The Oxford Dictionary offers us two meanings of a sentence. First of all it is defined as “a set of words complete in itself as the expression of an thought, made up of or implying a topic and predicate, and conveying a affirmation, question, exclamation, or order” subsequently as “a bit of writing or speech between two full stops or equivalent pauses often including several grammatical sentences”. (Illustrated Oxford Dictionary, 2003)

As Dukova says, the definition of a word can be produced on the bottom of several details of view. We are able to be considering the content, function, grammar or phonetics. However a word comes into living when the partnership of its items is totally expressed and that falls in to the grammatical viewpoint. (Dukova, 1988, str. 309)

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The Simple sentence

Types of phrases according to their syntactic structure

A simple phrase is a phrase which contains only one self-employed clause. Quirk brands seven types of simple sentence in line with the presence of clause elements.

The simplest composition is a composition consisting of a subject (S) and a verb (V or P as predicator), e. g. The Sun is glowing. Another type is (S) subject matter + (V) verb + (O) object, e. g. That lecture bored me. In the 3rd type of a straightforward phrase, the verb is accompanied by subject go with (SVCp), e. g. Your evening meal seems ready. The fourth framework has its verb followed by an adverbial (SVA), e. g. My office is within the next building. The next structure consists of subject matter, verb and two things from which the first is direct (Oi) and the next indirect (Od), e. g. I (S) must send (V) my parents (Oi) an anniversary card (Od). Within the sixth type of structure the topic and the verb is accompanied by an subject and an object match (Co), e. g. Most students have found her moderately useful. The last type of a simple phrase is a composition where the subject and the verb are accompanied by an object and an adverbial (SVOA), e. g. You may put the dish on the table. (Quirk, 1985, p. 204)

Other variations of clause patterns

Passive structures

Passive structure, together with the active structure, comes into the group of voice. In passive sentences the structure of the clause is reorganized and the info emphasis changes. The direct object in effective structures may become the topic in passive constructions, e. g. They considered root base as peasant food.   Root base were regarded as peasant food. The main topic of the original productive structure either disappears than it changes into an adjunct in the passive composition, using by, e. g. Origins were thought to be peasant food by the court.

We understand two sorts of passive, brief, which is more common, and long. We talk about brief passives when the agent of the action is not given. If the agent is indicated in the passive structure, unveiled by by, we package with the long passive.

As mentioned above, the information emphasis in passive structures is different compared to the active structures. In passive structures the agent is forget about in the centre of attention and the primary focus is used in the action itself. In some cases, the passive composition is a result of speaker’s direct motive to avoid mentioning the agent.

Existential clauses

Existential clause is a kind of clause where the position of the subject is considered by the anticipatory subject matter, so called existential there. Existential clause are buildings formulated with verbs that denote presence, appearance or motion, especially the verb to be. (Biber, 1999, str. 153)

The function of existential clauses is merely to express existence of something.


Verb Classes

There are three classes of verbs: intransitive, transitive (further divided to monotransitive, ditransitive and complex-transitive) and copular verbs. Each class occurs in a certain kind of sentence structure.

Intransitive verbs

There is no other component required with intransitive verbs; these verbs are an integral part of the S+V composition, e. g. soar, blink, sleep.

Transitive verbs

Transitive verbs are verbs that require an subject. Monotransitive verbs: one other element (O) is required (SVO structure), e. g. lose, chance, find. Ditransitive verbs: two more elements are required (SVOiOd composition), e. g. give, palm, offer. Complex-transitive verbs: an object complement or an adjunct is necessary in the SVO composition, e. g. keep- “They keep carefully the house preserved. “, call- “She called her kitten Smudgie. “, appoint- “They appointed him President”.

Copular verbs

Need a subject complement (SVCs) or an adjunct (SVA), e. g. be, feel, smell.

Clause Elements


The existence of a subject is necessary in every finite clauses apart from the imperative clauses. Though not present, the subject is implied in the imperative clauses. There is one more case when the subject is not stated in the clause which is the truth when the ellipsis is used. Ellipsis, one of the information of speech, can be an omission of any word, a topic in our circumstance, because the speaker expects the listener to have the ability to deduce the “missing expression” from the context of from the previous knowledge, e. g. Thank you. .

The most typical realization of the topic is by nouns or pronouns, however the subject can be also came to the realization by other phrase classes and then we are talking about syntactic nouns, e. g. The poor (Adj) must be helped. .

The subject determines the number and the person of the verb e. g. John speaks Russian very well. , the number, person and gender of the reflexive pronouns, e. g. She cannot recognize herself in the mirror. The relationship between your subject and the verb is a romantic relationship of mutual influence.

In passive clauses the subject becomes the topic supplement using “by”, e. g. John (S) drove us. and We were powered by John (Cs). , or the agent is omitted.

In tag questions, the topic is repeated by the pronoun of the same, person, number and gender, e. g. John is an excellent teacher, isn’t he?.


Predicator is a clause component realized exclusively by verb. Some grammars do not use the term predicator and call this clause element simply a verb. Predicator may contain a full verb alone or a full verb combined with a number of auxiliary verbs, e. g. Prince Brat understood that he previously nothing to dread. He had never been spanked in his life. Predicator is a central component of a clause as it denotes the action “do” or the point out “be”.


There are two types of subject, indirect and immediate. An thing is a sentence element which may be either obligatory or facultative according to the verb.

Direct Object

Like the indirect subject, the direct object is generally a nominal group. When there is absolutely no indirect thing in the clause, the direct object comes after the transitive verb, e. g. He kicked the ball. In sophisticated structures, there may be the anticipatory it in the position of the direct object as the direct thing is noticed by an infinitive or a subordinate clause, e. g. He found it difficult to tell the truth. He found it miserable that she didn’t trust him.

Indirect Object

Is typically understood by way of a nominal group, e. g. “Charles provided Alice a glass of champagne. ” or by a pronoun. Though very unusual, indirect object may be also became aware by wh-clause, e. g. “Give whoever comes a glass of champagne”. It uses only ditransitive verbs. (Biber)


A complements is a clausal factor that is at relation with either subject (subject go with) or subject (object complement). In contrast with the object, the complement can’t be changed into a passive form. Both, subject matter and object complements are most typically came to the realization by an adjectival group, or by the nominal group.

Subject Complement

In some grammars (Biber, 1999, str. 126), we will get the subject go with (Cs) under the word “subject predicative”. The subject complement are available in SVCs structures, following copular verbs, e. g. This place is beautiful.

Object Complement

Also named an object predicative (Po) (Biber, 1999, str. 130), the object supplement (Co) is a clause factor that we can find in structures formulated with intricate transitive verbs (SVOCo). I find this place appropriate. As we can see in the example, the thing complement pertains to the direct thing and also usually follows the direct thing. (Biber, 1999, str. 130)


Adverbials are extremely diverse clause elements. They might be added to any composition and can be found in various positions within the word. Adverbials have many semantic tasks and could be either optional or obligatory. There are three classes of adverbials known as in the Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written British: circumstance, stance and linking adverbials (Biber, 1999, str. 131), these three categories match Quirk’s adjunct, disjunct and conjunct. (Quirk, 1985) The most frequent realizations of adverbials are adverbial groups and prepositional phrases.


We can say that adjuncts add some scenario information to the composition. They might be elicited by questioning Where, When, How or Why. Most verbs, even the intransitive ones, tend to be supplemented by an adjunct, presenting the situation information, e. g. He passed on of eating some poisonous mushrooms. If there is no adjunct in a framework with an intransitive verb, the understandability of the utterance would depend on the framework (Quirk, 1985, p. 506), e. g. He ate some poisonous mushrooms and he perished.


Disjuncts are not a real area of the structure. As Quirk says, disjuncts have a superior role in the sentence. (Quirk, 1985, p. 613) Most utterances we produce aren’t objective, they often express our attitude or opinion about the content of the utterance. A disjunct is the audio system comment on this content of the utterance, e. g. To be frank, it didn’t surpass my prospects.


As well as disjuncts, conjuncts have relatively superordinate position in the phrase. (Quirk, 1985, p. 631) The function of conjunct is to become listed on relatively independent devices through expressions like: as well, however, instead, first of all and it also includes reaction signals like hmm, aha, well. The partnership between the two units is set from the idea of view of the speaker, e. g. His results are of low quality, on the other palm he tried hard.

Semantic roles of clause elements

There are several semantic jobs within every clause aspect, different grammars offer different classifications, so in this text message, I am going to name just those that are relevant for the examination of children’s literature.


Every element of your sentence realized by way of a noun term is a participant, e. g. Prince Brat (S) shot Jemmy (Oi) a poisonous look (Od). (Fleishman, 1987, p. 28)

Agent, affected, recipient

The role of agent is an average role of a subject in a word containing a direct thing. (Quirk, 1985, p. 741) The subject-agent is the initiator of the action, e. g. The prince shifted his forearms and shoulder blades. (Fleishman, 1987, p. 61)

The influenced participant role is a job typical for the direct thing. The damaged participant does not start the action, but there is a certain participation in the action, (Quirk, 1985, p. 741), e. g. Prince Brat linked their powdered wigs to the backs of these oak seats. (Fleishman, 1987, p. 1)

Another participant role is the role of recipient. This role is common for the indirect objects, but it can even be the role of a subject in passive buildings of ditransitive verbs (Dukova, 1988, str. 398), e. g. He was presented with a second chance. This participant has a unaggressive, recipient, role in the action. “Cutwater, provide them up our finest bread and herring. ” (Fleishman, 1987, p. 16)


The attribute role is a job regular for both matches, subject and object complement. The matches give us the characterization of the subject or the thing, e. g. Billy was a major man, he saw, big and natural as a skinned ox. (Fleishman, 1987, p. 12) It experienced a very large damp nostrils. “From the pig!” said dad. (Hughes, 1992)

External causer and tool roles

An external causer is usually some natural force, that unwittingly triggers some action to occur (Quirk, 1985, p. 743), e. g. The flood broken a great area of the village. We speak about the role of a musical instrument, when the subject or the thing are used as tools of some action, e. g. This sharp knife will help you.

The role of process

The role of process is a role portrayed by the verb. There are many subcategories of the role of process. The procedure of activity, “of doing”, e. g. Then Grandma and Mum came up by to do some shopping. (Hughes, 1992) The procedure of communication, verbal process, e. g. Alfie asked them whether they were coming to buy something at the shop. Then your mental process of belief, e. g. In the tent he could notice Dad breathing. A different type of mental process is the procedure of affectivity, e. g. Alfie liked Bonting a great deal. Addititionally there is the process of cognition, e. g. He kept in mind that he had put him out to dried after his swim.

The role of circumstance

Again, there are several subcategories of the role of situation, however in this paper, we are going to package just with three of these which are considered to be the most frequent, i. e. locative, temporal and the role of manner.


Locative circumstances role is a role expressing the positioning, distance and way (Biber, 1999, str. 776), e. g. a Common boy was placed in the castle to be punished in his place. (Fleishman, 1987, p. 2)


The role of temporal situation can communicate position with time, duration or frequency (Biber, 1999, str. 777), e. g. It was very overdue when they arrived home.


The last role of scenario I am going to discuss is the role of manner. The circumstance of manner says us in what way some action was done or in what manner something happened, e. g. “Of course I can!” clarified the prince in a stinging tone. (Fleishman, 1987, p. 50) The role of situation is most common for adverbials, but it can be the role of a subject, e. g. The night time was dark.

Multiple sentence

Multiple word is a clause comprising several clause. Quirk also makes distinction between two sorts of multiple phrases, the chemical substance and the intricate sentence. Compound phrase is a word that includes two or more similar main clauses. Organic word is a composition consisting of one main clause that is superordinate, with least one subordinate clause. (Quirk, 1985, p. 988)

Syntactic relationships

There are two types of syntactic marriage, the paratactic marriage; the relationship of grammatical equivalence and the hypotactic romance; the relationship of grammatical nonequivalence. (Quirk, 1985, p. 918)

Realisation of syntactic relationships

The paratactic romantic relationship may be portrayed either by coordinating conjunctions, then were talking about coordination or it might be expressed without the use of conjunctions and than we live talking about juxtaposition. The hypotactic marriage may be of subordination, using subordinating conjunctions or, as in the previous circumstance, juxtaposition i. e. without the use of conjunctions.

Types of clauses in a hypotactic relationsip

Dependent Clauses- Subordinate Clauses

Finite clause

Finite clause is a clause which has a finite verb, e. g. Leaves crackled under Jemmy’s feet as he started to cool off. We distinguish four types of finite clauses in line with the purpose they provide in the discourse, i. e. what’s the speakers intent to make the discourse and what’s the expected response of his / her audience.

Types of finite clauses

Nominal Clauses

Clauses that represent subject or direct object in the primary clause are nominal clauses. This type of clause is unveiled either by the subordinator that, or by wh-word, e. g. What you’ve just said is a complete nonsense.

Adverbial Clauses

Adverbial clauses express the circumstances of the key clause and work as adverbials, in addition they reveal the same semantic classification with adverbials, e. g. If indeed they were here, they might like it.

Relative Clauses

Relative clauses, also known as adjectival clauses, function as postmodifiers of the noun term, to create the antecedent. This sort of clause is introduce by comparative pronouns. Relative clauses may be defining of non-defining (restrictive or non restrictive).

Restrictive relative clauses add some information that can’t be omitted without changing the meaning of the clause. Restrictive comparative clauses identify the antecedent, e. g. The colorings which has been chosen aren’t appropriate.

Nonrestrictive relative clauses provide you with the clause with some additional information which is not necessary for understanding the main subject matter of the clause, e. g. Jemmy, who was simply appreciated to be close at hand for the daily lessons, reckoned that flexibility was now readily available.

Comparative clauses

The function of comparative clauses is to compare properties of some feature. Matching to Quirk (1985), there are three types of evaluation, the comparison of equivalence (or of nonequivalence), e. g. Alfie’s elephant was old, nearly as old as Alfie. , of sufficiency, e. g. It was big enough for just two people to lie down in. , or of surplus, e. g. Annie Rose was too little to camp.

Reporting Clauses

Reporting clause is an integral part of a direct talk. It introduces the speaker but it may also add the addressee, e. g. “Bonting must have a fresh swimwear, ” he informed mum. , the type of act, e. g. “But we can’t leave Bonting behind!” wailed Alfie. or the mode of the act, e. g. “I didn’t know Jim Gatting experienced put his pig in this field, ” grumbled Dad sleepily.

The reporting clause may take the initial, medial and final position in the immediate conversation. The verb of the reporting clause is most commonly in the past anxious form.

Comment Clauses

Comment clauses share speaker’s attitude to the content of the phrase, e. g. Tipped us over, as the thing is that. While Biber (1999) compares comment clauses to confirming clauses with the verb in present tense, Quirk (1985) considers comment clauses some sort of disjunct.

Types of finite clauses relating to their function in utterance

Declarative clauses

In most situations, this kind of clause expresses a affirmation and its purpose is to give information, e. g. Mum and Grandma were sitting down in your garden having a cup of tea. In affirmative declarative clauses, as in the example above, the subject precedes the predicator. In negative declarative clauses, the topic is accompanied by auxiliary or modal verb, the negative particle and then comes the full verb, e. g. He didn’t yelp or bellow.

Interrogative clauses

By means of interrogative clauses, the presenter would like to elicit some information. There are three main types of interrogative clauses: yes/no questions, wh- questions and substitute questions.

Yes/no questions

Yes/no questions, first main type interrogative clauses, which may also be called polar questions, can be an interrogative to which the expected result of the addressee is either affirmation of negation, e. g. The ladies shrieked.  Do the females shriek?

Compared to declarative clauses, the term order of interrogative clauses differs. In case of the verb to be, the question can be created by means of inversion, e. g. It’s called Burrows and company.  Is it called Burrows and company? Once the clause is made up of an auxiliary verb, the auxiliary goes into front of the topic with the full verb pursuing, e. g. The ruler offered an incentive for the whipping boy.   Gets the king offered a reward for the whipping young man? When the phrase contains more than one auxiliary verb, the first auxiliary precedes the topic and the other auxiliaries follow the subject together with the full verb, e. g. Our prince has been abducticated.   Has our prince been abducated? The same guideline is applied whenever a modal verb is an integral part of the verb word, e. g. A horses can always find his way home.   Can a equine always find his way home. When there is no auxiliary verb in the declarative clause, the interrogative is established by means of “do”, e. g. We dress you up fancy and feed you royal.  Do we dress you up fancy and feed you royal?

Interrogative yes/no clauses may also be negative, e. g. Wasn’t it your mother? The speaker usually uses negative questions to be able to reassure himself or herself somewhat than to get some good new information. In the composition of negative interrogative yes/no questions the negative particle practices the auxiliary or modal verb and precedes the subject.

Question tags

Question tags aren’t fully self-employed clauses, they can be a part of a structure filled with another, usually a declarative clause. Question label is a tool supporting the connections, deploying it, the speaker motivates the addressee to respond to the information given in the declarative clause.

This kind of interrogative involves an operator and a personal pronoun. The operator of the tag question normally corresponds to the operator of the preceding clause, e. g. You are able to fend for your own self applied, can’t you! When there is absolutely no operator in the declarative clause, the dummy auxiliary do is used to produce the tag question, e. g. They own this house, don’t they? Question tags may be also added, plus they often are, to a clause which is not complete, e. g. The highwayman, are you!


Another kind of interrogative clauses are wh-questions. Once the wh-word is a part of the subject, the term order is the same as in declarative clauses, e. g. Who cooks the supper? When the wh-word is an integral part of another clause factor, the common word order of interrogative clauses is used, e. g. Why does you do that! One kind of interrogative questions are indirect interrogatives. The indirect questions (also reported questions) consist of projecting and projected clause, they are connected through whether or if, e. g. The kids asked if the history was true.

As well as yes/no questions, the wh- questions may be negative, e. g. Where shouldn’t we go?

Alternative questions

The previous main kind of interrogative clauses are different questions. These clauses act like polar interrogative clauses in the framework, but instead of anticipating yes or no answers, it includes alternatives, presuming that one of the alternatives is the one to be chosen by the addressee, e. g. Do you want coffee or tea?

Alternative interrogatives can also take the proper execution of a blend of wh- question and elliptic alternate question, e. g. What do you want, coffee or tea?

Minor types of interrogative clauses

There are two more types of interrogatives that are, concerning their occurrence, considered minor. They are called exclamatory questions and rhetorical questions. Exclamatory and rhetorical questions both have the normal interrogative framework.

Exclamatory questions are usually negative yes/no questions, where the speaker’s objective is to get the reaction of an assertion, e. g. Ain’t I already been whipped double today!

Rhetorical questions do not ask for any answers, they might be negative or positive yes/no questions expecting positive or negative assertion, e. g. Didn’t I tell you who I had been!

Imperative Clauses

The function of crucial clauses, some grammars e. g. (Quirk, 1985) use the term directives, is to give directives, i. e. instructions, purchases, directions etc.

Most typically, there is absolutely no subject in essential clauses aimed to 2nd person singular and plural, in fact there is no need of subject matter in this kind of clause, as the addressee of the imperative is usually apparent from the context of the situation, e. g. Fetch the whipping youngster! However, in order to make the directive stronger, the non-public pronoun you may well be used, e. g. You fetch the whipping boy! The subject can be also within the label question, e. g. Fetch the whipping son, will you?

When 1st and 3rd person singular and plural will be the intended addresses, the essential may be created by means of let, in this type of structure, the verb let is followed by the subject in objective case (Quirk, 1985, p. 829) e. g. Let me have a word with him! Except for let me, this kind of clause is quite archaic. In colloquial English, the contracted form of why don’t we, let’s is commonly used, e. g. Let’s parley!

Imperative clauses may also take the negative form, e. g. And don’t try to run away. or Let’s not discuss it.

Exclamative Clauses

The function of the kind of clause is to express some psychological impression like delight, distress or others.

According to Quirk (1985), exclamative clauses are just these you start with the wh- aspect how or what, e. g. What unpleasant new mischief was this! Biber’s classification of the exclamative clauses is, compared to Quirk’s, more loose as Biber’s exclamative clauses include other structures like declaratives, interrogatives or exclamative questions, e. g. What’s keeping you!

Non-finite clauses

Non-finite clause are clauses comprising a non-finite verb, that is to-infinitive, bare infinitive, -ing participle or -ed participle. For example: He was motivated never to planting season a tear for the prince to gloat over. Relating to Biber (1999), a verbless clause can even be considered a non-finite clause.

Each of the four main types of non-finite clause may take the form of any framework with or without the subject. Non-finite clauses lack modal auxiliaries and they’re not marked as to the tense.

Non-finite clauses may symbolize many syntactic tasks, e. g. One afternoon, Mum provided Alfie a long cardboard box to experiment with with. , in this example the non-finite, to-infinitive, clause functions as an adverbial. The interpretation of this is over a non-finite clause is dependent on the key clause.

Logico-semantic romance- Expansion and Projection

The benefit of multiple clauses, on the other hand with simple clauses, is the capability to express more technical situations. In other words, a multiple clause is more exact in description of the truth as it is a reflection of your cognitive company of the situation.

The logico-semantic connections are described at length in Halliday’s “An Release to Functional Sentence structure” (1994). The following overview of the logico-semantic romantic relationships is based on this publication.

4. 1. Expansion

Halliday (1994) identifies enlargement as a relationship when the clauses contain different kind of more information. You will discover three subcategories of expansion: elaboration, extension and enhancement. Each one of these subcategories may be of paratactic or hypotactic romantic relationship.

4. 1. 1. Paratactic elaboration


Using conjunctive elements such as in other words or that is in a word, we make a new statement about the content of the first clause from an alternative perspective. This kind of elaboration is called exposition.


Exemplification is another kind of paratactic elaboration, changing the content of the preceding clause by giving a good example, using conjunctive elements such as for instance or for example.


Expressions like in reality or indeed are conjunctive elements that clarify this content of the first clause, therefore this type of paratactic elaboration is called clarification.

4. 1. 2. Hypotactic elaboration

Hypotactic elaboration is the relationship in non-defining (also non-restrictive clauses).

4. 1. 3. Paratactic expansion- coordination


And, also, nor, in addition or furthermore are conjunctive elements putting together two situations in positive, negative or adversative romance. Even as are extending this content of the first clause by adding some information this, kind of paratactic expansion is called Addition.


When the first clause’s content is substituted by this content of the next clause by means of but or instead we speak about variation.


When the first clause is given an alternative solution to its content by the next clause, using conjunctive elements such as either or and on the other side, it’s the paratactic romantic relationship of alternation.


Explanation, also called specification, is a kind of extension, using conjunctive elements like this is or which means, where the content of the first clause is discussed by the second clause.

4. 1. 4. Hypotactic extension

Contrastive dependency

When the centered clause contrasts with the key clause regarding contrastive dependency, common conjunctive elements for this kind of marriage are while or whereas.

Subtractive dependency

Subtractive dependency is a relationship of a primary and a centered clause, where in fact the centered clause subtracts from the primary clause by means of expressions such as except that or but for the fact.

Using elements like whereas, except that etc. can lead to the impression that the clauses are in a paratactic romance. We can realize the kind of relationship by exchanging the position of the clauses, if this exchange functions well, i. e. the “rheme” word can end up being the “theme” word, we can say that the partnership is hypotactic.

The additive, adversative, contrastive, or subtractive human relationships may be also portrayed by non-finite “-ing clause”, using besides, instead of, without etc.

4. 1. 5. Paratactic enhancement

Paratactic development is a romance noticed by coordination or juxtaposition, being backed by conjunctions e. g. then, still, in any other case; conjunctive combinations e. g. and then, and so, yet; or by cohesive combinations with and e. g. and by doing so, and in this case; that give the info about the circumstances.

4. 1. 6. Hypotactic enhancement

This kind of romance is came to the realization by adverbial clauses.

4. 2. Projection

The logico-semantic romance of projection is the main one expressed by direct and indirect speech.

Selected titles

For the sentence structure analysis, I preferred two literature of contemporary authors of children’s books- Sid Fleischman’s The Whipping Son and Shirley Hughes’ THE TOP Alfie Out of Doors. Though the titles are relatively recent, both of these are liked and well known in the countries of their origin, in case there is Sid Fleishman’s “Whipping Son” even in foreign countries. Sid Fleischman and Shirley Hughes belong to the winners of prestigious awards that are given to the most important contributors to children’s literature in the United States (Fleischman) and in britain (Hughes). The titles chosen for the research deliberately fluctuate in the prospective age group they can be intended for. The minimal age group distance between the readers of these two literature is three years. The purpose is to demonstrate how the difficulty of the word structures in a children’s booklet changes with age its intended viewers.

The Whipping Boy

The Whipping Young man is a children’s booklet by North american, Brooklyn-born publisher Sid Fleishman. Sid Fleishman is an extremely popular and respected author in neuro-scientific children’s books not only in the USA, his works have been translated into fourteen dialects. (Fleishman, 1987) The Whipping Guy is a publication that made Sid Fleishman the winner of the John Newbery Medal of 1987. Published in 1987, this e book is targeted at the band of readers in between nine and twelve years.

The Big Alfie Out of Doors

The big Alfie Out of Doors is a children’s storybook by way of a British writer and illustrator Shirley Hughes. Also well-known and well known, Shirley Hughes is a holder of any prestigious British honor for writers of children books, the Eleanor Farjeon Prize of 1984 (Hughes, 1992). Shirley Hughes has written and illustrated more than 50 books (www. penguin. co. uk), the majority of them, like the Big Alfie Out of Doors, are intended for the group of 4-6 years of age. (www. amazon. com)

First words acquisition

Language is one of the most characteristic and most important top features of human beings. It really is a tool that allows us never to “just” expressing our thoughts but most importantly, it permits us to be always a area of the social interaction surrounding us.

Approaches to first vocabulary acquisition

There can be found several theories coping with the question of the first vocabulary acquisition. After the behaviourist approach, proclaiming that “the basic unit of learning is the conditioned reflex” (Watson, 1997), there is the nativist methodology. The nativist theory is dependant on a completely new way towards first language acquisition. In 1965, Noam Chomsky created the idea of LAD, located for the vocabulary acquisition device. (Brown, 2000) Aswell as Lenneberg (1967) with his idea of “species-specific” behaviour, Chomsky noticed that that the ability to acquire a dialect is inborn to humans.

However, inborn will not mean that whenever we are born, we have been immediately in a position to master a terms completely and on its all levels. The terminology acquisition is a steady process, with the effect being affected by other factors, e. g. social interaction.

First and second words acquisition are similar techniques. Krashen (1985) says that there are different stages in learning second terminology starting with the silent period. The silent period is accompanied by stages when we first learn the easier structures and after the buildings with higher intricacy. The usage of modified dialect for children is well showed in children’s literature. According to Krashen’s input hypothesis, learning is the most effective when the material we learn corresponds with our present knowledge so when it is slightly above it.

Brown (1973) presents his acquisition order for grammatical morphemes, where he specifies the order of structures acquisition.

Table modified from: Dark brown, R. (1973). A first language: The early levels. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.

This order is because Brown’s longitudinal research which focused on the semantic and grammatical development of children’s conversation.

With regard to the mark group of the analyzed text messages, we shall concentrate on the later phases of the first language development.