A. The background of the studyThe notion willingness to communicate (WTC) is defined as a situation when someone is ready to speak or communicate with the target language without any force. Cao (2011) mentioned the term willingness to communicate is defined as readiness to enter into discourse at a particular time with a specific person or person using L2. Moreover, Ningsih at all (2018) viewed that WTC as a situation when someone is ready to use their target language TL to communicate without force and burden.
For example, when students are given an opportunity to speak or communicate about a particular topic, some students prefer to speak up and communicate if they are familiar with the topic, whereas others choose to remain silent. In this kind of context, there are some factors causing students’ willingness and unwillingness to communicate. Many researchers have done with their research in the area of willingness to communicate. Some researchers argued in the area of willingness to communicate such as Cao (2011), Ningsih et al.
, (2018) and Riasati (2012), were investigated willingness to communicate in EFL classroom context, so there will be no large differences between these research, therefore this recent study will investigate both in classroom context and outside the classroom. This current study attempts to explore the factors of students’ willingness to communicate in EFL classrooms. B. The identification of the problemBased on the background of the study, the researcher would like to discover some problems:C. The scope of the studyThis study will discuss factors that contributing students’ willingness and unwillingness to communicate in university students specifically in the lower semester. D. The statement of the problemTherefore, based on the scope of the study, this study is an attempt to find the answer to the following question:What factors contributing students’ willingness and unwillingness to communicate in the EFL classroom?E. The objective of the studyThe objective of this study is to attempt and explore the factors of students’ willingness and unwillingness to communicate in the EFL context.F. The significance of the studyThe result of this study is expected to help students to find realize what factors will help them influencing their willingness to communicate so they can realize and improve their willingness to communicate so they can communicate freely. Not only for students but also, for teachers to understand the classroom situation and find a way to improve their students’ ability to communicate freely. G. The organization of the paperThis research proposal has three chapters. In chapter one, this study discusses the introduction which includes the background of the study, the identification of the problem, the scope of the study, the significance of the study, and also the organization of this paper.In chapter two, this study discusses the theoretical framework. There are two sub-chapters chapter. The first subchapter discusses the previous studies that were conducted as the references for this current research. The second subchapter discusses the definition of the terms willingness to communicate. Moreover, in chapter three, this study discusses the methodology. This methodology includes study design, place and time for research, participants, and data collection analysis.CHAPTER IITHEORETICAL FRAMEWORKA. Previous studiesTwo studies such as Cao (2011), and Riasati (2012) have examined factors causing willingness to communicate in the EFL classrooms. On his study, Cao (2011) investigated research willingness to communicate in EFL classroom from an ecological perspective. This multiple case study consists of two phases. The result of this study indicates that situational WTC classroom appeared from some effect of individual characteristic including self-confidence, personality, emotion and perceived opportunity to communicate, classroom environments such as topic, task, interlocutor, and teacherMoreover, Riasati (2012) investigated qualitative research about factors influencing students’ willingness to communicate in the EFL classroom. This study conducted a semi-structured interview with seven EFL learners. This study found out the factors that influencing students willingness to communicate such as task type, sex of interlocutor, the age of interlocutor, interlocutor participation, grading, the correctness of speech, topic discussion, personal characteristic, perceived speaking ability, teachers’ role, some teachers are dictators and classroom atmosphere. Furthermore, Tavakoli & Zarrinabadi (2018) examined the effect of explicit and implicit corrective feedback on EFL learners’ willingness to communicate. Three selected classes in which the total of the participant is 96 learners participated in this study. This study conducted a mixed method, quantitative, and qualitative. For the quantitative phase, this study used the questionnaire and for the qualitative this study used the interview. The findings of this study, students are willing to communicate when the teacher gives them explicit feedback. It gives them encouragement to improve their skills. Meanwhile, the implicit feedback made them unwilling because the teacher did not point which part the students make mistakes. The studies above have shown several factors underlying students’ willingness and unwillingness to communicate; individual condition, interlocutor, topic discussion, classroom situation, and teachers’ role. However, Cao (2011) study focused on the ecological perspective meanwhile Riasati (2012) has done with the study which focused on factors influencing students’ willingness to communicate. B. Definition of terms1. Willingness to communicateMany experts define the term willingness to communicate (WTC). First Cao (2011) defines WTC as a readiness to enter into discourse at a particular time with the specific person or a person using L2. The situational factors for example desire to communicate with the specific persons and state communicative confidence at a given time in a given place. Second, Khany & Nejad (2017) mentions that WTC is defined as the intention to take part in L2 communication when given an opportunity. Peng (2010) 2. Willingness to communicate in classroom CHAPTER IIIMETHODOLOGYA. A study designThis study will investigate the factors causing students’ willingness and unwillingness to communicate in the EFL context. Especially this research will attempt to answer one research question; what are the factors contributing to students’ willingness and unwillingness to communicate? To this end, this study conducts a qualitative method through an interview to collect the data and analysis by coding. (Riasati, 2012) stated that the use of an interview suits the objective of the study, a qualitative method is advantageous when examining factors that may influence WTC because they provide a rich description of the dynamic process in participants own terms. B. Place and time for researchThis study will be conducted from February to May 2019. The interview will take place in the University of Muhammadiyah Prof. Dr. Hamka Jakarta. C. ParticipantsEight students majoring English in the lower semester will participate in this study. These participants will be selected randomly. The researcher chooses these participants because it is based on a researcher experience in which she found out when she was at that time felt anxiety and unwilling to communicate even she is in the English department. Although the students have studied English for years, their willingness to communicate using L2 is quite low. So there must be some factors causing this willingness to communicate. D. Data collection and analysisIn order to find the answer to the research question, what factors contributing to students’ willingness and unwillingness to communicate, this study will use the interview as an instrument to collect the data. Tavakoli & Zarrinabadi (2018) the aim of the qualitative data collection is to provide an in-depth explanation and elaboration of the findings, therefore this study will adept the technique from Tavakoli & Zarrinabadi (2018). In the interview, the participants will be asked about their feelings toward speaking in the classroom and the reason for that. The question will be created by the researcher. The question will be in Bahasa and will be translated by the researcher. The analysis of this data will through several steps. First, the interview will be recorded and transcribed using Microsoft Word 2010. Second, since the interview is in Bahasa, the researcher will translate the transcript into English. In order to assure the quality of the translation, an experience English-Indonesian translator will be asked to check the translation. Third, the research will read the transcript and code in order to point parts that containing information that seems relevant to the research question of the study.