Management practices includes-Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Leading, and Controlling.PLANNING-Selecting missions and objectives as well as the actions to achieve them, which requires decision-making, which is, choosing future courses of action from among alternatives.ORGANIZING-People working together in groups to achieve some goal must have roles to play. It is establishing an international structure of roles of people to fill an organization.STAFFING-It involves filling, and keeping filled, the position in the organization structure. This is done by identifying workforce requirement, inventorying the people available, and recruiting, selecting, placing, promoting, appraising, planning the career of, compensating and training.
LEADING-Influencing people so that they will contribute to organizational and group goals, it has to do predominantly with the interpersonal aspect of managing.CONTROLLING-Measuring and collecting individual and Organizational performance to ensure that events conform to plans. MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN INDIA:PLANNING- For planning, India uses both long term and short term orientation. Long term orientation is when the organization focuses on future goals and short term orientation is when the organization gives more important to present and past as compared to future.
Decision making is done by the committees. Decisions in an organization are made by top level management, in which decisions are made based on input from a large group of people. India follows slow decision making and slow implementation.ORGANIZING-Responsibilities in Indian Organization are collective and individual.STAFFING- Here employee’s performance evaluation is infrequent for new employee’s and appraisal is also provided after a long term of performance. Training and development of the employees are considered a long term investment.LEADING- Leaders acts as social Facilitator as well as a group member. They adapt Paternalistic style. Leaders avoid confrontation and emphasize on harmony. Here approach is bottom up communication.CONTROLLING-Controlling is done by group leader on group performance.EXAMPLES-HCL Technologies Limited (Hindustan Computers Limited) is an Indian multinational information technology (IT) service and consulting company headquartered in Noida, Uttar Pradesh. It is among the top 20 largest publicly traded companies in India with a market capitalization of $18.7 billion as of May 2017.Wipro Limited is an Indian multinational corporation that provides information technology, consulting and business process services. It is headquartered in Bengaluru, Karnataka,MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN USA:PLANNNIG-For planning USA uses both long term and short term orientation. But it depends upon the size of the organization. Decisions in organization are made by the top level management. Decision is made fast but implementation is very slow.ORGANIZING-US workers are individualist and try to show as self Sufficient as possible.STAFFING-For new employee’s there is frequent performance evaluation. Little commitment is given to training. Use other firms training programs as leverage by scavenging workers.Here there is culture of pseudo participation and make autocratic decision. Here emphasis is on financial measurement and management by the parameters like net income, ROI and EPS.LEADING-Leaders are the head of the group. They avoid confrontation and communication is top down.CONTROLING-Managers provide strict supervision on the performance of the organization. Responsibility of the managers are also shared.EXAMPLES-Walmart Inc. is an American multinational retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarkets, discount department stores, and grocery stores, headquartered in Bentonville, Arkansas.UnitedHealth Group Incorporated is an American for-profit managed health care company based in Minnetonka, Minnesota. It offers health care products and insurance services. It is the largest healthcare company in the worldMANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN CHINA:PLANNING-In China most of the organization are state owned due to which private owned business came a bit late. But in these organizations all types of arrangement were ready. Here 5 year arrangement are ready at the top( State Planning Commission) while short arrangement are made at lower levels. In china all significant choices are made by few individuals at the top who are in immediate control of the state and there is no power of choice at lower levels. There is slow decision making and slow implementation.ORGANIZING- Responsibilities in Chinese Organization are collective and individual.STAFFING- Staffing in China is mainly from institutes and very less staff from other companies. Performance are reviewed ones in a year. Promotions are based on performance, ability and potential. Here promotions are slow but continuous increment in salary.LEADING- Chinese managerial practices depends on the the way the state is handling and controlling the organization. Leaders are the head of the group .They avoid confrontation and communication is top-down.CONTROLING-Organization is controlled by group of leaders. They make limited use of quality control. Chinese managerial practices depends on the the way the state is handling and controlling the organization.EXAMPLES- Xiaomi, sometimes referred to as the Apple of China, Xiaomi (XIACF) is a handset and smartphone manufacturer with a short sales history and oodles of potential.Alibaba as the world’s largest e-commerce retailer, moving more than double the product volume of Amazon (AMZN) and eBay (EBAY) combined, there is a case to be made for Alibaba Group Holding Ltd. (BABA) as the most important Chinese software company.MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN JAPAN:PLANNING- Japanese Management planning is a bit longer with involvement of many people in decision making and fast implementation of that plan. Here focus is on Japanese administration methods. Decision making is collective. Decision making is slow but implementation is fast.ORGANIZING- When it comes to organizing it’s a collective responsibility with informal organization structure. Follows strategies with scientific selection lifetime employment continuous training And focus in group work.STAFFING- When it comes to staffing, young people are hired from school and people rarely move to other organization and show loyalty towards the organization. Training is provided and is considered as long term investment. Evaluation is done for new employees, but very frequently.LEADING-Leaders in Japan acts as social facilitors and group members and follows bottom up communication.CONTROLLING- Here control of peers and focus on group performances.EXAMPLE-SonyCorporation Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Knan, Minato, Tokyo. Its diversified business includes consumer and professional electronics, gaming, entertainment and financial services. The company owns the largest music entertainment business in the world, the largest video game console business and one of the largest video game publishing businesses, and is one of the leading manufacturers of electronic products.HONDA MOTORS-is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles, motorcycles, and power equipment.MANAGERIAL PRSCTICES IN FRANCE:PLANNING- France management style is also a result of strong and dedicated regulation which are being strictly followed .It is short term orientation. Yearly plans are followed. They take the idea of the lower staffs before taking any decision. Decision making is fast but its implementation is slow. Short team yearly plans are followed.ORGANIZING- Responsibilities is shared within an Organization.STAFFING-Performance of the new employees are evaluated frequently. They consider training and development as a long term investment.LEADING -Leaders are the head and decision maker of the group. Better relationship is shared between Directive’s. Their communication is better and they avoid confrontation.CONTROLLING-France likes working in teams and strictly follows the task assigned to individuals. Individual’s performance is controlled by superiors.EXAMPLES-Capgemini SE is a French multinational corporation that provides consulting, technology, professional, and outsourcing services. It is headquartered in Paris, France.Dassault Aviation SA (French pronunciation: [da€so]) is an international French aircraft manufacturer of military, regional, and business jets, and is a subsidiary of Dassault Group..