The words is how people express their thoughts or ideas and is also a media for folks to talk to one anther, which has the profound function in the cultural life. Due to the differences of these genders, social status, backgrounds, living habits and their principles, the languages used by different individuals in the contemporary society vary from one another. Included in this, the gender variations of languages can be found in nearly every vocabulary of different ethnicities, thus becoming the eternal subject of words research. Predicated on the famous American tv set sitcom–Friends, this newspaper tries to attempts to anatomize the phenomena and factors behind gender differences shown in terminology by evaluating the language features in Friends.
Key words: gender differences, language
In April 1944 New York University in america, the “Language and Gender” was put into a comprehensive discussion as the central concern by the 44th annual International Vocabulary Institute Committee. This totally implies that linguists in modern society regard the “Gender variations reflected in terminology” among the important indispensable element in sociolinguistic studies. Using the development of social linguistics and driving a car of feminism, the study on gender variations in language has entered the golden years. Gender differences mirrored in terms shows the distinctions of people’s cultural traditions, thinking modes and worth, researches upon this issue have sensible significances on the engineering of the harmonious, successful vocabulary communication between men and women.
Firstly, the gender dissimilarities of language echo in the pronunciations. Social linguists think that women weighed against the men of same ages are closer to the typical style and also have more graceful accents to be able to make them look like more educated, and enjoy higher communal levels. For example, the pronunciation of the vowel “r” is some sort of typical manifestation of gender distinctions in pronunciation. In North american English, the pronunciation of the vowel “r” is the symbol of people that have higher education and higher interpersonal status, which is the tag of top of the class. Assessing the pronunciations of the heroes and heroines in Friends, we can discovered that Phoebe, Monica and Rachel have a tendency to use rigorous, elegant and standard pronunciations. However, Chandler and Joey tend to omit or replace a number of syllables, especially the “th” sound. For words like “Thank and Thing “, women generally have a correct and standard fricative sound»while men like Chandler and Joey tend to have the blasting audio »t.
Furthermore, the gender variations of language represent in the intonations. In dialectintonation identifies the deviation of build when people speak. As for the same words, phrases, and sentences, the distinctions of the intonations will finally cause the totally widely different expressions. Throughout the researches on th corpus, the public linguists have finance that women are more likely to use doubtful intonations showing their hesitations, requisitions, and uncertaintiesbesides they may have changeable fluctuations. This is some sort of reflection their backwardness, sympathy and mental characteristics which ultimately shows euphemism, kind and sensitive of women. On the contrary, men will use falling firmness or flat build showing their firmness and certainty. Besides, their intonations are steady and invariable which ultimately shows men’s aggression, decisiveness and power.
For example, when people are been asked, “When is he coming back?”or”When does the store available ?”. Women would likely give the answer like “oharound six o’clock?”with increasing lot, while men can provide an answer such as this”half former six”in the falling tone with affirmative meanings.
Generally speaking, men and women usually stress the various words of the same phrases. For instance, the sentence “I wish you’d take action”. When men are speaking, they highest firmness must be placed on the most important term “do”. Women, on the other hand, will reverse the strain. They will read the main phrase “do” in the lowest tone. The reason why women do this is that they want to released the hint: Although this is very important, yet they don’t want to interpose the listener, which is up to the listener to produce a decision. This totally shows the soft personality of women. In Friends, we can easily see many examples like this. In the television sitcom, the regularity of the heroines use doubtful intonations is significantly higher than men, which just suits their woman temperament.
Men and women also change from one another in the choice and use of the vocabulary. In basicThe vocabulary of women are much richer and more changeful than men, correctly showing their fragile feelings. For instance, women often use words like “super, fantastic, marvelous, splendid and clear” these adjectives to express their great pleasure and satisfaction, men is only going to use some simple words like “good, well, etc” on the contrary. Women’s sensitive also urge them to have a closer observation of the colorful world than men do. Thus making them master a sight of color terms and focus on the use of these words. Take the color “red” for example, women might want to use “peach, blossom, red, plum, crimson, and salmon pink”. Men may hardly ever use or even understand about these words only when they often times make paintings, decorations, or to do other things which are closely linked with color conditions. In the daily life, in order to express their thoughts, women often use some adverbs like “so, very, quite, much” to stress the things to be able to strengthen the firmness. However, words like “so, very, quite, much” is extended and jumbled for men because that their existences will have little or nothing to with the meanings of the whole phrases. Besides, words like “adorable, lovely, divine, nice, lovely, etc” are said to be the typical characteristics of women. In friends, the heroines often use vocabulary stressing on the gown on dressing, clothing, chores, children and companionship these little things, while men want to use vocabulary relating to the sports, politics, economy, culture and also education, etc. As for the utilization of “adorable, enchanting, divine, lovely, lovely, etc” these words, the rate of recurrence for women to use these vague words is almost three times as much as men’s.
Certainly, the difference of terms use between women and men also reflects in many places, for example, in syntactic buildings. To be able to shoe the completely esteem to others, women discuss in a polite way. They opt to use “isn’t it, aren’t we or not” in a sentence to provide recommendations, while men would like to use claims to directly communicate their opinions, commands or requirements, etc.
In simple, there are extensive factors that cause gender variations in vocabulary such as personality, culture backgrounds, cultural experiences and so on, which summarized as the following three aspects.
Generally speaking, the physiological factor comes first. Based on the modern technology research, scientists have found some credible facts that can clarify the difference between men and women in the physiological aspect which finally determines the gender dissimilarities in language. The research report demonstrates women and men tend to use different parts of their brains to learn the terms which naturally triggers different use of dialect. Men’s and women’s different vocal organs also lead to a substantial gender dissimilarities in terms. Men have a big throat, long vocal cords and the vibration for men is slow, therefore the voice of guy is evidently low and energetic. On the other hand, women have a higher intonation and shade than men do.
What comes secondly is the cultural and internal factor. Almost atlanta divorce attorneys country of different ethnicities, folks have different standards for the men’s and women’s conducts. Women are asked to speak such as a lady, to become more specific, to own exact pronunciation and soft voice, as the vulgar terms of men is often accepted by all. Finally, women and men develop into completely different dictions.
Lastly, the social factor is also the main element that cause the gender difference in the utilization of terms. In people’s sight, women are subordinated to the men and revel in a quite low social position in population. To this point, men and women play different gender roles in their daily life which finally leads to the lack of confidence of women. Definitely, the key reason why women’s words style differs from men’s is carefully related to the traditional social principles.
Gender differences have been in language use for a long time. And many researches have shown that words, gender, and contemporary society are closely connected with each other. Thus, in a nutshell, the introduction of the study on the gender variations in vocabulary will finally disclose the more descriptive difference between men and women speakers and truly it is of great value in cross-gender communication.