Institute of Geographical Information SystemsSchool of Civil & Environmental EngineeringGIE463-Land Information SystemComplex Engineering ProblemLand Record Management System-Evaluation and Comparison(Second Stage)Fahad Tariq 190491ProblemEvaluate the land record management system (LRMS) of a technological advanced country. Discuss key features of LRMS of the assigned country and evaluate its LRMS for strengths and weaknesses.Switzerland:Brief introduction and history: Switzerland is a mountainous country lies in central Europe (46.8182° N, 8.2275°) E. it is spread over the area of 41,285 kmІ. Switzerland has a complex government system and is a semi-direct democratic federal republic.
In 2018, its population has reached to 8,544,034.its official language is French and German. Switzerland is best known for being blessed with natural beauty like mountains, lakes, rivers, spring, valleys, high peak mountains and a lot more. It is considered as heaven on earth Since we know that social and economic stability is greatly concerned with land related issues. For this purpose, reliable framework, responsible and transparent land administration as well as strong land management principles are important.
In Switzerland, land management system has been evolved over hundreds of years. Now they have developed their system strong enough that land is owned by nature and person before law. For well-developed land record management system, modern surveying techniques with high precision instruments had been used that was the basis for establishing modern land management paradigm. During World War II, the methodologies, techniques and processes for land improvement were at high level. Land information system in Switzerland:For sustainable development of any state or country, land management and recording system plays a key role that can’t be ignored. For this stability to achieve, a reliable land administration system, efficient land management system, free and easy access of land with its related information and a strong legal framework is mandatory. Switzerland is among those stabilized countries who efficiently developed their land recording and management system in proper way. Switzerland is a densely populated country but has successfully managed to enjoy not only political stability but a well-developed land policies as well.Land reform in Switzerland:The first land reforms in the territory of Switzerland took place in the reigns of Charles the Great and Otto the Great who played also an important role here in Rome. The land ownership developed over the centuries and nowadays we have a system where the land is owned by natural and persons equal before the law. There is no state property because authorities are considered as normal legal persons. The main feature of the Swiss reform is to tie environmentally friendly farming to a reduction in price supports. Subsidies are given for environ- mental farming and not as a function of the quantity produced Need of Land management system in Switzerland:Land management includes all aspects related to land such as land use land planning land rights, sustainable consumption of resources etc. certain policies and guidelines have been developed for land management system in Switzerland These guidelines proved to be feasible but not applied. The Swiss Approach of Integrated Land Administration and Land Management to manage the territory, protect the environment, evaluate the cultural heritage because this tool for resolution of conflicting demands to land fell into oblivion. To correct this, in many new laws e.g. the law on the national highways, the law on the national railways, the law on the airports, the laws on physical planning, the possibility to use modern integral ameliorations to prepare the land resources for respective projects was introduced. The legal cascade for land development in Switzerland isDirect purchase Integral ameliorationExpropriation. The necessity of land management tools to achieve sustainable development is obvious. Still there are some obstacles to be overcome and works hard to improve the situation.Land Registry in Switzerland:Land registry system in Switzerland has been established for making real estate market more transparent and also include planning for land plots and protect the right of land owners. Switzerland’s land registry system is so much efficient that every single land parcels has been surveyed and recorded in Swiss land registry. The Land Register in Switzerland has two main functions:The registration of ownership of a property.The public listing of properties and their owners.The main objective of land registry of Switzerland is to safeguard the land ownerships and land rights. A computerize record is created that is easily accessible for the public use and also legally binding information about every plot of land in Switzerland. Switzerland is a first country who made such a great land registry system and it is estimates that the whole country’s record will be available online by 2020 which is no doubt a great achievement in field of land record management system. Cadastral System of Switzerland:Cadaster is a comprehensive public register that contains details about the ownership of real property and other related details such as boundaries, tax assessment housing and building properties etc.The cadastres of Switzerland had already been established in the pre-Christian era for the purpose of collecting land ownership taxes. The cadastral system in Switzerland began in the early 19th century. It was established under the influence of Napoleon. The official Swiss Federal Land Registry has been operational since 1912 and since then all land ownership throughout the country has been secured by official entry into the land register Switzerland’s Cadastral System ensures that all the land parcels are measured and recorded with assigned owner. For updated records, cadaster surveys are being made to the site in which data is collected to the related plots and all the other changes made on the sites are surveyed to modify the previous record to the updated version. many geographic information systems, for example for district, urban and zoning plans, are based on cadastral survey data, which in their entirety form a national product for which uniform standards have been defined.In Switzerland, there is a proper legislation known as Public-law Restrictions (PLR) on landownership which has defined some rules and regulations regarding to land use and landownership. According to PLR, land owner can’t use the land as he/she wish because rule have been made and he/she is bound to use the land within the limits set by PLR.Cadastre of Public-law Restrictions of Landownership (PLR):According to Cadastre of Public-law Restrictions of Landownership (PLR), no one who owns land in Switzerland can simply use it as he wishes. One is strictly bound to follow and accept the conditions imposed by parliament and authorities. And this means complying with a multitude of acts, ordinances and official restrictions so-called Public Law Restrictions on Landownership Rights (PLR). Without implementation of PLR, it has not been particularly easy to obtain all the information relevant to a specific parcel of land. Because a variety of authorities may be involved in the restrictions, a time-consuming trek from office to office is often needed. But now the PLR cadastre offers a solution. In this new cadastre, the most important restrictions that apply to each parcel of land are compiled in a reliable and transparent manner. The PLR cadastre is being introduced in two phases. By 2015 first five cantons will have introduced the PLR cadastre. The remaining cantons will introduce the Cadastre by 2019. The content of the PLR Cadastre is shown below Annual taxation system in Switzerland:Swiss taxation system is based on three levels according to country’s federal structure. These levels are following:National levelCantonal levelCommunal level The largest portion of taxes is levied by the cantons and municipalities, resulting in intense tax competition at these two levels. There is a separate law for each canton and all the taxes are collected by single authorityTax is also applied on agricultural land. Tax wealth is calculated by multiplying tax value with assets for which the tax is payable, in this case agricultural production, machinery and building use for agricultural purpose Land administrations system of Switzerland:Land administration is a system or an organization in which rules are made related to land tenure and landownership. It also determine, record, maintain and disseminate information related to ownership. It support the implementation of land policies and also secure rights in land. Land administration aims to generate revenues and tax collection that is helpful for the development of economy and whole country. In land administration system there is a proper official machinery in which each official person has assigned specific post and responsibility that helps to make land management system more transparent and efficient.Land administration system is maintained by cantons in Switzerland. Land record management system has reached to its developed state in Switzerland where there is a systematic way adopted to manage and administer the whole system of land records and also maintain and secure the rights declared by law for landowners tenants , shareholders and all those entities that have some connection to the land. Swiss land governance:Land governance is the process according to which decisions are made regarding to land access and land use. Land governance deals with policies, procedures, processes as well as implicated institutions, which are decisive for the management of land and for land tenure, for land ownership and for the access to land. Land governance provide guidelines for sustainable tenure of land, forests and fisheries. Sometimes conflicts arise due to land ownerships that results due to insecurity of land buy/purchase. These conflicts are resolved by the virtue of land governance that involve several institutions like land administration and other officials.Spatial Data Infrastructures in Switzerland:SDI is a process or a technique in which any kind of data such as geographical data, metadata, spatial data, data of different companies or organizations, users and tools are interactively connected in order to use spatial data in an efficient and flexible way.This is one of the best technique for interaction of user with required data. NSDI technique is also implemented in Switzerland and it is in its mature stage. The Swiss NSDI can be regarded as a joint initiative of public administrations of all levels together with associations and private companies in Switzerland. The Swiss NSDI approach can be characterized as truly national. Many NSDI-building blocks have reached a significant level of operationality.Switzerland produce massive amount of data. This data is distributed in different institutions and organizations. Public have given authority to use the data according to their requirements but there are some policies sand limitations to use the data to ensure the security of private data. Committees have been established to look after the processing of whole infrastructure and other activities related to SDI There are several Public-private partnerships (PPPs) on the regional levels. In addition, many federal and cantonal institutions, municipalities, interest groups and private partners have signed the e-geo charter lending their support to the encouragement of the internal and external use of geographic data. Strength of Swiss land management system:Land management system has been evolved and developed over hundreds of years. It has been well developed and has been made more efficient through the advancement in technology. Land records have been updated through surveying the sites and recoding the changes made with passage of time. After surveying the sites, the changes have been recorded and the previous record are updated, so updated and accurate land records are available to the public as well as government use. Laws and orders have been made for landownership, land tenants and shareholders. Every entity has been assigned their own responsibility and they are bound but certain lawn and orders within which they have to stay and use their land. Advanced techniques are being used to land recording purpose. The benefit of advanced techniques is to make accurate and precise measurements and to keep the records more efficiently. Almost major part of the Switzerland have been covered to made digital land records that is a very good step and achievement gained by SwitzerlandThe Swiss Constitution contains certain regulations that are important for the tenure and management of land. Particularly noteworthy in this context are the articles which concern property rights, agriculture and spatial planning. They formulate the basic objectives for land governance in Switzerland which are specified by related laws and regulations.Swiss agricultural policy has been made according to which multifunctional duties of agriculture which include ensuring a secure food supply, preserving natural resources, taking care of the landscape and encouraging decentralized settlement.The Law on Peasants` Land Rights has been made which provides rules for the promotion of agricultural land property and for the preservation of family farms, strengthens the position of owner farming and combats excessive prices for agricultural soils.The land use plans have been made according to which the cantons define how the land actually can be used. Cantons may develop land use plans themselves, but mostly they delegate this task to the municipalities, as knowledge of local conditions is crucial for the development of these plans. The Federal Law on Spatial Planning contains detailed regulations concerning land use plans, as they are the main instrument for defining the boundary between building and non-building zones.The Federal Law on Spatial Planning contains quite detailed regulations on land use plans, because they are the main instrument for defining the zonation. The law specifies, that land use plans regulate the permitted use of the soil. They distinguish, in advance, building, agricultural and protection zonesWeakness of Swiss land management system:The initiators of the so called Landscape Initiative view the continuing urban sprawl in Switzerland and the loss of cultivated land as a major problem, which has to be tackled by means of effective spatial planning instruments. With the partial revision of the Law on Spatial Planning, which aimed at stopping land consumption and for an improved protection of the landscapeThe traditional cadastres were by nature rather slow in responding to the changing needs of society. In addition, the relationship of humankind to land has become more dynamic over the last few years. Land use is at high rate whereas land registration and management is nit that much fast to record and register all the land that is being use for one purpose or another.Its impossible for the Department of Rural Development and Land Reform to continue recapitalizing failed farms for political reasons and the economy can’t continue to bear this burden.Within the perspective of the dynamic humankind to land relationships, the increasing economic, social, and environmental needs that demand a land information system response, and the progress in information and communication technology it is no surprise that land administration systems are in constant evolution and reform. But yet it need more time to get to the level to manage land information system according to the required standards.Land reform in Switzerland is complicated and there are no easy answers. The structural weaknesses in the department and weak political leadership have led to the current impasse. Authority is aware of the need for land reform but everything comes at a price. Land reform cannot be implemented without clear goals and principles.