Here is a table showing the different types of potential hazards and examples:
Outcome 3 Know what to do in the event of a non medical incident or emergency
3.1. Identify non medical incidents and emergencies that may occur in the work setting
There are lots of non-medical incidents and non medical emergencies that happen within the setting. Here are some examples:
Unauthorised person in building
Water / electric cut
Power and heating failure
3.2. Outline the actions to take in response to the following situations:
(b) Security incidents
(c) emergency incidents
Within settings they will have procedures in place to deal with emergency situations. Settings will have drills and practices and everyone will be aware of procedures to follow.
Close doors and windows and get the children out of the premises by nearest exit Get the registers / signing in sheets
Do not leave children unattended
Do not stop to put the fire out
Call the fire brigade as soon as possible on 999
Give the operator your telephone number and ask for the fire service Clearly state there is a fire and give the address you are at. Ensure the operator repeats the address
The manager will check the building to make sure everyone is out Check registers / signing in sheets to ensure everyone is accounted for Do not enter until it has been confirmed as safe.
Settings should never have an unknown or unauthorised person within the premises. Logs will be kept for signing in or out of the building and most settings will have secure entrance which requires a code or card to enter. If a person is seen in the building that is unknown they should be asked for identification. If they cannot provide this the manager should be informed. A member of staff should stay with the unauthorised person until the manager comes.
All staff will be aware of procedures for emergencies. Warning signals may need to be triggered immediately, before advising others of the incident. The manager or person in charge should be informed and local services (E.g. Police) contacted if necessary. If needed bring the first aid kit. Contact anyone who will need to be informed e.g. parents. During any emergency everyone should stay calm. Logs should be made of any emergency incidents.
Outcome 4 Know what to do in the event of a child or young person becoming ill or injured
4.1 Identify the sign and symptoms which may indicate that a child or young person is injured or unwell
SIGNS are changes which can be seen which may suggest illness and diseases SYMPTOMS changes in the body such as feeling sick or having headache
Children will normally let you know when they are unwell. They may behave differently or tell you their symptoms such as they feel sick or have pain. They may show obvious signs they are unwell such as vomiting, looking pale or having red cheeks
Younger children and babies may not be able to tell you they are unwell.
Common signs and symptoms of illness / injury are:
• Loss of appetite
• Constant crying / cries differently
• Floppiness / lack of energy
• Dry nappies
• Breathing difficulties
• Cuts / bruises
• Redness / blotchy areas
4.2. Identify circumstances when children or young people may need urgent medical attention
Urgent medical attention should be sought for the following:
Asthma Attack when inhaler has not worked
Floppy / unresponsive child
Child is unable to swallow
Lips or skin changed colour to grey blue or purple
Wounds that will not stop breathing
Burns or scalds
If after a head injury the child shows confusion / wobbling, headache, vomiting and sight problems Suspicion that a child has meningitis
Dehydration or lethargic
Raised lumps accompanied by swelling of the mouth or noes
Severe vomiting or diarrhea
Very high temperature
A deep cut which needs stiches or glue
Animal bites which break the skin
Bites or stings with swelling which make the child ill
4.3. Outline own role and responsibilities in the event of a child or young person requiring urgent medical attention
As a member of staff who is training, my main responsibility is to inform a qualified member of staff who would know what to do in an emergency. I would ensure I assisted in any way such as calling for the emergency services or bringing the first aid kit. I would also help reassure any other children in the area.
A qualified member of staff is able to confidently carry out any actions required and prevent the effects of the injury or illness becoming worse.
If I was alone with a child and unable to get anyone I would stay calm and follow the actions below:
Assess the situation – is it safe, who is involved and see what has happened Check the child is breathing – if not take action
Ensure any other children in the area are ok
Find out what is wrong – call ambulance if necessary
Provide immediate first aid
Notify parents / carers
Talk to the child / children after the incident
Outcome 5 Be able to follow the work setting procedures for reporting and recording accidents, incidents, emergencies and illnesses
5.1. Describe the reporting procedures for accidents, incidents, emergencies and illnesses
All settings will have their own procedures for recording and reporting incidents, accidents, emergencies and illnesses.
Accidents or illnesses
If a child is seriously injured, the Health and Safety Executive must be informed.
Ofsted define serious injuries as:
• Broken bones or a fracture
• Loss of consciousness
• Pain that is not relieved by simple pain killers
• Acute confused state
• Persistent, severe chest pain or breathing difficulties
• Dislocation of any major joint including the shoulder, hip, knee, elbow or spine
• Loss of sight (temporary or permanent)
• Chemical or hot metal burn to the eye or any penetrating injury to the eye
•Injury resulting from an electric shock or electrical burn leading to unconsciousness, or requiring resuscitation; or requiring admittance to hospital for more than 24 hours
• Any other injury leading to hypothermia, heat induced illness or unconsciousness; or requiring resuscitation; or requiring admittance to hospital for more than 24 hours
• Unconsciousness caused by asphyxia or exposure to harmful substances or biological agent
• Medical treatment, or loss of consciousness arising from absorbtion of any substance by inhalation, ingestion or through the skin
• Medical treatment where there is a reason to believe that this resulted from exposure to a biological agent, or its toxins, or infected material
Settings must tell Ofsted and child protection agencies about any serious accidents, injuries, illnesses or death of an adult or child on the premises.
The EYFS states:
Providers must notify Ofsted and Local Children’s Protection Agencies of any serious accident or injury to, or serious illness of, or the death of, any child whilst in their care, and act on any advice given. An early year’s provider, who, without any reasonable excuse, fails to comply with this
requirement, commits an offence
Settings will keep a signed record of all incidents or accidents to the children. The manager will describe which incidents will be recorded. Settings should always include recording for bullying, fighting and any security incidents. The details should be clear and include as much information as possible. This should include details of people involved, people who witnessed it and details of what happened.
Outcome 6 be able to follow infection control procedures
6.1. Outline procedures for infection control in own work setting
Within the nursery setting we follow rules and advice aimed at preventing the spread of disease and infection.
Hand washing and sanitizing is the most important procedure we follow. Both children and staff are encouraged to wash their hands often. Hands are always washed after using the toilet or changing a nappy, before handling or eating food, after messy play or playing outdoors. Soap dispensers, warm water and paper towels are available in all of the rooms. Soap dispensers are used rather than bars of soap as bars of soaps are likely to spread germs. Diagrams showing hand washing procedures are up next to the sink in the staff toilet. Hand sanitizing stations are on the walls at the entrance and in the rooms of the nursery.
When changing nappies, staff wears disposable aprons and gloves. After the child has been changed the changing mat is disinfected and wiped down. Dirty nappies are placed in a nappy bag and into a nappy disposal bin which have clinical waste bags in. The bins are emptied at the end of every day and the bags are taken to a secure locked area outside building to await collection.
The nursery follows strict rules for food hygiene. For younger children, bottles are sterilized and formula milk is made fresh for each feed. Any leftover milk at the end of the feed is thrown away. The formula is made up with fresh boiled tap water and cooled in a jug of cold water. The children’s dinner is made on site by another area of the college. The food is transported in a sealed container and taken to the kitchen in the nursery. Whilst food is being served / eaten, staff wear disposable aprons and hair nets. After lunch has been served and eaten the tables are disinfected and the floors are swept and mopped. If anyone in the nursery has sickness or diarrhea, they are not allowed to return to the setting until they have been free from the symptoms for 48 hours. Parents/guardians are advised if there are known cases of infection for example foot and mouth. All the children have their own cups and dummies which are washed regularly to prevent any illness spreading. The nursery has cleaners who come in every evening and clean the whole nursery. During the day staff clean as they go and have cleaning Rota’s in place Toys and play areas are cleaned regularly. Spillage packs are also available for vomit / blood / urine etc. The nursery also has laundry facilities for things like blankets, face clothes and bedding.
6.2 Describe personal protective clothing that is used to prevent spread of infection
Personal protective clothing includes disposable gloves, masks and single-use disposable plastic aprons.
Personal protective clothing is used when coming into contact with body fluids. For example when changing a nappy, cleaning up vomit or dealing with blood. The protective clothing provides physical barriers that prevent potentially infectious materials coming the skin, mouth, nose, or eyes. This can prevent the spread of infection from person to person.
Outcome 7 Know the work setting’s procedures for receiving, storing and administering medicines
7.1 Identify the procedures of the work setting governing the receipt, storage and administration of medicines
Settings have clear guidelines for receiving, storing and administration of medicine. When receiving medication parents must give written permission and inform staff of any medicine already given to the child. The parents must also be informed of any medicine which has been administered. The settings will implement policies which include:
•What medication they will administrate – E.g. only prescribed or needed on a regular basis
•Procedures for who will administer medication – all staff or only the manager
•Storage of medicine – safe, appropriate place out of reach of children
•Recording administration of the medication – time needed, time given etc.
•Training for staff (including specialist training for medical need)
•Action to take if a child becomes ill or has a long standing condition
7. 2 Explain how the procedures of the work setting protect both children and young people and practitioners.
Procedures within the work setting protect children, young people and practitioners.
Procedures ensure everyone is aware of the process which must be followed for example how to correctly receive, store and administer medicine. Giving medicine must be given correctly because if it not it could result in taking too much medicine or something the child is allergic to. This could be harmful towards the child. Procedures make sure it is clear for everyone who needs to be aware of allergies and medications. Communication with parents to ensure dosage and times for medicines are known and documented. All staff must follow the strict policies to protect themselves against allegation or incorrectly administering. If procedures are not followed staff may face dismissal, especially if a child ends up very ill.